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1.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 32(3): 677-685, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496676

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients may accrue wait time for kidney transplantation when their eGFR is ≤20 ml/min. However, Black patients have faster progression of their kidney disease compared with White patients, which may lead to disparities in accruable time on the kidney transplant waitlist before dialysis initiation. METHODS: We compared differences in accruable wait time and transplant preparation by CKD-EPI estimating equations in Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort participants, on the basis of estimates of kidney function by creatinine (eGFRcr), cystatin C (eGFRcys), or both (eGFRcr-cys). We used Weibull accelerated failure time models to determine the association between race (non-Hispanic Black or non-Hispanic White) and time to ESKD from an eGFR of ≤20 ml/min per 1.73 m2. We then estimated how much higher the eGFR threshold for waitlisting would be required to achieve equity in accruable preemptive wait time for the two groups. RESULTS: By eGFRcr, 444 CRIC participants were eligible for waitlist registration, but the potential time between eGFR ≤20 ml/min per 1.73 m2 and ESKD was 32% shorter for Blacks versus Whites. By eGFRcys, 435 participants were eligible, and Blacks had 35% shorter potential wait time compared with Whites. By the eGFRcr-cys equation, 461 participants were eligible, and Blacks had a 31% shorter potential wait time than Whites. We estimated that registering Blacks on the waitlist as early as an eGFR of 24-25 ml/min per 1.73 m2 might improve racial equity in accruable wait time before ESKD onset. CONCLUSIONS: Policies allowing for waitlist registration at higher GFR levels for Black patients compared with White patients could theoretically attenuate disparities in accruable wait time and improve racial equity in transplant access.


Subject(s)
Glomerular Filtration Rate , Healthcare Disparities , Kidney Transplantation , Racism , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/physiopathology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/surgery , Waiting Lists , African Americans , Aged , Cohort Studies , Disease Progression , Female , Health Policy , Healthcare Disparities/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic/physiopathology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/surgery , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Statistical , Racism/statistics & numerical data , Time Factors , United States
2.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 32(3): 639-653, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496657

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: CKD is a heterogeneous condition with multiple underlying causes, risk factors, and outcomes. Subtyping CKD with multidimensional patient data holds the key to precision medicine. Consensus clustering may reveal CKD subgroups with different risk profiles of adverse outcomes. METHODS: We used unsupervised consensus clustering on 72 baseline characteristics among 2696 participants in the prospective Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) study to identify novel CKD subgroups that best represent the data pattern. Calculation of the standardized difference of each parameter used the cutoff of ±0.3 to show subgroup features. CKD subgroup associations were examined with the clinical end points of kidney failure, the composite outcome of cardiovascular diseases, and death. RESULTS: The algorithm revealed three unique CKD subgroups that best represented patients' baseline characteristics. Patients with relatively favorable levels of bone density and cardiac and kidney function markers, with lower prevalence of diabetes and obesity, and who used fewer medications formed cluster 1 (n=1203). Patients with higher prevalence of diabetes and obesity and who used more medications formed cluster 2 (n=1098). Patients with less favorable levels of bone mineral density, poor cardiac and kidney function markers, and inflammation delineated cluster 3 (n=395). These three subgroups, when linked with future clinical end points, were associated with different risks of CKD progression, cardiovascular disease, and death. Furthermore, patient heterogeneity among predefined subgroups with similar baseline kidney function emerged. CONCLUSIONS: Consensus clustering synthesized the patterns of baseline clinical and laboratory measures and revealed distinct CKD subgroups, which were associated with markedly different risks of important clinical outcomes. Further examination of patient subgroups and associated biomarkers may provide next steps toward precision medicine.


Subject(s)
Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/classification , Adult , Aged , Algorithms , Bone Density , Cohort Studies , Disease Progression , Female , Heart Function Tests , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Kidney Function Tests , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/physiopathology , Risk Factors , Unsupervised Machine Learning , Young Adult
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Sep 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444230

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), responsible for the coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, has affected and continues to affect millions of people across the world. Patients with essential arterial hypertension and renal complications are at particular risk of the fatal course of this infection. In our study, we have modeled the selected processes in a patient with essential hypertension and chronic kidney disease (CKD) suffering from COVID-19, emphasizing the function of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAA) system. The model has been built in the language of Petri nets theory. Using the systems approach, we have analyzed how COVID-19 may affect the studied organism, and we have checked whether the administration of selected anti-hypertensive drugs (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and/or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs)) may impact the severity of the infection. Besides, we have assessed whether these drugs effectively lower blood pressure in the case of SARS-CoV-2 infection affecting essential hypertensive patients. Our research has shown that neither the ACEIs nor the ARBs worsens the course infection. However, when assessing the treatment of hypertension in the active SARS-CoV-2 infection, we have observed that ARBs might not effectively reduce blood pressure; they may even have the slightly opposite effect. On the other hand, we have confirmed the effectiveness of arterial hypertension treatment in patients receiving ACEIs. Moreover, we have found that the simultaneous use of ARBs and ACEIs averages the effects of taking both drugs, thus leading to only a slight decrease in blood pressure. We are a way from suggesting that ARBs in all hypertensive patients with COVID-19 are ineffective, but we have shown that research in this area should still be continued.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Essential Hypertension/complications , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/physiopathology , Computer Simulation , Essential Hypertension/metabolism , Essential Hypertension/physiopathology , Humans , Models, Biological , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/metabolism , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/physiopathology , Renin-Angiotensin System , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
5.
BMC Nephrol ; 22(1): 254, 2021 07 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318277

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: CKD is common in heart failure (HF) and associated with morbidity and mortality, yet life-prolonging medications such as renin-angiotensin-aldosterone inhibitors (RAASi) are underused due to risk of hyperkalaemia. Sodium zirconium cyclosilicate (SZC) is a potassium-binding medication that has been shown to reduce incidence of hyperkalaemia in CKD, non-CKD, and HF populations, which we propose will support maximisation of RAASi therapy. METHODS: We propose a 1:1 randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in which participants will receive either SZC or placebo. We will up-titrate participants' RAASi therapy while monitoring their serum potassium levels and adjusting their SZC dose if necessary. Participants with CKD and HF will be recruited from CKD and HF clinics at St George's Hospital. The total study period will be 18 months; 130 participants will be enrolled for approximately two months each following screening. Our primary outcome will be the proportion of participants who achieve maximum RAASi dose while maintaining normokalaemia. Secondary outcomes include participants reaching maximum RAASi dose without severe hyperkalaemia; time from randomisation to hyperkalaemia; time from randomisation to severe hyperkalaemia; number of RAASi dose escalations per participant; final doses of RAASi therapy; changes in quality of life score, eGFR, ACR, serum sodium, troponin T; number and duration of hospital admissions; and within-participant change in serum potassium compared to baseline. DISCUSSION: This trial will be the first to examine the use of SZC for the maximisation of RAASi dosing in patients with advanced CKD and HF. We will assess the impact of achieving target RAASi dosing on hospital admission rates and duration of stay, with the hope that optimum RAASi treatment will translate into reduced morbidity and improved QoL. If clinical benefit is demonstrated, we hope that the joint multidisciplinary CKD-HF approach will be expanded. TRIAL REGISTRATION: EudraCT number 2020-002946-18. Registered on 08 June 2020. Online record pending.


Subject(s)
Heart Failure/complications , Hyperkalemia/prevention & control , Ion Exchange Resins/therapeutic use , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/drug therapy , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , Silicates/therapeutic use , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/administration & dosage , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists/administration & dosage , Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/physiopathology
6.
Kidney Blood Press Res ; 46(4): 396-410, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1299258

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients affected by chronic kidney disease are at a risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Body fluids unbalance is one of the main characteristics of this condition, as fluid overload is highly prevalent in patients affected by the cardiorenal syndrome. SUMMARY: We describe the state of the art and new insights into body volume evaluation. The mechanisms behind fluid balance are often complex, mainly because of the interplay of multiple regulatory systems. Consequently, its management may be challenging in clinical practice and even more so out-of-hospital. Availability of novel technologies offer new opportunities to improve the quality of care and patients' outcome. Development and validation of new technologies could provide new tools to reduce costs for the healthcare system, promote personalized medicine, and boost home care. Due to the current COVID-19 pandemic, a proper monitoring of chronic patients suffering from fluid unbalances is extremely relevant. Key Message: We discuss the main mechanisms responsible for fluid overload in different clinical contexts, including hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, and heart failure, emphasizing the potential impact provided by the implementation of the new technologies.


Subject(s)
Biomedical Technology/trends , Blood Volume , Kidney Failure, Chronic/physiopathology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/physiopathology , Water-Electrolyte Balance , COVID-19 , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic/mortality , Pandemics , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/mortality
7.
Pril (Makedon Akad Nauk Umet Odd Med Nauki) ; 42(1): 19-40, 2021 Apr 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1204183

ABSTRACT

World Kidney Day (WKD) is a global campaign to raise awareness of the importance of our kidneys to overall health and to reduce the frequency and impact of kidney disease and associated health problems worldwide. Kidney disease is a non-communicable disease (NCD) and currently affects around 850 million people worldwide. One in ten adults has chronic kidney disease (CKD). The global burden of CKD is increasing, and is projected to become the 5th most common cause of years of life lost globally by 2040. CKD is a major cause of catastrophic health expenditure. The costs of dialysis and transplantation consume 2-3% of the annual healthcare budget in high-income countries. Crucially, kidney disease can be prevented and progression to end-stage kidney disease can be delayed with appropriate access to basic diagnostics and early treatment. This year World Kidney Day continues to raise awareness of the increasing burden of kidney diseases worldwide and to strive for kidney health for everyone, everywhere. During the pandemic with COVID 19 patients kidneys are also damaged, apart from the respiratory tract and other organs. It can lead to an increase in acute renal failure and consequent chronic kidney insufficiency, as well as number of deaths. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the renal function in each patient with COVID 19 virus. In the Republic of North Macedonia from 2006 to present day nephrologists and other medical personnel devoted to the early diagnosis, prevention and treatment of renal disease have participated in the activities of the World Kidney Day. These activities were supported by the Macedonian Society of Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation and Artificial Organs, the Department of Nephrology at the Medical Faculty, the Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts, the Government of the Republic of North Macedonia, non-governmental nephrology organizations (NEFRON) and the media. There were lectures and presentation devoted to the various theme of the WKD, publications in journals, as well as activities for examination of the renal function of patients in the medical centers. The activities during the WKD contributed to the improvement of the nephrological protection of the citizens of the Republic of N. Macedonia.


Subject(s)
Quality of Life , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/physiopathology , Acute Kidney Injury/physiopathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Humans , Kidney Transplantation , Nephrology , Patient-Centered Care , Renal Dialysis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Republic of North Macedonia , SARS-CoV-2
8.
J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep ; 8: 2324709620984603, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-999657

ABSTRACT

The novel SARS-CoV-2 virus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) is now known to cause acute respiratory distress, cytokine storm, and coagulopathy. Multiple other manifestations have been published in recent literature. Rhabdomyolysis is a syndrome of muscle damage, with release of intracellular contents into circulation. It is characterized by marked elevations of creatinine kinase levels and myoglobinuria. In this article, we describe a series of 5 cases who were admitted with COVID-19 pneumonia and had severe muscle injury, as demonstrated by significant elevation (>5 times upper limit of normal) of creatinine kinase levels likely secondary to SARS-CoV-2 virus. The median age for these patients was 65 years, and most of them suffered from diabetes and hyperlipidemia. All patients were hypertensive males. Four out of 5 patients had preserved kidney function at baseline and were chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 2 or better. However, most of them suffered significant kidney injury and at the time of discharge one patient was CKD stage 2 or better, 2 were CKD stage 3 or worse, and 2 patients had renal failure and died due to complications of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Rhabdomyolysis/virology , Aged , COVID-19/therapy , Creatine Kinase/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Hospitalization , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Male , Middle Aged , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/physiopathology , Rhabdomyolysis/blood , SARS-CoV-2
9.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0241534, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-895081

ABSTRACT

Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is a membrane receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus responsible for coronavirus disease (COVID-19), whereas transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2) is involved in viral attachment. Together, tissue expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 may determine infection. Sex, age, body mass index (BMI), and CKD are clinical risk factors for COVID-19 severity, but the relationships between kidney ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression and these clinical variables are unknown. Accordingly, we obtained renal tubulointerstitial and glomerular microarray expression data and clinical variables from healthy living donors (HLD) and patients with CKD from the European Renal cDNA Bank. ACE2 expression was similar in the tubulointerstitium of the two groups, but greater in females than males in HLD (P = 0.005) and CKD (P < 0.0001). ACE2 expression was lower in glomeruli of CKD patients compared to HLD (P = 0.0002) and lower in males than females. TMPRSS2 expression was similar in the tubulointerstitium but lower in glomeruli of CKD patients compared to HLD (P < 0.0001). There was a strong relationship between ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression in the glomerulus (r = 0.51, P < 0.0001). In CKD, there was a relationship between tubulointerstitial ACE2 expression and estimated glomerular filtration rate (r = 0.36, P < 0.0001) and age (r = -0.17, P = 0.03), but no relationship with BMI. There were no relationships between TMPRSS2 expression and clinical variables. Genes involved in inflammation (CCL2, IL6, and TNF) and fibrosis (COL1A1, TGFB1, and FN1) were inversely correlated with ACE2 expression. In summary, kidney expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 differs in HLD and CKD. ACE2 is related to sex and eGFR. ACE2 is also associated with expression of genes implicated in inflammation and fibrosis.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/biosynthesis , Kidney/enzymology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/enzymology , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/enzymology , COVID-19/virology , Databases, Factual , Female , Gene Expression , Humans , Kidney/metabolism , Kidney/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/metabolism , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Transcriptome
10.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(6): 2419-2428, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-809794

ABSTRACT

Little is known about the clinical features and outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Africa. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients hospitalized for COVID-19 between March 10, 2020 and July 31, 2020 at seven hospitals in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Outcomes included clinical improvement within 30 days (primary) and in-hospital mortality (secondary). Of 766 confirmed COVID-19 cases, 500 (65.6%) were male, with a median (interquartile range [IQR]) age of 46 (34-58) years. One hundred ninety-one (25%) patients had severe/critical disease requiring admission in the intensive care unit (ICU). Six hundred twenty patients (80.9%) improved and were discharged within 30 days of admission. Overall in-hospital mortality was 13.2% (95% CI: 10.9-15.8), and almost 50% among those in the ICU. Independent risk factors for death were age < 20 years (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 6.62, 95% CI: 1.85-23.64), 40-59 years (aHR = 4.45, 95% CI: 1.83-10.79), and ≥ 60 years (aHR = 13.63, 95% CI: 5.70-32.60) compared with those aged 20-39 years, with obesity (aHR = 2.30, 95% CI: 1.24-4.27), and with chronic kidney disease (aHR = 5.33, 95% CI: 1.85-15.35). In marginal structural model analysis, there was no statistically significant difference in odds of clinical improvement (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.53, 95% CI: 0.88-2.67, P = 0.132) nor risk of death (aOR = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.35-1.20) when comparing the use of chloroquine/azithromycin versus other treatments. In this DRC study, the high mortality among patients aged < 20 years and with severe/critical disease is of great concern, and requires further research for confirmation and targeted interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Hospital Mortality/trends , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adolescent , Adult , Asymptomatic Diseases , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Democratic Republic of the Congo/epidemiology , Drug Combinations , Enoxaparin/therapeutic use , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/diagnosis , Obesity/physiopathology , Obesity/virology , Patient Discharge/statistics & numerical data , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/physiopathology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/virology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
11.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 77(2): 190-203.e1, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-780044

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE: Underlying kidney disease is an emerging risk factor for more severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) illness. We examined the clinical courses of critically ill COVID-19 patients with and without pre-existing chronic kidney disease (CKD) and investigated the association between the degree of underlying kidney disease and in-hospital outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTINGS & PARTICIPANTS: 4,264 critically ill patients with COVID-19 (143 patients with pre-existing kidney failure receiving maintenance dialysis; 521 patients with pre-existing non-dialysis-dependent CKD; and 3,600 patients without pre-existing CKD) admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) at 68 hospitals across the United States. PREDICTOR(S): Presence (vs absence) of pre-existing kidney disease. OUTCOME(S): In-hospital mortality (primary); respiratory failure, shock, ventricular arrhythmia/cardiac arrest, thromboembolic events, major bleeds, and acute liver injury (secondary). ANALYTICAL APPROACH: We used standardized differences to compare patient characteristics (values>0.10 indicate a meaningful difference between groups) and multivariable-adjusted Fine and Gray survival models to examine outcome associations. RESULTS: Dialysis patients had a shorter time from symptom onset to ICU admission compared to other groups (median of 4 [IQR, 2-9] days for maintenance dialysis patients; 7 [IQR, 3-10] days for non-dialysis-dependent CKD patients; and 7 [IQR, 4-10] days for patients without pre-existing CKD). More dialysis patients (25%) reported altered mental status than those with non-dialysis-dependent CKD (20%; standardized difference=0.12) and those without pre-existing CKD (12%; standardized difference=0.36). Half of dialysis and non-dialysis-dependent CKD patients died within 28 days of ICU admission versus 35% of patients without pre-existing CKD. Compared to patients without pre-existing CKD, dialysis patients had higher risk for 28-day in-hospital death (adjusted HR, 1.41 [95% CI, 1.09-1.81]), while patients with non-dialysis-dependent CKD had an intermediate risk (adjusted HR, 1.25 [95% CI, 1.08-1.44]). LIMITATIONS: Potential residual confounding. CONCLUSIONS: Findings highlight the high mortality of individuals with underlying kidney disease and severe COVID-19, underscoring the importance of identifying safe and effective COVID-19 therapies in this vulnerable population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Critical Illness , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Comorbidity , Critical Illness/mortality , Critical Illness/therapy , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Kidney Function Tests/methods , Kidney Function Tests/statistics & numerical data , Male , Renal Dialysis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/physiopathology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Treatment Outcome , United States/epidemiology
12.
Ren Fail ; 42(1): 733-739, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-688758

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) require specialized management. However, the current situation of CKD management is unclear during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. We aimed to investigate the influence of the COVID-19 on kidney patients' follow-ups. METHODS: In April 2020, we included patients who underwent kidney biopsy from January 2017 to December 2019 in a referral center of China, and then initiated a survey via telephone on different aspects of follow-up during the COVID-19 pandemic. We collected and analyzed demographic data, diagnoses, follow-up conditions, and telemedicine experience. RESULTS: We reached 1190 CKD patients with confirmed kidney biopsies, and included 1164 patients for analysis after excluding those on dialysis. None of our patients have had COVID-19, although more than 50% of them were complicated with other comorbidities, and over 40% were currently using immunosuppressive treatments. Face-to-face clinic visits were interrupted in 836 (71.82%) participants. Medicine adjustments and routine laboratory examinations were delayed or made irregular in about 60% of patients. To continue their follow-ups, 255 (21.90%) patients utilized telemedicine, and about 80% of them were satisfied with the experience. The proportion of telemedicine users was significantly higher in patients with immunosuppressive treatments than those without (31.88% vs. 17.12%, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The risk of COVID-19 was mitigated in patients with CKD and other co-existing risk factors when proper protection was utilized. The routine medical care was disrupted during the pandemic, and telemedicine could be a reasonable alternative method.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Infection Control/methods , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/pathology , Adult , Biopsy, Needle , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Databases, Factual , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/physiopathology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Surveys and Questionnaires
13.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 14(5): 1017-1025, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-622885

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Currently there is limited knowledge on medical comorbidities and COVID-19; we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the impact of various morbidities on serious events in COVID 19. METHODS: PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Clinical Trials were searched on April 28, 2020, to extract published articles that reported the outcomes of COVID-19 patients. The search terms were "coronavirus" and "clinical characteristics". ICU admission, mechanical ventilation, ARDS, Pneumonia, death was considered serious events. The comorbidities assessed in the study were Hypertension (HTN), Diabetes mellitus (DM), Cardiovascular diseases (CVD), Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and Chronic Kidney disease (CKD). Subsequently, comparisons between comorbidity patient group and the non-comorbidity patient groups, in terms of serious events were made using the pooled estimates of odd's ratio (OR) RESULTS: We identified 688 published results and 16 studies with 3994 patients were included in the systematic review. Serious events were seen in 526(13.16%) patients. Presence of hypertension with OR 2.95, diabetes mellitus with OR 3.07, Cardio vascular disease with OR 4.58, COPD with OR 6.66 and Chronic kidney disease with OR 5.32 had significant association in patients with COVID 19 on having serious events. Presence of diabetes mellitus (OR 2.78)) had a significant impact on death in COVID 19 patients with a p-value 0.004. CONCLUSIONS: Presence of medical comorbidities in COVID-19 leads to higher risk of developing serious events i.e. ICU admission, mechanical intubation and mortality. The presence of Diabetes mellitus has a significant impact on mortality rate in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Hypertension/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/mortality , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/mortality , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/physiopathology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hypertension/physiopathology , Incidence , India , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prognosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/physiopathology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/physiopathology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Rate
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