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1.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 650, 2021 11 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526604

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Older patients with advanced chronic kidney disease are at increased risk for a severe course of the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) and vulnerable to mental health problems. We aimed to investigate prevalence and associated patient (demographic and clinical) characteristics of mental wellbeing (health-related quality of life [HRQoL] and symptoms of depression and anxiety) before and during the COVID-19 pandemic in older patients with advanced chronic kidney disease. METHODS: An ongoing Dutch multicentre prospective cohort study enrols patients of ≥70 years with an eGFR < 20 mL/min/1.73m2 from October 2018 onward. With additional questionnaires during the pandemic (May-June 2020), disease-related concerns about COVID-19 and general anxiety symptoms were assessed cross-sectionally, and depressive symptoms, HRQoL, and emotional symptoms longitudinally. RESULTS: The 82 included patients had a median age of 77.5 years (interquartile range 73.9-82.1), 77% were male and none had tested positive for COVID-19. Cross-sectionally, 67% of the patients reported to be more anxious about COVID-19 because of their kidney disease, and 43% of the patients stated that their quality of life was reduced due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Compared to pre-COVID-19, the presence of depressive symptoms had increased (11 to 22%; p = .022) and physical HRQoL declined (M = 40.4, SD = 10.1 to M = 36.1, SD = 10.4; p < .001), particularly in males. Mental HRQoL (M = 50.3, SD = 9.6 to M = 50.4, SD = 9.9; p = .913) and emotional symptoms remained similar. CONCLUSIONS: Older patients with advanced chronic kidney disease suffered from disease-related anxiety about COVID-19, increased depressive symptoms and reduced physical HRQoL during the COVID-19 pandemic. The impact of the pandemic on this vulnerable patient group extends beyond increased mortality risk, and awareness of mental wellbeing is important. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study is registered at the Netherlands Trial Register (NTR), trial number NL7104. Date of registration: 06-06-2018.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Aged , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/epidemiology , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
2.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 32(2): 448-458, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496669

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is an important environmental risk factor for cardiopulmonary diseases. However, the association between PM2.5 and risk of CKD remains under-recognized, especially in regions with high levels of PM2.5, such as China. METHODS: To explore the association between long-term exposure to ambient PM2.5 and CKD prevalence in China, we used data from the China National Survey of CKD, which included a representative sample of 47,204 adults. We estimated annual exposure to PM2.5 before the survey date at each participant's address, using a validated, satellite-based, spatiotemporal model with a 10 km×10 km resolution. Participants with eGFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 or albuminuria were defined as having CKD. We used a logistic regression model to estimate the association and analyzed the influence of potential modifiers. RESULTS: The 2-year mean PM2.5 concentration was 57.4 µg/m3, with a range from 31.3 to 87.5 µg/m3. An increase of 10 µg/m3 in PM2.5 was positively associated with CKD prevalence (odds ratio [OR], 1.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.22 to 1.35) and albuminuria (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.32 to 1.47). Effect modification indicated these associations were significantly stronger in urban areas compared with rural areas, in males compared with females, in participants aged <65 years compared with participants aged ≥65 years, and in participants without comorbid diseases compared with those with comorbidities. CONCLUSIONS: These findings regarding the relationship between long-term exposure to high ambient PM2.5 levels and CKD in the general Chinese population provide important evidence for policy makers and public health practices to reduce the CKD risk posed by this pollutant.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution/adverse effects , Albuminuria/epidemiology , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Albuminuria/diagnosis , China , Female , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis , Risk Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Time Factors
3.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258914, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480460

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Risk factors of severe COVID-19 have mainly been investigated in the hospital setting. We investigated pre-defined risk factors for testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection and cardiovascular or pulmonary complications in the outpatient setting. METHODS: The present cohort study makes use of ambulatory claims data of statutory health insurance physicians in Bavaria, Germany, with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test confirmed or excluded SARS-CoV-2 infection in first three quarters of 2020. Statistical modelling and machine learning were used for effect estimation and for hypothesis testing of risk factors, and for prognostic modelling of cardiovascular or pulmonary complications. RESULTS: A cohort of 99 811 participants with PCR test was identified. In a fully adjusted multivariable regression model, dementia (odds ratio (OR) = 1.36), type 2 diabetes (OR = 1.14) and obesity (OR = 1.08) were identified as significantly associated with a positive PCR test result. Significant risk factors for cardiovascular or pulmonary complications were coronary heart disease (CHD) (OR = 2.58), hypertension (OR = 1.65), tobacco consumption (OR = 1.56), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (OR = 1.53), previous pneumonia (OR = 1.53), chronic kidney disease (CKD) (OR = 1.25) and type 2 diabetes (OR = 1.23). Three simple decision rules derived from prognostic modelling based on age, hypertension, CKD, COPD and CHD were able to identify high risk patients with a sensitivity of 74.8% and a specificity of 80.0%. CONCLUSIONS: The decision rules achieved a high prognostic accuracy non-inferior to complex machine learning methods. They might help to identify patients at risk, who should receive special attention and intensified protection in ambulatory care.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care , COVID-19 , Coronary Disease , Hypertension , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Coronary Disease/epidemiology , Coronary Disease/therapy , Dementia/epidemiology , Dementia/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Female , Germany , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/therapy , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors
4.
J Nepal Health Res Counc ; 19(2): 230-238, 2021 Sep 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456686

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hypertension, diabetes, glomerulonephritis, obesity, and family history of kidney diseases are major risk factors for chronic kidney disease. Due to the paucity of data on a national level regarding the prevalence, risk factors, and complications of chronic kidney disease, we performed this meta-analysis. METHODS: We searched online databases from January 2000 till October 2020. Two reviewers screened articles using Covidence software. Comprehensive Meta-Analysis Software version 3 was used for data analysis. RESULTS: Among chronic kidney disease patients, 35.96% were found to have high LDL, 34.22% had hypercholesterolemia, 39.18% had hypertriglyceridemia, and 42.23% had low HDL. Pigmentary changes were reported in 37.71%, pruritus in 30.96%; and xerosis in 48.55%. Among the reported nail problems, the brown nail was reported in 7.19%, half and half nail in 6.07%, and white nail in 20.65%. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of chronic kidney disease among high-risk cohorts in Nepal was significant among risk group with hypertension and diabetes being the most common risk factors. The most common stage of chronic kidney disease was Stage V, and the common complications were skin problems and dyslipidemia.


Subject(s)
Hypertension , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Nepal/epidemiology , Prevalence , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/etiology , Risk Factors
6.
Eur Heart J Qual Care Clin Outcomes ; 7(5): 438-446, 2021 09 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1377964

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To evaluate the acute and chronic patterns of myocardial injury among patients with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), and their mid-term outcomes. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 who had a hospital encounter within the Mount Sinai Health System (New York City) between 27 February 2020 and 15 October 2020 were evaluated for inclusion. Troponin levels assessed between 72 h before and 48 h after the COVID-19 diagnosis were used to stratify the study population by the presence of acute and chronic myocardial injury, as defined by the Fourth Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction. Among 4695 patients, those with chronic myocardial injury (n = 319, 6.8%) had more comorbidities, including chronic kidney disease and heart failure, while acute myocardial injury (n = 1168, 24.9%) was more associated with increased levels of inflammatory markers. Both types of myocardial injury were strongly associated with impaired survival at 6 months [chronic: hazard ratio (HR) 4.17, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.44-5.06; acute: HR 4.72, 95% CI 4.14-5.36], even after excluding events occurring in the first 30 days (chronic: HR 3.97, 95% CI 2.15-7.33; acute: HR 4.13, 95% CI 2.75-6.21). The mortality risk was not significantly different in patients with acute as compared with chronic myocardial injury (HR 1.13, 95% CI 0.94-1.36), except for a worse prognostic impact of acute myocardial injury in patients <65 years of age (P-interaction = 0.043) and in those without coronary artery disease (P-interaction = 0.041). CONCLUSION: Chronic and acute myocardial injury represent two distinctive patterns of cardiac involvement among COVID-19 patients. While both types of myocardial injury are associated with impaired survival at 6 months, mortality rates peak in the early phase of the infection but remain elevated even beyond 30 days during the convalescent phase.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Myocardial Infarction/blood , Myocardial Infarction/etiology , Troponin/analysis , Acute Disease/epidemiology , Acute Disease/mortality , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Chronic Disease/epidemiology , Chronic Disease/mortality , Comorbidity , Coronary Artery Disease/epidemiology , Coronary Artery Disease/mortality , Female , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality/trends , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction/mortality , New York City/epidemiology , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Prognosis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
8.
Am J Infect Control ; 49(2): 238-246, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1336188

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: On February 11, 2020 WHO designated the name "COVID-19" for the disease caused by "severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2" (SARS-CoV-2), a novel virus that quickly turned into a global pandemic. Risks associated with acquiring the virus have been found to most significantly vary by age and presence of underlying comorbidity. In this rapid literature review we explore the prevalence of comorbidities and associated adverse outcomes among individuals with COVID-19 and summarize our findings based on information available as of May 15, 2020. METHODS: A comprehensive systematic search was performed on PubMed, Medline, Scopus, Embase, and Google Scholar to find articles published until May 15, 2020. All relevant articles providing information on PCR tested COVID-19 positive patient population with clinical characteristics and epidemiological information were selected for review and analysis. RESULTS: A total of 27 articles consisting of 22,753 patient cases from major epicenters worldwide were included in the study. Major comorbidities seen in overall population were CVD (8.9%), HTN (27.4%), Diabetes (17.4%), COPD (7.5%), Cancer (3.5%), CKD (2.6%), and other (15.5%). Major comorbidity specific to countries included in the study were China (HTN 39.5%), South Korea (CVD 25.6%), Italy (HTN 35.9%), USA (HTN 38.9%), Mexico, (Other 42.3%), UK (HTN 27.8%), Iran (Diabetes 35.0%). Within fatal cases, an estimated 84.1% had presence of one or more comorbidity. Subgroup analysis of fatality association with having comorbidity had an estimated OR 0.83, CI [0.60-0.99], p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Based on our findings, hypertension followed by diabetes and cardiovascular diseases were the most common comorbidity seen in COVID-19 positive patients across major epicenters world-wide. Although having one or more comorbidity is linked to increased disease severity, no clear association was found between having these risk factors and increased risk of fatality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Hypertension/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/virology , Female , Humans , Hypertension/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Neoplasms/virology , Prevalence , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/virology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/virology , Young Adult
9.
Nephrol Dial Transplant ; 36(1): 87-94, 2021 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1327386

ABSTRACT

Diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease have been listed as risk factors for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) since the first report of the disease in January 2020. However, this report did not mention chronic kidney disease (CKD) nor did it provide information on the relevance of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) or albuminuria. As the disease spread across the globe, information on larger populations with greater granularity on risk factors emerged. The recently published OpenSAFELY project analysed factors associated with COVID-19 death in 17 million patients. The picture that arose differs significantly from initial reports. For example, hypertension is not an independent risk factor for COVID-19 death [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 0.89], but renal disease very much is. Dialysis (aHR 3.69), organ transplantation (aHR 3.53) and CKD (aHR 2.52 for patients with eGFR <30 mL/min/1.73 m2) represent three of the four comorbidities associated with the highest mortality risk from COVID-19. The risk associated with CKD Stages 4 and 5 is higher than the risk associated with diabetes mellitus (aHR range 1.31-1.95, depending upon glycaemic control) or chronic heart disease (aHR 1.17). In another recent publication, the Global Burden of Disease collaboration identified that worldwide, CKD is the most prevalent risk factor for severe COVID-19. Moreover, the distribution of risk factors for COVID-19 mortality appears to be different in patients with CKD when compared with the general population. The high prevalence of CKD in combination with the elevated risk of mortality from COVID-19 in CKD necessitates urgent action for this group of patients. This article defines essential action points (summarized in Box 1), among which is advocating the inclusion of CKD patients in clinical trials testing the efficacy of drugs and vaccines to prevent severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Albuminuria/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Comorbidity , Critical Care , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Europe , Female , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Male , Prevalence , Proportional Hazards Models , Registries , Renal Dialysis , Risk Factors , Societies, Medical
10.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 109: 106501, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309183

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We describe a clinic-randomized trial to improve chronic kidney disease (CKD) care through a CKD-clinical decision support (CKD-CDS) intervention in primary care clinics and the challenges we encountered due to COVID-19 care disruption. METHODS/DESIGN: Primary care clinics (N = 32) were randomized to usual care (UC) or to CKD-CDS. Between April 17, 2019 and March 14, 2020, more than 7000 patients had accrued for analysis by meeting study-eligibility criteria at an index office visit: age 18-75, laboratory criteria for stage 3 or 4 CKD (eGFR 15-59 mL/min/1.73 m2), and one or more opportunities algorithmically identified to improve CKD care such as blood pressure (BP) or glucose control, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) use, discontinuance of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), or nephrology referral. At CKD-CDS clinics, CDS provided individualized treatment suggestions that were printed for patients and clinicians at the start of office encounters and were viewable within the electronic health record. By initial design, the impact of the CKD-CDS intervention on care gaps was to be assessed 12 months after the index date, but COVID-19 caused major disruptions to care delivery during the intervention period. In response to disruptions, the intervention was temporarily suspended while we expanded CDS use for telehealth encounters and programmed new criteria for displaying the CKD-CDS to intervention patients due to clinic closures and scheduling changes. DISCUSSION: We describe a NIH-funded pragmatic trial of web-based EHR-integrated CKD-CDS and modifications necessary mid-study to complete the study as intended in the face of COVID-19 pandemic challenges.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Primary Health Care , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
11.
Epidemiol Health ; 43: e2021035, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1308497

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to examine how comorbidities were associated with outcomes (illness severity or death) among hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: Data were provided by the National Medical Center of the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency. These data included the clinical and epidemiological information of all patients hospitalized with COVID-19 who were discharged on or before April 30, 2020 in Korea. We conducted comorbidity network and multinomial logistic regression analyses to identify risk factors associated with COVID-19 disease severity and mortality. The outcome variable was the clinical severity score (CSS), categorized as mild (oxygen treatment not needed), severe (oxygen treatment needed), or death. RESULTS: In total, 5,771 patients were included. In the fully adjusted model, chronic kidney disease (CKD) (odds ratio [OR], 2.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.19 to 5.61) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (OR, 3.19; 95% CI, 1.35 to 7.52) were significantly associated with disease severity. CKD (OR, 5.35; 95% CI, 2.00 to 14.31), heart failure (HF) (OR, 3.15; 95% CI, 1.22 to 8.15), malignancy (OR, 3.38; 95% CI, 1.59 to 7.17), dementia (OR, 2.62; 95% CI, 1.45 to 4.72), and diabetes mellitus (OR, 2.26; 95% CI, 1.46 to 3.49) were associated with an increased risk of death. Asthma and hypertension showed statistically insignificant associations with an increased risk of death. CONCLUSIONS: Underlying diseases contribute differently to the severity of COVID-19. To efficiently allocate limited medical resources, underlying comorbidities should be closely monitored, particularly CKD, COPD, and HF.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Prevalence , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
12.
Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens ; 30(2): 208-214, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1299022

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review was to assess the prevalence of United States chronic kidney disease (CKD) health disparities, focusing on racial/ethnic groups, immigrants and refugees, sex or gender, and older adults. RECENT FINDINGS: There are major racial/ethnic disparities in CKD, with possible contributions from the social determinants of health, socioeconomics, and racial discrimination. Racial/ethnic minority patients experience faster progression to end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) and higher mortality predialysis, however, once on dialysis, appear to live longer. Similarly, men are quicker to progress to ESKD than women, with potential biological, behavioral, and measurement error factors. There is a lack of substantial evidence for intersex, nonbinary, or transgender patients. There are also strikingly few studies about US immigrants or older adults with CKD despite the fact that they are at high risk for CKD due to a variety of factors. SUMMARY: As providers and scientists, we must combat both conscious and unconscious biases, advocate for minority patient populations, and be inclusive and diverse in our treatment regimens and provision of care. We need to acknowledge that sufficient evidence exists to change treatment guidelines, and that more is required to support the diversity of our patient population.


Subject(s)
Healthcare Disparities , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Aged , Female , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Male , Minority Groups , Renal Dialysis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , United States/epidemiology
13.
Turk J Med Sci ; 51(3): 947-961, 2021 06 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1289069

ABSTRACT

Background/aim: Hospital-acquired acute kidney injury (HA-AKI) may commonly develop in Covid-19 patients and is expected to have higher mortality. There is little comparative data investigating the effect of HA-AKI on mortality of chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients and a control group of general population suffering from Covid-19. Materials and methods: HA-AKI development was assessed in a group of stage 3­5 CKD patients and control group without CKD among adult patients hospitalized for Covid-19. The role of AKI development on the outcome (in-hospital mortality and admission to the intensive care unit [ICU]) of patients with and without CKD was compared. Results: Among 621 hospitalized patients (age 60 [IQR: 47­73]), women: 44.1%), AKI developed in 32.5% of the patients, as stage 1 in 84.2%, stage 2 in 8.4%, and stage 3 in 7.4%. AKI developed in 48.0 % of CKD patients, whereas it developed in 17.6% of patients without CKD. CKD patients with HA-AKI had the highest mortality rate of 41.1% compared to 14.3% of patients with HA-AKI but no CKD (p < 0.001). However, patients with AKI+non-CKD had similar rates of ICU admission, mechanical ventilation, and death rate to patients with CKD without AKI. Adjusted mortality risks of the AKI+non-CKD group (HR: 9.0, 95% CI: 1.9­44.2) and AKI+CKD group (HR: 7.9, 95% CI: 1.9­33.3) were significantly higher than that of the non-AKI+non-CKD group. Conclusion: AKI frequently develops in hospitalized patients due to Covid-19 and is associated with high mortality. HA-AKI has worse outcomes whether it develops in patients with or without CKD, but the worst outcome was seen in AKI+CKD patients.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Female , Hospital Mortality/trends , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Survival Rate/trends
14.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(9): e14428, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1276651

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Older adults with co-morbidities have been reported to be at higher risk for adverse outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The characteristics of COVID-19 in older patients and its clinical outcomes in different kidney disease groups are not well known. METHODS: Data were retrieved from a national multicentric database supported by Turkish Society of Nephrology, which consists of retrospectively collected data between 17 April 2020 and 31 December 2020. Hospitalised patients aged 18 years or older with confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis suffering from stage 3-5 chronic kidney disease (CKD) or on maintenance haemodialysis (HD) treatment were included in the database. Non-uraemic hospitalised patients with COVID-19 were also included as the control group. RESULTS: We included 879 patients [388 (44.1%) female, median age: 63 (IQR: 50-73) years]. The percentage of older patients in the CKD group was 68.8% (n = 188/273), in the HD group was 49.0% (n = 150/306) and in the control group was 30.4% (n = 70/300). Co-morbidities were higher in the CKD and HD groups. The rate of presentation with severe-critical disease was higher in the older CKD and HD groups (43.6%, 55.3% and 16.1%, respectively). Among older patients, the intensive care unit (ICU) admission rate was significantly higher in the CKD and HD groups than in the control group (38.8%, 37.3% and 15.7%, respectively). In-hospital mortality or death and/or ICU admission rates in the older group were significantly higher in the CKD (29.3% and 39.4%) and HD groups (26.7% and 30.1%) compared with the control group (8.6% and 17.1%). In the multivariate analysis, in-hospital mortality rates in CKD and HD groups were higher than control group [hazard ratio (HR): 4.33 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.53-12.26) and HR: 3.09 (95% CI: 1.04-9.17), respectively]. CONCLUSION: Among older COVID-19 patients, in-hospital mortality is significantly higher in those with stage 3-5 CKD and on maintenance HD than older patients without CKD regardless of demographic characteristics, co-morbidities, clinical and laboratory data on admission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Aged , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Middle Aged , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 177: 108925, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275257

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 outcomes and risk factors, including comorbidities and medication regimens, in people living with diabetes (PLWD) are poorly defined for low- and middle-income countries. METHODS: The Provincial Health Data Centre (Western Cape, South Africa) is a health information exchange collating patient-level routine health data for approximately 4 million public sector health care seekers. Data from COVID-19 patients diagnosed between March and July 2020, including PLWD, were analysed to describe risk factors, including dispensed diabetes medications and comorbidities, and their association with COVID-19 outcomes in this population. FINDINGS: There were 64,476 COVID-19 patients diagnosed. Of 9305 PLWD, 44.9% were hospitalised, 4.0% admitted to ICU, 0.6% received ventilation and 15.4% died. In contrast, proportions of COVID-19 patients without diabetes were: 12.2% hospitalised, 1.0% admitted, 0.1% ventilated and 4.6% died. PLWD were significantly more likely to be admitted (OR:3.73, 95 %CI: 3.53, 3.94) and to die (OR:3.01, 95 %CI: 2.76,3.28). Significant hospitalised risk factors included HIV infection, chronic kidney disease, current TB, male sex and increasing age. Significant risk factors for mortality were CKD, male sex, HIV infection, previous TB and increasing age. Pre-infection use of insulin was associated with a significant increased risk for hospitalisation (OR:1·39, 95 %CI:1·24,1·57) and mortality (OR1·49, 95 %CI:1·27; 1·74) and metformin was associated with a reduced risk for hospitalisation (OR:0·62,95 %CI:0·55, 0·71) and mortality (OR 0·77, 95 %CI:0·64; 0·92). INTERPRETATION: Using routine health data from this large virtual cohort, we have described the association of infectious and noncommunicable comorbidities as well as pre-infection diabetes medications with COVID-19 outcomes in PLWD in the Western Cape, South Africa. FUNDING: This research was funded in part, by the Wellcome Trust 203135/Z/16/Z, through support of NT. For the purpose of open access, the author has applied a CC BY public copyright licence to any Author Accepted Manuscript version arising from this submission. The Wellcome Centre for Infectious Diseases Research in Africa is supported by core funding from the Wellcome Trust [203135/Z/16/Z]. NT receives funding from the CIDRI-Africa Wellcome Trust grant (203135/Z/16/Z), and NT and TT receive funding from the NIH H3ABioNET award (U24HG006941). NT receives funding from the UKRI/MRC (MC_PC_MR/T037733/1).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Hospitalization , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Female , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , South Africa/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Young Adult
16.
Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) ; 49(3): 1-7, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1212097

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It has recently been argued that asthma does not increase the risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. If so, the prevalence of asthma in subjects diagnosed with COVID-19 should be lower than in the general population. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of asthma in Mexican children and adults with SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: A public database of the Epidemiological Surveillance System for Viral Respiratory Disease in Mexico was analyzed. Those who underwent the real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction-SARS-CoV-2 (rtRT-PCR-SARS-CoV-2) test from February 27 to June 21, 2020, were included. In addition to the prevalence of asthma, some factors associated with it were investigated. RESULTS: Data from 417,366 subjects were analyzed. Asthma prevalence in children, adults, and global were 3.7%, 3.3%, and 3.3%, respectively. Although the asthma prevalence was lower in SARS-CoV-2 positive over negative patients, significant differences were only found in adults (2.8% vs. 3.7% respectively; odds ratio (OR) = 0.74; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.71-0.77); but not in children (3.5% vs. 3.8%, respectively; OR = 0.91; 95%CI: 0.76-1.10). Multivariate analysis showed in younger than 18 years that girls and immunosuppression were factors associated with a decrease in the odds to develop asthma. In adults, asthma was positively associated with females, obesity, smoking, immunosuppression, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, arterial hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of asthma in child and adult were lower than those previously reported. Our study seems to support the hypothesis that asthma patients have a lower risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Further studies are required to demonstrate the consistency of our findings.


Subject(s)
Asthma/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Mexico/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Obesity/epidemiology , Prevalence , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Smoking/epidemiology , Young Adult
17.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0250602, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1211717

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to systematically identify the possible risk factors responsible for severe cases. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase, Web of science and Cochrane Library for epidemiological studies of confirmed COVID-19, which include information about clinical characteristics and severity of patients' disease. We analyzed the potential associations between clinical characteristics and severe cases. RESULTS: We identified a total of 41 eligible studies including 21060 patients with COVID-19. Severe cases were potentially associated with advanced age (Standard Mean Difference (SMD) = 1.73, 95% CI: 1.34-2.12), male gender (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.51, 95% CI:1.33-1.71), obesity (OR = 1.89, 95% CI: 1.44-2.46), history of smoking (OR = 1.40, 95% CI:1.06-1.85), hypertension (OR = 2.42, 95% CI: 2.03-2.88), diabetes (OR = 2.40, 95% CI: 1.98-2.91), coronary heart disease (OR: 2.87, 95% CI: 2.22-3.71), chronic kidney disease (CKD) (OR = 2.97, 95% CI: 1.63-5.41), cerebrovascular disease (OR = 2.47, 95% CI: 1.54-3.97), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (OR = 2.88, 95% CI: 1.89-4.38), malignancy (OR = 2.60, 95% CI: 2.00-3.40), and chronic liver disease (OR = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.06-2.17). Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (OR = 39.59, 95% CI: 19.99-78.41), shock (OR = 21.50, 95% CI: 10.49-44.06) and acute kidney injury (AKI) (OR = 8.84, 95% CI: 4.34-18.00) were most likely to prevent recovery. In summary, patients with severe conditions had a higher rate of comorbidities and complications than patients with non-severe conditions. CONCLUSION: Patients who were male, with advanced age, obesity, a history of smoking, hypertension, diabetes, malignancy, coronary heart disease, hypertension, chronic liver disease, COPD, or CKD are more likely to develop severe COVID-19 symptoms. ARDS, shock and AKI were thought to be the main hinderances to recovery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cerebrovascular Disorders/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Liver Diseases/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Smoking/adverse effects , Young Adult
18.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250400, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1197391

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE: The ongoing pandemic of the novel Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an unprecedented challenge to global health, never experienced before. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with COVID-19 admitted to Mercy Hospitals. DESIGN AND METHODS: Retrospective, observational cohort study designed to include every COVID-19 subject aged 18 years or older admitted to Mercy Saint (St) Vincent, Mercy St Charles, and Mercy St Anne's hospital in Toledo, Ohio from January 1, 2020 through June 15th, 2020. Primary Outcome Measure was mortality in the emergency department or as an in-patient. RESULTS: 470 subjects including 224 males and 246 females met the inclusion criteria for the study. Subjects with the following characteristics had higher odds (OR) of death: Older age [OR 8.3 (95% CI 1.1-63.1, p = 0.04)] for subjects age 70 or more compared to subjects age 18-29); Hypertension [OR 3.6 (95% CI 1.6-7.8, p = 0.001)]; Diabetes [OR 3.1 (95% CI 1.7-5.6, p<0.001)]; COPD [OR 3.4 (95% CI 1.8-6.3, p<0.001)] and CKD stage 2 or greater [OR 2.5 (95% CI 1.3-4.9, p = 0.006)]. Combining all age groups, subjects with hypertension had significantly greater odds of the following adverse outcomes: requiring hospital admission (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.4-3.4, p<0.001); needing respiratory support in 24 hours (OR 2.5, 95% CI: 1.7-3.7, p<0.001); ICU admission (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.7-4.4, p<0.001); and death (OR 3.6, 95% CI 1.6-7.8, p = 0.001). Hypertension was not associated with needing vent in 24 hours (p = 0.07). CONCLUSION: Age and hypertension were associated with significant comorbidity and mortality in Covid-19 Positive patients. Furthermore, people who were older than 70, and had hypertension, diabetes, COPD, or CKD had higher odds of dying from the disease as compared to patients who hadn't. Subjects with hypertension also had significantly greater odds of other adverse outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Ohio/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Young Adult
19.
Ann Med ; 53(1): 581-586, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171161

ABSTRACT

Although coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic, it has several specificities influencing its outcomes due to the entwinement of several factors, which anthropologists have called "syndemics". Drawing upon Singer and Clair's syndemics model, I focus on synergistic interaction among chronic kidney disease (CKD), diabetes, and COVID-19 in Pakistan. I argue that over 36 million people in Pakistan are standing at a higher risk of contracting COVID-19, developing severe complications, and losing their lives. These two diseases, but several other socio-cultural, economic, and political factors contributing to structured vulnerabilities, would function as confounders. To deal with the critical effects of these syndemics the government needs appropriate policies and their implementation during the pandemic and post-pandemic. To eliminate or at least minimize various vulnerabilities, Pakistan needs drastic changes, especially to overcome (formal) illiteracy, unemployment, poverty, gender difference, and rural and urban difference.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Syndemic , COVID-19/prevention & control , Climate Change/economics , Climate Change/statistics & numerical data , Confounding Factors, Epidemiologic , Developing Countries/economics , Developing Countries/statistics & numerical data , Diabetes Mellitus/economics , Diabetes Mellitus/prevention & control , Food Supply/economics , Food Supply/statistics & numerical data , Health Literacy/economics , Health Literacy/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Pakistan/epidemiology , Pandemics/economics , Politics , Poverty/economics , Poverty/statistics & numerical data , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/economics , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/prevention & control , Unemployment/statistics & numerical data
20.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 23(4): 886-896, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171152

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by a novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. It can lead to multiorgan failure, including respiratory and cardiovascular decompensation, and kidney injury, with significant associated morbidity and mortality, particularly in patients with underlying metabolic, cardiovascular, respiratory or kidney disease. Dapagliflozin, a sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor, has shown significant cardio- and renoprotective benefits in patients with type 2 diabetes (with and without atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease), heart failure and chronic kidney disease, and may provide similar organ protection in high-risk patients with COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: DARE-19 (NCT04350593) is an investigator-initiated, collaborative, international, multicentre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study testing the dual hypotheses that dapagliflozin can reduce the incidence of cardiovascular, kidney and/or respiratory complications or all-cause mortality, or improve clinical recovery, in adult patients hospitalized with COVID-19 but not critically ill on admission. Eligible patients will have ≥1 cardiometabolic risk factor for COVID-19 complications. Patients will be randomized 1:1 to dapagliflozin 10 mg or placebo. Primary efficacy endpoints are time to development of new or worsened organ dysfunction during index hospitalization, or all-cause mortality, and the hierarchical composite endpoint of change in clinical status through day 30 of treatment. Safety of dapagliflozin in individuals with COVID-19 will be assessed. CONCLUSIONS: DARE-19 will evaluate whether dapagliflozin can prevent COVID-19-related complications and all-cause mortality, or improve clinical recovery, and assess the safety profile of dapagliflozin in this patient population. Currently, DARE-19 is the first large randomized controlled trial investigating use of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Benzhydryl Compounds/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Glucosides/therapeutic use , Kidney Diseases/prevention & control , Mortality , Respiratory Insufficiency/drug therapy , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Atherosclerosis/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiometabolic Risk Factors , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cause of Death , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Disease Progression , Double-Blind Method , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Kidney Diseases/etiology , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
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