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1.
Semin Nephrol ; 42(2): 101-113, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1867762

ABSTRACT

The difference between sex, the biological construct, and gender, the social construct, may be most evident in settings of vulnerability. Globally, chronic kidney disease is more prevalent among women, but the prevalence of end-stage kidney failure, and especially receipt of kidney replacement therapy, is higher in men. These differences likely reflect a combination of physiological and social/structural risk factors that independently modulate kidney disease and/or its progression. The distribution of the most common risk factors such as hypertension and obesity differ between men and women and may impact disease risk differentially. Social and structural gender-related inequities remain stark across the globe. More women live in poverty, receive less education, and are more dependent on others for health care decision making, but men may have a higher risk of injury, occupational exposures, and less access to screening, prevention, and primary care. In this article, we explore how social determinants of health affect kidney disease risk and access to care differentially across genders, and differently across the globe. We also describe specific challenges experienced by boys and girls with kidney disease, how culture and geography may impact kidney care in places where resources are particularly limited such as sub-Saharan Africa, and give examples of social and structural circumstances that place young men and women at high risk of kidney disease in Mexico and Central America, illustrated by case vignettes. The coronavirus disease-2019 pandemic has raised awareness of pervasive gender-based inequities within all societies. This applies to kidney disease and is not new. The nephrology community must add its voice to the calls for action, for a more just society overall, and for the recognition of the roles of sex and gender as modulators of kidney disease risk and access to care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Female , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic/epidemiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Male , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Sex Factors
2.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 115(5): 1404-1417, 2022 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1852922

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Whether a very low-protein diet supplemented with ketoanalogues (sVLPD), compared with a standard low-protein diet (LPD), improves outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) under stable nephrology care is undefined. OBJECTIVES: To compare the effectiveness of sVLPD compared with LPD in patients regularly seen in tertiary nephrology care. METHODS: Participants were patients with CKD stages 4-5, followed for at least 6 mo, randomly allocated to receive sVLPD or LPD [0.35 or 0.60 g/kg ideal body weight (IBW)/d, respectively], stratified by center and CKD stage. The primary outcome was time to renal death, defined as the first event between end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and all-cause mortality; secondary outcomes were the single components of the primary outcome, cardiovascular outcome, and nutritional status. RESULTS: We analyzed 223 patients (sVLPD, n = 107; LPD, n = 116). Mean age was 64 y, 61% were male, and 35% had diabetes. Median protein intake (PI), which was 0.8 g/kg IBW/d at baseline in both groups, was 0.83 and 0.60 g/kg IBW/d in LPD and sVLPD, respectively, during the trial with a large decrease only in sVLPD (P = 0.011). During a median of 74.2 mo, we recorded 180 renal deaths (141 dialysis and 39 deaths before dialysis). Risk of renal death did not differ in sVLPD compared with LPD (HR: 1.17; 95% CI: 0.88, 1.57; P = 0.28). No difference was observed for ESRD (HR: 1.12; 95% CI: 0.81, 1.56; P = 0.51), mortality (HR: 0.95; 95% CI: 0.62, 1.45; P = 0.82), or time to fatal/nonfatal cardiovascular events (P = 0.2, log-rank test). After 36 mo, still active patients were 45 in sVLPD and 56 in LPD. No change of nutritional status emerged during the study in any arm. CONCLUSIONS: This long-term pragmatic trial found that in patients with CKD under stable nephrology care, adherence to protein restriction is low. Prescribing sVLPD compared with standard LPD is safe but does not provide additional advantage to the kidney or patient survival.


Subject(s)
Kidney Failure, Chronic , Nephrology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Diet, Protein-Restricted/adverse effects , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Renal Dialysis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy
3.
Nephrology (Carlton) ; 27(5): 410-420, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1774876

ABSTRACT

AIM: This systematic review aims to evaluate the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on access to health care for patients with CKD. METHODS: MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched up to July 2021 (PROSPERO CRD42021230831). Data relevant to access to health care before and during the COVID-19 pandemic were extracted, including outcomes related to access to general nephrology consultations, telehealth, dialysis services and kidney transplantations. Relative and absolute effects were pooled using a random effects model to account for between-study heterogeneity. Risk of bias was assessed using a modified Quality in Prognostic Studies tool. The certainty of the evidence was rated using the GRADE approach. RESULTS: Twenty-three studies across five WHO regions were identified. Reductions in transplantation surgeries were observed during the COVID-19 pandemic compared with the pre-COVID-19 era (risk ratio = 2.15, 95%CI = 1.51-3.06, I2  = 90%, p < .001). Additionally, six studies reported increased use of telehealth services compared with pre-COVID-19 times. Four studies found reduced access to in-person general nephrology services and six studies reported interruptions to dialysis services during the COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest COVID-19 pandemic may have led to reductions in access to kidney transplantation, dialysis and in-person nephrology care. Meanwhile, whilst the use of telehealth has emerged as a promising alternate mode of health care delivery, its utility during the pandemic warrants further investigation. This study has highlighted major barriers to accessing care in a highly vulnerable chronic disease group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Telemedicine , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Pandemics , Renal Dialysis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(6)2022 03 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760577

ABSTRACT

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) represents a public health problem because it is characterized by several comorbidities, including uremic sarcopenia (US), and a poor quality of life. Currently, there are no standardized treatments available to counteract the onset of US but only some possible therapeutic approaches to slow its progression. The aim of this pilot study is to collect descriptive data in order to design a clinical trial based on the power analysis and simple size. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the possible beneficial action induced by the functional anti-inflammatory and antioxidant bars in combination with the adapted physical activity (APA), on the onset and progression of US and other related-CKD comorbidities. We enrolled 21 CKD patients under conservative therapy, divided into four groups: (A) the physical exercise program (PEP), three times a week, in combination with the daily consumption of the two functional bars group; (B) the PEP group; (C) the daily consumption of the two functional bars group; (D) the control group. The duration of the study protocol was 12 weeks. We observed an improvement trend of body composition, blood pressure levels, lipid metabolism, and functional test in A and B groups. These preliminary data would seem to confirm the effectiveness of APA and to demonstrate the additive role of the natural bioactive compound's assumption in countering US and other CKD comorbidities.


Subject(s)
Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Sarcopenia , Exercise , Female , Humans , Male , Pilot Projects , Quality of Life , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy
5.
Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz ; 65(4): 488-497, 2022 Apr.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1756774

ABSTRACT

Due to improved treatment options, patients with chronic kidney disease can survive significantly longer than even 10 years ago. However, survival is always associated with a loss of quality of life for those affected. This article provides a brief overview of the physical and psychological disease consequences, concomitant diseases, and therapy side effects. Reference is made to previously known effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. Finally, it will be shown how long-term treatment should be further developed in order to improve patient quality of life.Functional impairment of the kidney has severe effects on the entire organism due to contamination of the blood with urophanic substances (uremia). In addition, patients are affected by side effects that can occur in connection with drug therapy, dialysis, or kidney transplantation. Patients and their relatives are exposed to great psychological stress. Also, infections with SARS-CoV­2 can impair kidney function and worsen the prognosis of a pre-existing disease.The holistic care of patients with chronic kidney disease must consider not only medical care but also psychological and psychosocial aspects. Nephrology and psychonephrology must be further developed hand-in-hand to improve the medical care and quality of life of affected patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Germany , Humans , Pandemics , Quality of Life/psychology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
6.
BMJ Open ; 12(3): e050610, 2022 03 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1752870

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The use of routine remote follow-up of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasing exponentially. It has been suggested that online electronic patient-reported outcome measures (ePROMs) could be used in parallel, to facilitate real-time symptom monitoring aimed at improving outcomes. We tested the feasibility of this approach in a pilot trial of ePROM symptom monitoring versus usual care in patients with advanced CKD not on dialysis. DESIGN: A 12-month, parallel, pilot randomised controlled trial (RCT) and qualitative substudy. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham, UK. Adult patients with advanced CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate ≥6 and ≤15 mL/min/1.73 m2, or a projected risk of progression to kidney failure within 2 years ≥20%). INTERVENTION: Monthly online ePROM symptom reporting, including automated feedback of tailored self-management advice and triggered clinical notifications in the advent of severe symptoms. Real-time ePROM data were made available to the clinical team via the electronic medical record. OUTCOMES: Feasibility (recruitment and retention rates, and acceptability/adherence to the ePROM intervention). Health-related quality of life, clinical data (eg, measures of kidney function, kidney failure, hospitalisation, death) and healthcare utilisation. RESULTS: 52 patients were randomised (31% of approached). Case report form returns were high (99.5%), as was retention (96%). Overall, 73% of expected ePROM questionnaires were received. Intervention adherence was high beyond 90 days (74%) and 180 days (65%); but dropped beyond 270 days (46%). Qualitative interviews supported proof of concept and intervention acceptability, but highlighted necessary changes aimed at enhancing overall functionality/scalability of the ePROM system. LIMITATIONS: Small sample size. CONCLUSIONS: This pilot trial demonstrates that patients are willing to be randomised to a trial assessing ePROM symptom monitoring. The intervention was considered acceptable; though measures to improve longer-term engagement are needed. A full-scale RCT is considered feasible. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN12669006 and the UK NIHR Portfolio (CPMS ID: 36497).


Subject(s)
Renal Dialysis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Adult , Electronics , Feasibility Studies , Humans , Patient Reported Outcome Measures , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , United Kingdom
7.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(11): e14681, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1735914

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is often complicated by anaemia, which is associated with disease progression and increased hospital visits, decreased quality of life, and increased mortality. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search of English language peer-reviewed articles in PubMed/MedLine published between 1998 and 2020 related to the treatment of anaemia of CKD was conducted. The United States Renal Database System and Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS) data reports, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the US Food and Drug Administration websites, and published congress abstracts in 2020 were surveyed for relevant information. RESULTS: Subgroups of patients with anaemia of CKD present a clinical challenge throughout the disease spectrum, including those with end-stage kidney disease, advanced age or resistance to or ineligibility for current standards of care (ie, oral or intravenous iron supplementation, erythropoietin-stimulating agents and red blood cell transfusions). In addition, those with an increased risk of adverse events because of comorbid conditions, such as cardiovascular diseases or diabetes, comprise special populations of patients with an unmet need for interventions to improve clinical outcomes. These comorbidities must be managed in parallel and may have a synergistic effect on overall disease severity. CONCLUSIONS: Several therapies provide promising opportunities to address gaps with a standard of care, including hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors, which stimulate haematopoiesis through promoting modest increases in serum erythropoietin and improved iron homeostasis. The critical issues in the management of anaemia of CKD in these challenging phenotypes and the clinical utility of new therapeutic agents in development for the treatment of anaemia of CKD should be assessed and the information should be made available to healthcare providers.


Subject(s)
Anemia , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Anemia/drug therapy , Humans , Phenotype , Quality of Life , Renal Dialysis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy
8.
Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens ; 31(3): 283-287, 2022 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713789

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and acute kidney injury (AKI) are global public health problems associated with a significant burden of morbidity, healthcare resource use, and all-cause mortality. This review explores recently published studies that take a machine learning approach to the diagnosis, management, and prognostication in patients with AKI or CKD. RECENT FINDINGS: The release of novel therapeutics for CKD has highlighted the importance of accurately identifying patients at the highest risk of progression. Many models have been constructed with reasonable predictive accuracy but have not been extensively externally validated and peer reviewed. Similarly, machine learning models have been developed for prediction of AKI and have found sufficient accuracy. There are issues to implementing these models, however, with conflicting results with respect to the relationship between prediction of an AKI outcome and improvements in the occurrence of other adverse events, and in some circumstances potential harm. SUMMARY: Artificial intelligence models can help guide management of CKD and AKI, but it is important to ensure that they are broadly applicable and generalizable to various settings and associated with improved clinical decision-making and outcomes.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Artificial Intelligence , Female , Humans , Machine Learning , Male , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy
11.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 17(3): 395-402, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1707022

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Dialysis patients have a high mortality risk after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and an altered immunologic response to vaccines, but vaccine clinical effectiveness remains unknown in this population. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: Using Bayesian multivariable spatiotemporal models, we estimated the association between vaccine exposure and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) severe infections (with hospital admission) in dialysis patients from simultaneous incidence in the general population. For dialysis patients, cases were reported within the French end-stage kidney disease REIN registry from March 11, 2020, to April 29, 2021, and vaccine exposure (first dose) was reported in weekly national surveys since January 2021. Cases in the general population were obtained from the national exhaustive inpatient surveillance system (SI-VIC database), and vaccination coverage (first dose) was obtained from the national surveillance system (VAC-SI database). RESULTS: During the first wave, incidence in dialysis patients was approximately proportional to the general population. However, we showed a lower relative incidence for dialysis patients during the second wave (compared with that observed in nondialysis patients), suggesting an effect of prevention measures. Moreover, from the beginning of the vaccination rollout, incidence in dialysis patients was lower compared with predictions based on the first and second waves. Adding vaccination coverages in dialysis and nondialysis patients as predictors allowed the reported cases to be fit correctly (3685 predicted cases, 95% confidence interval, 3552 to 3816, versus 3620 reported). Incidence rate ratios were 0.37 (95% confidence interval, 0.18 to 0.71) for vaccine exposure in dialysis patients and 0.50 (95% confidence interval, 0.40 to 0.61) per 10% higher in vaccination coverage in the same-age general population, meaning that vaccine exposure in dialysis patients and the general population was independently associated with lower hospitalization rate of dialysis patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that vaccination may yield a protective effect against severe forms of COVID-19 in dialysis patients, despite altered immunologic vaccine responses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Renal Dialysis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bayes Theorem , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Registries , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/immunology , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Spatio-Temporal Analysis , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Vaccination
12.
Viruses ; 14(3)2022 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1700222

ABSTRACT

The group most at risk of death due to COVID-19 are patients on maintenance hemodialysis (HD). The study aims to describe the clinical course of the early phase of SARS-CoV-2 infection and find predictors of the development of COVID-19 severe pneumonia in this population. This is a case series of HD nonvaccinated patients with COVID-19 stratified into mild pneumonia and severe pneumonia group according to the chest computed tomography (CT) pneumonia total severity score (TSS) on admission. Epidemiological, demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were obtained from hospital records. 85 HD patients with a mean age of 69.74 (13.19) years and dialysis vintage of 38 (14-84) months were included. On admission, 29.14% of patients had no symptoms, 70.59% reported fatigue followed by fever-44.71%, shortness of breath-40.0%, and cough-30.59%. 20% of the patients had finger oxygen saturation less than 90%. In 28.81% of patients, pulmonary parenchyma was involved in at least 25%. The factors associated with severe pneumonia include fever, low oxygen saturation and arterial partial pressure of oxygen, increased C-reactive protein and ferritin serum levels, low blood count of lymphocytes as well as chronic treatment with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors; while the chronic active vitamin D treatment was associated with mild pneumonia. In conclusion, even though nearly one-third of the patients were completely asymptomatic, while the remaining usually reported only single symptoms, a large percentage of them had extensive inflammatory changes at diagnosis with SARS-CoV-2 infection. We identified potential predictors of severe pneumonia, which might help individualize pharmacological treatment and improve clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Aged , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D
13.
BMC Nephrol ; 23(1): 55, 2022 02 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690947

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages G4-G5, on dialysis or after kidney transplantation (kidney replacement therapy, KRT). SARS-CoV-2 vaccine trials do not elucidate if SARS-CoV-2 vaccination is effective in these patients. Vaccination against other viruses is known to be less effective in kidney patients. Our objective is to assess the efficacy and safety of various types of SARS-CoV-2 vaccinations in patients with CKD stages G4-G5 or on KRT. METHODS: In this national prospective observational cohort study we will follow patients with CKD stages G4-G5 or on KRT (n = 12,000) after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination according to the Dutch vaccination program. Blood will be drawn for antibody response measurements at day 28 and month 6 after completion of vaccination. Patient characteristics and outcomes will be extracted from registration data and questionnaires during 2 years of follow-up. Results will be compared with a control group of non-vaccinated patients. The level of antibody response to vaccination will be assessed in subgroups to predict protection against COVID-19 breakthrough infection. RESULTS: The primary endpoint is efficacy of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination determined as the incidence of COVID-19 after vaccination. Secondary endpoints are the antibody based immune response at 28 days after vaccination, the durability of this response at 6 months after vaccination, mortality and (serious) adverse events. CONCLUSION: This study will fulfil the lack of knowledge on efficacy and safety of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in patients with CKD stages G4-G5 or on KRT. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study protocol has been registered in clinicaltrials.gov ( NCT04841785 ). Current knowledge about this subject COVID-19 has devastating impact on patients with CKD stages G4-G5, on dialysis or after kidney transplantation. Effective SARS-CoV-2 vaccination is very important in these vulnerable patient groups. Recent studies on vaccination in these patient groups are small short-term studies with surrogate endpoints. Contribution of this study Assessment of incidence and course of COVID-19 after various types of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination during a two-year follow-up period in not only patients on dialysis or kidney transplant recipients, but also in patients with CKD stages G4-G5. Quantitative analysis of antibody response after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination and its relationship with incidence and course of COVID-19 in patients with CKD stages G4-G5, on dialysis or after kidney transplantation compared with a control group. Monitoring of (serious) adverse events and development of anti-HLA antibodies. Impact on practice or policy Publication of the study design contributes to harmonization of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine study methodology in kidney patients at high-risk for severe COVID-19. Data on efficacy of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in patients with CKD will provide guidance for future vaccination policy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , Kidney Transplantation , Renal Dialysis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Cohort Studies , Humans , Netherlands , Observational Studies as Topic , Prospective Studies , Time Factors
14.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 17(3): 403-413, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686351

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Although most patients receiving maintenance dialysis exhibit initial seroresponse to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccination, concerns exist regarding the durability of this antibody response. This study evaluated seroresponse over time. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: This retrospective cohort study included patients on maintenance dialysis, from a midsize national dialysis provider, who received a complete SARS-CoV-2 vaccine series and had at least one antibody titer checked after full vaccination. IgG spike antibodies (anti-spike IgG) titers were assessed monthly with routine laboratory tests after vaccination; the semiquantitative assay reported a range between zero and ≥20 Index. Descriptive analyses compared trends over time by history of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and vaccine type. Time-to-event analyses examined the outcome of loss of seroresponse (anti-spike IgG <1 Index or development of COVID-19). Cox regression adjusted for additional clinical characteristics. RESULTS: Among 1870 patients receiving maintenance dialysis, 1569 had no prior COVID-19. Patients without prior COVID-19 had declining titers over time. Among 443 recipients of BNT162b2 (Pfizer), median (interquartile range) anti-spike IgG titer declined from ≥20 (5.89 to ≥20) in month 1 after full vaccination to 1.96 (0.60-5.88) by month 6. Among 778 recipients of mRNA-1273 (Moderna), anti-spike IgG titer declined from ≥20 (interquartile range, ≥20 to ≥20) in month 1 to 7.99 (2.61 to ≥20) by month 6. The 348 recipients of Ad26.COV2.S (Janssen) had a lower titer response than recipients of an mRNA vaccine over all time periods. In time-to-event analyses, recipients of Ad26.COV2.S and mRNA-1273 had the shortest and longest time to loss of seroresponse, respectively. The maximum titer reached in the first 2 months after full vaccination was associated with durability of the anti-spike IgG seroresponse; patients with anti-spike IgG titer 1-19.99 had a shorter time to loss of seroresponse compared with patients with anti-spike IgG titer ≥20 (hazard ratio, 15.5; 95% confidence interval, 11.7 to 20.7). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients receiving maintenance dialysis, vaccine-induced seroresponse wanes over time across vaccine types. Early titers after full vaccination are associated with the durability of seroresponse.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Renal Dialysis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination , /administration & dosage , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , /immunology , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Male , Middle Aged , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/immunology , Retrospective Studies , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , United States
15.
Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl ; 32(3): 744-753, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662743

ABSTRACT

People with comorbidities are more prone to severe coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) infection. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients are commonly associated with other comorbidities such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, or cardiovascular disease. However, there are limited data about the clinical features and laboratory parameters of COVID-19 in CKD patients. The primary objective was to study the admission clinical and laboratory parameters of COVID-19 in CKD patients. The secondary objective was to correlate the clinical and laboratory parameters at admission with mortality in CKD patients. Data were collected retrospectively from patients' medical records between July 2020 and October 2020. All CKD patients with either COVID-19 antigen or reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction-confirmed infection were included in the study. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were recorded. Data of deceased and recovered patients were compared and analyzed. The mortality rate due to COVID-19 in CKD patients was 34.44%. CKD patients presented with atypical symptoms such as dyspnea (78.88%) and fatigue (73.33%) being more common than fever and sore throat. Elderly patients with comorbidities were at a higher risk of mortality (P = 0.003). CKD patients requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT) were at a higher risk of mortality than those who did not require RRT (P = 0.02). High values of high-sensitive C-reactive protein, lactate dehydrogenase, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio, and red cell distribution width at admission were associated with a higher risk of mortality. Liver dysfunction and hypoxia at admission were also associated with a higher risk of mortality. Logistic regression analysis showed that improvements in serum albumin, serum sodium, and serum lactate were the best predictors of recovery among cases of COVID-19. In the absence of a definitive therapy or vaccine, CKD patients should be advised to follow strict social isolation practices as per the recommendations for the high-risk group of patients. These practices should be extended to dialysis units as well, which are a major hub for outbreak of infections. A meticulous triage of patients should be carried out after acquiring proper medical history because this will help to identify patients who are at an increased risk of poor outcome of the infection. Furthermore, they should be given more aggressive treatment and access to intensive care unit upon diagnosis of infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Renal Replacement Therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
16.
Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl ; 32(2): 504-509, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622690

ABSTRACT

With the declaration of severe acute respiratory syndrome novel coronavirus-2019 as pandemic by the World Health Organization on March 11, 2020, there has been a steady rise in number of cases. Chronic kidney disease and dialysis population are risk factors for increased severity of illness. Literature about the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in dialysis population is scarce. Management of COVID-19 patients in resource poor setting in a developing country does vary compared to developed nations. Nonavailability of the advanced laboratory facility and the newer medicines forces the treating team to manage the patients with available investigations and drugs. We aimed at analysis of clinical characteristics and outcomes of 84 patients on maintenance hemodialysis (HD). Data of all COVID-positive patients on maintenance HD, who were referred to our center were collected. All patients were given HD on NIKISSO machines. Outcomes of all the admitted patients were analyzed. Maintenance HD group formed majority of the kidney referrals (54%). Age group that was commonly affected was >50 years. Factors associated with mortality were age, diabetes, thrombocytopenia, prolonged baseline activated partial thromboplastin time, admission hypoxemia, high qSOFA score. Institutional Ethics Committee approval has been obtained for the study. Methodology of the study was in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. Verbal consent was obtained from patients/ attendants. In the ongoing COVID pandemic, in a developing nation where resources are constrained, it is difficult to salvage the critically ill patients. With the drugs available and the changing strategies, treatment was given to all the patients admitted with bedside renal replacement therapies. Our mortality rate was high compared to other studies due to delay in referral, admission hypoxemia, and late initiation of steroids.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Blood Coagulation Disorders , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Humans , Hypoxia/etiology , Kidney Function Tests , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Treatment Outcome
17.
J Nephrol ; 35(1): 69-85, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616318

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has resulted in the death of more than 3.5 million people worldwide. While COVID-19 mostly affects the lungs, different comorbidities can have an impact on its outcomes. We performed an overview of reviews to assess the effect of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) on contracting COVID-19, hospitalization, mortality, and disease severity. METHODS: We searched published and preprint databases. We updated the reviews by searching for primary studies published after August 2020, and prioritized reviews that are most updated and of higher quality using the AMSTAR tool. RESULTS: We included 69 systematic reviews and 66 primary studies. Twenty-eight reviews reported on the prevalence of CKD among patients with COVID-19, which ranged from 0.4 to 49.0%. One systematic review showed an increased risk of hospitalization in patients with CKD and COVID-19 (RR = 1.63, 95% CI 1.03-2.58) (Moderate certainty). Primary studies also showed a statistically significant increase of hospitalization in such patients. Thirty-seven systematic reviews assessed mortality risk in patients with CKD and COVID-19. The pooled estimates from primary studies for mortality in patients with CKD and COVID-19 showed a HR of 1.48 (95% CI 1.33-1.65) (Moderate certainty), an OR of 1.77 (95% CI 1.54-2.02) (Moderate certainty) and a RR of 1.6 (95% CI 0.88-2.92) (Low certainty). CONCLUSIONS: Our review highlights the impact of CKD on the poor outcomes of COVID-19, underscoring the importance of identifying strategies to prevent COVID-19 infection among patients with CKD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Cause of Death , Hospitalization , Humans , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Systematic Reviews as Topic
18.
N Engl J Med ; 385(25): 2325-2335, 2021 12 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575626

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), the use of recombinant human erythropoietin and its derivatives for the treatment of anemia has been linked to a possibly increased risk of stroke, myocardial infarction, and other adverse events. Several trials have suggested that hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors (PHIs) are as effective as erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) in increasing hemoglobin levels. METHODS: In this randomized, open-label, phase 3 trial, we assigned patients with CKD who were undergoing dialysis and who had a hemoglobin level of 8.0 to 11.5 g per deciliter to receive an oral HIF-PHI (daprodustat) or an injectable ESA (epoetin alfa if they were receiving hemodialysis or darbepoetin alfa if they were receiving peritoneal dialysis). The two primary outcomes were the mean change in the hemoglobin level from baseline to weeks 28 through 52 (noninferiority margin, -0.75 g per deciliter) and the first occurrence of a major adverse cardiovascular event (a composite of death from any cause, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke), with a noninferiority margin of 1.25. RESULTS: A total of 2964 patients underwent randomization. The mean (±SD) baseline hemoglobin level was 10.4±1.0 g per deciliter overall. The mean (±SE) change in the hemoglobin level from baseline to weeks 28 through 52 was 0.28±0.02 g per deciliter in the daprodustat group and 0.10±0.02 g per deciliter in the ESA group (difference, 0.18 g per deciliter; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.12 to 0.24), which met the prespecified noninferiority margin of -0.75 g per deciliter. During a median follow-up of 2.5 years, a major adverse cardiovascular event occurred in 374 of 1487 patients (25.2%) in the daprodustat group and in 394 of 1477 (26.7%) in the ESA group (hazard ratio, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.81 to 1.07), which also met the prespecified noninferiority margin for daprodustat. The percentages of patients with other adverse events were similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with CKD undergoing dialysis, daprodustat was noninferior to ESAs regarding the change in the hemoglobin level from baseline and cardiovascular outcomes. (Funded by GlaxoSmithKline; ASCEND-D ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02879305.).


Subject(s)
Anemia/drug therapy , Barbiturates/therapeutic use , Darbepoetin alfa/therapeutic use , Epoetin Alfa/therapeutic use , Glycine/analogs & derivatives , Hematinics/therapeutic use , Renal Dialysis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Aged , Anemia/etiology , Barbiturates/adverse effects , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Darbepoetin alfa/adverse effects , Epoetin Alfa/adverse effects , Female , Glycine/adverse effects , Glycine/therapeutic use , Hematinics/adverse effects , Hemoglobins/analysis , Humans , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-Proline Dioxygenases/antagonists & inhibitors , Intention to Treat Analysis , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/blood , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Stroke/epidemiology
19.
Transplantation ; 106(4): 821-834, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511132

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In kidney patients COVID-19 is associated with severely increased morbidity and mortality. A comprehensive comparison of the immunogenicity, tolerability, and safety of COVID-19 vaccination in different cohorts of kidney patients and a control cohort is lacking. METHODS: This investigator driven, prospective, controlled multicenter study included 162 participants with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages G4/5 (eGFR < 30 mL/min/1.73m2), 159 participants on dialysis, 288 kidney transplant recipients, and 191 controls. Participants received 2 doses of the mRNA-1273 COVID-19 vaccine (Moderna). The primary endpoint was seroconversion. RESULTS: Transplant recipients had a significantly lower seroconversion rate when compared with controls (56.9% versus 100%, P < 0.001), with especially mycophenolic acid, but also, higher age, lower lymphocyte concentration, lower eGFR, and shorter time after transplantation being associated with nonresponder state. Transplant recipients also showed significantly lower titers of neutralizing antibodies and T-cell responses when compared with controls. Although a high seroconversion rate was observed for participants with CKD G4/5 (100%) and on dialysis (99.4%), mean antibody concentrations in the CKD G4/5 cohort and dialysis cohort were lower than in controls (2405 [interquartile interval 1287-4524] and 1650 [698-3024] versus 3186 [1896-4911] BAU/mL, P = 0.06 and P < 0.001, respectively). Dialysis patients and especially kidney transplant recipients experienced less systemic vaccination related adverse events. No specific safety issues were noted. CONCLUSIONS: The immune response following vaccination in patients with CKD G4/5 and on dialysis is almost comparable to controls. In contrast, kidney transplant recipients have a poor response. In this latter, patient group development of alternative vaccination strategies are warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Immunity , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Prospective Studies , Renal Dialysis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Vaccination
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