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1.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0260169, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526694

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has affected millions of people worldwide, and several sociodemographic variables, comorbidities and care variables have been associated with complications and mortality. OBJECTIVE: To identify the factors associated with admission to intensive care units (ICUs) and mortality in patients with COVID-19 from 4 clinics in Colombia. METHODS: This was a follow-up study of a cohort of patients diagnosed with COVID-19 between March and August 2020. Sociodemographic, clinical (Charlson comorbidity index and NEWS 2 score) and pharmacological variables were identified. Multivariate analyses were performed to identify variables associated with the risk of admission to the ICU and death (p<0.05). RESULTS: A total of 780 patients were analyzed, with a median age of 57.0 years; 61.2% were male. On admission, 54.9% were classified as severely ill, 65.3% were diagnosed with acute respiratory distress syndrome, 32.4% were admitted to the ICU, and 26.0% died. The factors associated with a greater likelihood of ICU admission were severe pneumonia (OR: 9.86; 95%CI:5.99-16.23), each 1-point increase in the NEWS 2 score (OR:1.09; 95%CI:1.002-1.19), history of ischemic heart disease (OR:3.24; 95%CI:1.16-9.00), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (OR:2.07; 95%CI:1.09-3.90). The risk of dying increased in those older than 65 years (OR:3.08; 95%CI:1.66-5.71), in patients with acute renal failure (OR:6.96; 95%CI:4.41-11.78), admitted to the ICU (OR:6.31; 95%CI:3.63-10.95), and for each 1-point increase in the Charlson comorbidity index (OR:1.16; 95%CI:1.002-1.35). CONCLUSIONS: Factors related to increasing the probability of requiring ICU care or dying in patients with COVID-19 were identified, facilitating the development of anticipatory intervention measures that favor comprehensive care and improve patient prognosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality/trends , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Colombia , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Ischemia/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency/epidemiology , Sex Factors
2.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(8): 851-862, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1340912

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the Île-de-France region (henceforth termed Greater Paris), extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) was considered early in the COVID-19 pandemic. We report ECMO network organisation and outcomes during the first wave of the pandemic. METHODS: In this multicentre cohort study, we present an analysis of all adult patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe ARDS requiring ECMO who were admitted to 17 Greater Paris intensive care units between March 8 and June 3, 2020. Central regulation for ECMO indications and pooling of resources were organised for the Greater Paris intensive care units, with six mobile ECMO teams available for the region. Details of complications (including ECMO-related complications, renal replacement therapy, and pulmonary embolism), clinical outcomes, survival status at 90 days after ECMO initiation, and causes of death are reported. Multivariable analysis was used to identify pre-ECMO variables independently associated with 90-day survival after ECMO. FINDINGS: The 302 patients included who underwent ECMO had a median age of 52 years (IQR 45-58) and Simplified Acute Physiology Score-II of 40 (31-56), and 235 (78%) of whom were men. 165 (55%) were transferred after cannulation by a mobile ECMO team. Before ECMO, 285 (94%) patients were prone positioned, median driving pressure was 18 cm H2O (14-21), and median ratio of the partial pressure of arterial oxygen to the fraction of inspired oxygen was 61 mm Hg (IQR 54-70). During ECMO, 115 (43%) of 270 patients had a major bleeding event, 27 of whom had intracranial haemorrhage; 130 (43%) of 301 patients received renal replacement therapy; and 53 (18%) of 294 had a pulmonary embolism. 138 (46%) patients were alive 90 days after ECMO. The most common causes of death were multiorgan failure (53 [18%] patients) and septic shock (47 [16%] patients). Shorter time between intubation and ECMO (odds ratio 0·91 [95% CI 0·84-0·99] per day decrease), younger age (2·89 [1·41-5·93] for ≤48 years and 2·01 [1·01-3·99] for 49-56 years vs ≥57 years), lower pre-ECMO renal component of the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score (0·67, 0·55-0·83 per point increase), and treatment in centres managing at least 30 venovenous ECMO cases annually (2·98 [1·46-6·04]) were independently associated with improved 90-day survival. There was no significant difference in survival between patients who had mobile and on-site ECMO initiation. INTERPRETATION: Beyond associations with similar factors to those reported on ECMO for non-COVID-19 ARDS, 90-day survival among ECMO-assisted patients with COVID-19 was strongly associated with a centre's experience in venovenous ECMO during the previous year. Early ECMO management in centres with a high venovenous ECMO case volume should be advocated, by applying centralisation and regulation of ECMO indications, which should also help to prevent a shortage of resources. FUNDING: None.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Intensive Care Units , Pulmonary Embolism , Renal Insufficiency , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/adverse effects , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/statistics & numerical data , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Intensive Care Units/organization & administration , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Renal Insufficiency/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency/etiology , Renal Insufficiency/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Analysis
3.
Transplantation ; 105(9): 2119-2123, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240980

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Belatacept may impair humoral immunity, impacting the effectiveness of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines in transplant recipients. We investigated immunogenicity after SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines in kidney transplant recipients who are and are not taking belatacept. METHODS: Participants were recruited between December 9, 2020, and April 1, 2021. Blood samples were collected after dose 1 and dose 2 (D1, D2) and analyzed using either an anti-SARS-CoV-2 enzyme immunoassay against the S1 domain of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein or immunoassay against the receptor-binding domain of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Stabilized inverse probability of treatment weights was used to compare immunogenicity, and a weighted logistics regression was used to calculate fold change of positive response. RESULTS: Among the 609 participants studied, 24 (4%) were taking belatacept. After dose 1, 0/24 (0%) belatacept patients had detectable antibodies, compared with 77 of 568 (14%) among the equivalent nonbelatacept population (P = 0.06). After dose 2, 1/19 (5%) belatacept patients had detectable antibodies, compared with 190/381 (50%) among the equivalent nonbelatacept population (P < 0.001). Belatacept use was associated with 16.7-fold lower odds of having a positive post-D2 titer result (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Additional measures need to be explored to protect kidney transplant recipients taking belatacept. Best safety practices should be continued despite vaccination among this population.


Subject(s)
Abatacept/pharmacology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Graft Rejection/immunology , Immunity, Humoral , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , RNA, Viral/analysis , Renal Insufficiency/surgery , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Comorbidity , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Graft Rejection/drug therapy , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/pharmacology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Renal Insufficiency/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
4.
Hepatol Int ; 15(3): 766-779, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171634

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Coronavirus disease 2019 [COVID-19] infection in patients with chronic liver disease [CLD] may precipitate acute-on-chronic liver failure [ACLF]. In a large multi-center cohort of COVID-19-infected patients, we aim to analyze (1) the outcomes of patients with underlying CLD [with and without cirrhosis] and (2) the development and impact of ACLF on in-hospital mortality. DESIGN: We identified 192 adults with CLD from among 10,859 patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection (admitted to any of 12 hospitals in a New York health care system between March 1, 2020 and April 27, 2020). ACLF was defined using the EASL-CLIF Consortium definition. Patient follow-up was through April 30, 2020, or until the date of discharge, transfer, or death. RESULTS: Of the 84 patients with cirrhosis, 32 [38%] developed ACLF, with respiratory failure [39%] and renal failure [26%] being the most common. Hispanic/Latino ethnicity was particularly at higher risk of in-hospital mortality [adjusted HR 4.92, 95% 1.27-19.09, p < 0.02] in cirrhosis despite having lower risk of development of ACLF [HR 0.26, 95% CI 0.08-0.89, p = 0.03]. Hypertension on admission predicted development of ACLF [HR 3.46, 95% CI 1.12-10.75, p = 0.03]. In-hospital mortality was not different between CLD patients with or without cirrhosis [p = 0.24] but was higher in those with cirrhosis who developed ACLF [adjusted HR 9.06, 95% CI 2.63-31.12, p < 0.001] with a trend for increased mortality by grade of ACLF [p = 0.002]. There was no difference in in-hospital mortality between the CLD cohort compared to matched control without CLD (log rank, p = 0.98) and between the cirrhosis cohort compared to matched control without cirrhosis (log rank, p = 0.51). CONCLUSION: Development of ACLF is the main driver of increased in-hospital mortality in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 infection and cirrhosis.


Subject(s)
Acute-On-Chronic Liver Failure/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Liver Cirrhosis/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , New York/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency/epidemiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/epidemiology , Risk Factors
5.
Indian Heart J ; 73(3): 379-381, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1157348

ABSTRACT

Covid-19 Nationwide lockdown for social containment was implemented on the 23rd of March 2020. The objective of this study was to look at the impact of lockdown on STEMI (<24hrs window period). This study was done in 2 phases, 43 days before (phase1) and 43 days during lockdown (phase 2). During the lockdown, there was a 31% decrease in hospital admission rates, 11.5% and 9.38% proportional increase in diabetics and hypertensive patients presenting with STEMI. The public must be educated about the existing important health problems in the community along with the pandemic warnings.


Subject(s)
Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Atrioventricular Block/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Renal Insufficiency/epidemiology , Risk Factors , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy
6.
CMAJ ; 193(11): E389-E398, 2021 Mar 15.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1154095

ABSTRACT

CONTEXTE: De nombreuses études sur les complications de la maladie à coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) ont reposé sur des séries de cas et de petites cohortes qui ne permettaient pas d'établir un lien causal avec la COVID-19 ni d'estimer les risques dans les différents milieux de soins. Nous avons voulu étudier toutes les complications possibles de la COVID-19 afin de confirmer les complications précédemment déclarées et d'identifier de potentielles complications encore inconnues. MÉTHODES: À partir des données sur les demandes de remboursement de frais médicaux aux États-Unis, nous avons comparé la fréquence de tous les codes de diagnostic de la Classification internationale des maladies, 10 e révision, modification clinique (CIM-10-MC) enregistrés avant et après le déclenchement de la pandémie de COVID-19 dans un modèle d'auto-appariement pré- et post-exposition. Nous avons inclus les patients ayant reçu un diagnostic de COVID-19 entre le 1er mars 2020 et le 30 avril 2020, et calculé les estimations de risque et les rapports de cotes (RC) pour le lien avec la COVID-19 de chaque code de diagnostic de la CIM-10-MC. RÉSULTATS: Sur les 1724 codes de diagnostic de la CIM-10-MC attribués à 70 288 patients atteints de COVID-19, 69 étaient significativement liés à la COVID-19. Les diagnostics étroitement liés à la COVID-19 et comportant un risque absolu élevé comprenaient la pneumonie virale (RC 177,63; intervalle de confiance [IC] à 95 % 147,19­214,37; risque absolu 27,6 %), l'insuffisance respiratoire (RC 11,36; IC à 95 % 10,74­12,02; risque absolu 22,6 %), l'insuffisance rénale aiguë (RC 3,50; IC à 95 % 3,34­3,68; risque absolu 11,8 %) et la sepsie (RC 4,23; IC à 95 % 4,01­4,46; risque absolu 10,4 %). Les diagnostics étroitement liés à la COVID-19, mais comportant un risque absolu faible comprenaient la myocardite (RC 8,17; IC à 95 % 3,58­18,62; risque absolu 0,1 %), la coagulation intravasculaire disséminée (RC 11,83; IC à 95 % 5,26­26,62; risque absolu 0,1 %) et le pneumothorax (RC 3,38; IC à 95 % 2,68­4,26; risque absolu 0,4 %). INTERPRÉTATION: Nous avons confirmé et établi les estimations du risque de plusieurs complications de la COVID-19. Ces résultats pourraient orienter le pronostic, les décisions thérapeutiques et les conseils aux patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Renal Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Risk Assessment/methods , Thrombosis/etiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Prognosis , Renal Insufficiency/epidemiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Thrombosis/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
7.
Curr Pain Headache Rep ; 25(3): 19, 2021 Feb 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1100995

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review provides an updated discussion on the clinical presentation, diagnosis and radiographic features, mechanisms, associations and epidemiology, treatment, and prognosis of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES). Headache is common in PRES, though headache associated with PRES was not identified as a separate entity in the 2018 International Classification of Headache Disorders. Here, we review the relevant literature and suggest criteria for consideration of its inclusion. RECENT FINDINGS: COVID-19 has been identified as a potential risk factor for PRES, with a prevalence of 1-4% in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection undergoing neuroimaging, thus making a discussion of its identification and treatment particularly timely given the ongoing global pandemic at the time of this writing. PRES is a neuro-clinical syndrome with specific imaging findings. The clinical manifestations of PRES include headache, seizures, encephalopathy, visual disturbances, and focal neurologic deficits. Associations with PRES include renal failure, preeclampsia and eclampsia, autoimmune conditions, and immunosuppression. PRES is theorized to be a syndrome of disordered autoregulation and endothelial dysfunction resulting in preferential hyperperfusion of the posterior circulation. Treatment typically focuses on treating the underlying cause and removal of the offending agents.


Subject(s)
Endothelium/physiopathology , Headache/physiopathology , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/physiopathology , Seizures/physiopathology , Vision Disorders/physiopathology , Acute Chest Syndrome/epidemiology , Aminolevulinic Acid/analogs & derivatives , Anemia, Sickle Cell/epidemiology , Autoimmune Diseases/epidemiology , Blood-Brain Barrier/metabolism , Brain Edema/diagnostic imaging , Brain Edema/physiopathology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cerebrovascular Circulation/physiology , Cytokines/metabolism , Eclampsia/epidemiology , Female , Homeostasis/physiology , Humans , Hypertension/physiopathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/epidemiology , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/therapy , Pre-Eclampsia/epidemiology , Pregnancy , Prognosis , Renal Insufficiency/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vasospasm, Intracranial/physiopathology
10.
Hemodial Int ; 25(2): 214-219, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-957839

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Management of vulnerable patients during the COVID-19 pandemic requires careful precautions. Hemodialysis patients constitute a large group of at-risk patients that not only suffer from a compromised immune system but also are at a higher risk due to frequent admission to healthcare units. Therefore, a better understanding on the pathogenesis and possible risk factors of COVID-19 in hemodialysis patients is of high importance. METHODS: A total of 670 maintained hemodialysis patients from all dialysis units of the East Azerbaijan Province of Iran, including 44 COVID-19 patients were included in the present study. Possible associations between the backgrounds of patients and the incidence of COVID-19 were assessed. Also, hemodialysis patients with COVID-19 were compared to 211 nonhemodialysis COVID-19 patients. FINDINGS: Chronic glomerulonephritis patients and those with blood group A demonstrated a higher incidence of COVID-19. On the other hand, patients with blood group AB+ and those with hypertension etiology of kidney failure demonstrated a lower incidence of COVID-19. Hemodialysis patients with COVID-19 had higher counts of polymorphonuclears (PMNs) in their peripheral blood compared to other COVID-19 patients. DISCUSSION: A better comprehension on the risk factors associated with COVID-19 in hemodialysis patients can improve our understanding on the pathogenesis of COVID-19 in different situations and help the enhancement of current therapeutics for COVID-19 in hemodialysis patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Renal Dialysis/statistics & numerical data , Renal Insufficiency/virology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Incidence , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Renal Dialysis/methods , Renal Insufficiency/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency/therapy , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Young Adult
11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 897, 2020 Nov 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-947936

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Belgium was among the first countries in Europe with confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases. Since the first diagnosis on February 3rd, the epidemic has quickly evolved, with Belgium at the crossroads of Europe, being one of the hardest hit countries. Although risk factors for severe disease in COVID-19 patients have been described in Chinese and United States (US) cohorts, good quality studies reporting on clinical characteristics, risk factors and outcome of European COVID-19 patients are still scarce. METHODS: This study describes the clinical characteristics, complications and outcomes of 319 hospitalized COVID-19 patients, admitted to a tertiary care center at the start of the pandemic in Belgium, and aims to identify the main risk factors for in-hospital mortality in a European context using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Most patients were male (60%), the median age was 74 (IQR 61-83) and 20% of patients were admitted to the intensive care unit, of whom 63% needed invasive mechanical ventilation. The overall case fatality rate was 25%. The best predictors of in-hospital mortality in multivariate analysis were older age, and renal insufficiency, higher lactate dehydrogenase and thrombocytopenia. Patients admitted early in the epidemic had a higher mortality compared to patients admitted later in the epidemic. In univariate analysis, patients with obesity did have an overall increased risk of death, while overweight on the other hand showed a trend towards lower mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Most patients hospitalized with COVID-19 during the first weeks of the epidemic in Belgium were admitted with severe disease and the overall case fatality rate was high. The identified risk factors for mortality are not easily amenable at short term, underscoring the lasting need of effective therapeutic and preventative measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Belgium/epidemiology , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/epidemiology , Overweight/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency/epidemiology , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data , Thrombocytopenia/epidemiology
12.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 51(1): e13436, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-880897

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) shows high morbidity and mortality, particularly in patients with concomitant cardiovascular diseases. Some of these patients are under oral anticoagulation (OAC) at admission, but to date, there are no data on the clinical profile, prognosis and risk factors of such patients during hospitalization for COVID-19. DESIGN: Subanalysis of the international 'real-world' HOPE COVID-19 registry. All patients with prior OAC at hospital admission for COVID-19 were suitable for the study. All-cause mortality was the primary endpoint. RESULTS: From 1002 patients included, 110 (60.9% male, median age of 81.5 [IQR 75-87] years, median Short-Form Charlson Comorbidity Index [CCI] of 1 [IQR 1-3]) were on OAC at admission, mainly for atrial fibrillation and venous thromboembolism. After propensity score matching, 67.9% of these patients died during hospitalization, which translated into a significantly higher mortality risk compared to patients without prior OAC (HR 1.53, 95% CI 1.08-2.16). After multivariate Cox regression analysis, respiratory insufficiency during hospitalization (HR 6.02, 95% CI 2.18-16.62), systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) during hospitalization (HR 2.29, 95% CI 1.34-3.91) and the Short-Form CCI (HR 1.24, 95% CI 1.03-1.49) were the main risk factors for mortality in patients on prior OAC. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to patients without prior OAC, COVID-19 patients on OAC therapy at hospital admission showed lower survival and higher mortality risk. In these patients on OAC therapy, the prevalence of several comorbidities is high. Respiratory insufficiency and SIRS during hospitalization, as well as higher comorbidity, pointed out those anticoagulated patients with increased mortality risk.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/drug therapy , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Factor Xa Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Female , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Heart Valve Prosthesis , Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation , Heparin/therapeutic use , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Multivariate Analysis , Prognosis , Propensity Score , Proportional Hazards Models , Renal Insufficiency/epidemiology , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Insufficiency/epidemiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sepsis/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology
13.
Am J Transplant ; 20(11): 3149-3161, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-835285

ABSTRACT

Whether kidney transplant recipients are capable of mounting an effective anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) adaptive immune response despite chronic immunosuppression is unknown and has important implications for therapy. Herein, we analyzed peripheral blood cell surface and intracellular cytokine phenotyping by flow cytometry along with serum antibody testing in 18 kidney transplant recipients with active coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection and 36 matched, transplanted controls without COVID-19. We observed significantly fewer total lymphocytes and fewer circulating memory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the COVID-19 subjects. We also showed fewer anergic and senescent CD8+ T cells in COVID-19 individuals, but no differences in exhausted CD8+ T cells, nor in any of these CD4+ T cell subsets between groups. We also observed greater frequencies of activated B cells in the COVID-19 patients. Sixteen of 18 COVID-19 subjects tested for anti-SARS-CoV-2 serum antibodies showed positive immunoglobulin M or immunoglobulin G titers. Additional analyses showed no significant correlation among immune phenotypes and degrees of COVID-19 disease severity. Our findings indicate that immunosuppressed kidney transplant recipients admitted to the hospital with acute COVID-19 infection can mount SARS-CoV-2-reactive adaptive immune responses. The findings raise the possibility that empiric reductions in immunosuppressive therapy for all kidney transplant recipients with active COVID-19 may not be required.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Immunity, Humoral , Immunocompromised Host , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Pandemics , Renal Insufficiency/epidemiology , Transplant Recipients , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Renal Insufficiency/surgery , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
14.
Trends Endocrinol Metab ; 31(12): 918-927, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-791591

ABSTRACT

The recent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic showed a different severity in the disease between males and females. Men have been becoming severely ill at a higher rate than women. These data along with an age-dependent disease susceptibility and mortality in the elderly suggest that sex hormones are the main factors in determining the clinical course of the infection. The differences in aging males versus females and the role of sex hormones in key phenotypes of COVID-19 infection are described in this review. Recommendations based on a dimorphic approach for males and females suggest a sex-specific management the disease.


Subject(s)
Androgens/metabolism , COVID-19/mortality , Estrogens/metabolism , Sex Factors , Age Factors , Androgens/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/physiopathology , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Estrogen Replacement Therapy , Estrogens/immunology , Estrogens/therapeutic use , Female , Hormone Replacement Therapy , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Male , Myocardial Ischemia/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Postmenopause/metabolism , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency/epidemiology , Sex Distribution , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology
15.
BMJ Open ; 10(9): e038976, 2020 09 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-781179

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the risk of pre-existing comorbidities on COVID-19 mortality, and provide clinical suggestions accordingly. SETTING: A nested case-control design using confirmed case reports released from the news or the national/provincial/municipal health commissions of China between 18 December 2019 and 8 March 2020. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, excluding asymptomatic patients, in mainland China outside of Hubei Province. OUTCOME MEASURES: Patient demographics, survival time and status, and history of comorbidities. METHOD: A total of 94 publicly reported deaths in locations outside of Hubei Province, mainland China, were included as cases. Each case was matched with up to three controls, based on gender and age ±1 year old (94 cases and 181 controls). The inverse probability-weighted Cox proportional hazard model was performed, controlling for age, gender and the early period of the outbreak. RESULTS: Of the 94 cases, the median age was 72.5 years old (IQR=16), and 59.6% were men, while in the control group the median age was 67 years old (IQR=22), and 64.6% were men. Adjusting for age, gender and the early period of the outbreak, poor health conditions were associated with a higher risk of COVID-19 mortality (HR of comorbidity score, 1.31 [95% CI 1.11 to 1.54]; p=0.001). The estimated mortality risk in patients with pre-existing coronary heart disease (CHD) was three times that of those without CHD (p<0.001). The estimated 30-day survival probability for a profile patient with pre-existing CHD (65-year-old woman with no other comorbidities) was 0.53 (95% CI 0.34 to 0.82), while it was 0.85 (95% CI 0.79 to 0.91) for those without CHD. Older age was also associated with increased mortality risk: every 1-year increase in age was associated with a 4% increased risk of mortality (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Extra care and early medical interventions are needed for patients with pre-existing comorbidities, especially CHD.


Subject(s)
Coronary Disease/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , Bronchitis, Chronic/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , Cerebral Infarction/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Humans , Liver Failure/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Proportional Hazards Models , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
16.
Am J Transplant ; 20(11): 3123-3130, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-733265

ABSTRACT

Many deceased-donor and living-donor kidney transplants (KTs) rely on commercial airlines for transport. However, the coronavirus-19 pandemic has drastically impacted the commercial airline industry. To understand potential pandemic-related disruptions in the transportation network of kidneys across the United States, we used national flight data to compare scheduled flights during the pandemic vs 1-year earlier, focusing on Organ Procurement Organization (OPO) pairs between which kidneys historically most likely traveled by direct flight (High Volume by direct Air transport OPO Pairs, HVA-OPs). Across the United States, there were 39% fewer flights in April 2020 vs April 2019. Specific to the kidney transportation network, there were 65.1% fewer flights between HVA-OPs, with considerable OPO-level variation (interquartile range [IQR] 54.7%-75.3%; range 0%-100%). This translated to a drop in median number of flights between HVA-OPs from 112 flights/wk in April 2019 to 34 in April 2020 (P < .001), and a rise in wait time between scheduled flights from 1.5 hours in April 2019 (IQR 0.76-3.3) to 4.9 hours in April 2020 (IQR 2.6-11.2; P < .001). Fewer flights and longer wait times can impact logistics as well as cold ischemia time; our findings motivate an exploration of creative approaches to KT transport as the impact of this pandemic on the airline industry evolves.


Subject(s)
Aircraft/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Kidney Transplantation/methods , Pandemics , Renal Insufficiency/surgery , Tissue Donors/supply & distribution , Tissue and Organ Procurement/organization & administration , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Renal Insufficiency/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
17.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 34(10): e23535, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-728091

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This objective of this study was to identify a sensitive indicator of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. METHODS: Samples were collected from 136 patients with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia admitted to the Shanghai public health clinical center (116 mild, 20 severe). The concentrations of serum urea, Uric Acid (UA), Creatinine (CREA), Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), and urine protein (Pro) have been tested in this study. RESULTS: Higher levels of urea (female 7.00 ± 3.31, male 8.87 ± 5.18) Pro (female7/7, male 12/13), hs-CRP (female 2/7, male 5/13) ESR (female 94.43 ± 33.26, male 67.85 ± 22.77) were found in severe patients compared with the mild (urea: female 3.71 ± 1.00, male 4.42 ± 1.14; Pro: female 3/46, male 12/70; hs-CRP: female 1/46, male 3/70; ESR: female 43.32 ± 33.24, male 21.64 ± 21.82). UA is lower in the severe group (female 146.90 ± 54.01, male 139.34 ± 66.95) than in mild group (female 251.99 ± 64.35, male 339.81 ± 71.32). CREA and PCT did not show a significant difference between mild and severe patients, but the difference among the five biological markers (urea, Pro, hs-CRP, ESR, and UA) between mild and severe patients we tested was small (P < .05). CONCLUSION: Severe COVID-19 patients had higher levels of urea and Pro, while their UA levels were lower, reflecting poor kidney function in severe patients. However, higher levels of hs-CRP, ESR indicated that inflammatory responses were more active in severe patients.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Renal Insufficiency , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Sedimentation , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Creatinine/blood , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Inflammation , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
18.
Am J Transplant ; 20(11): 3030-3041, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-703595

ABSTRACT

Kidney transplant recipients might be at higher risk for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, risk factors for relevant outcomes remain uncertain in this population. This is a multicentric kidney transplant cohort including 104 hospitalized patients between March 4 and April 17, 2020. Risk factors for death and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) were investigated, and clinical and laboratory data were analyzed. The mean age was 60 years. Forty-seven patients (54.8%) developed ARDS. Obesity was associated to ARDS development (OR 2.63; P = .04). Significant age differences were not found among patients developing and not developing ARDS (61.3 vs 57.8 years, P = .16). Seventy-six (73%) patients were discharged, and 28 (27%) died. Death was more common among the elderly (55 and 70.8 years, P < .001) and those with preexisting pulmonary disease (OR 2.89, P = .009). At admission, higher baseline lactate dehydrogenase (257 vs 358 IU/mL, P = .001) or ARDS conferred higher risk of death (HR 2.09, P = .044). In our cohort, ARDS was equally present among young and old kidney recipients. However, the elderly might be at higher risk of death, along with those showing higher baseline LDH at admission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Inpatients , Kidney Transplantation , Renal Insufficiency/surgery , Risk Assessment/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients , Comorbidity , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Renal Insufficiency/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Spain/epidemiology
20.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 108(6): 1135-1149, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-657047

ABSTRACT

Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine are quinoline derivatives used to treat malaria. To date, these medications are not approved for the treatment of viral infections, and there are no well-controlled, prospective, randomized clinical studies or evidence to support their use in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Nevertheless, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine are being studied alone or in combination with other agents to assess their effectiveness in the treatment or prophylaxis for COVID-19. The effective use of any medication involves an understanding of its pharmacokinetics, safety, and mechanism of action. This work provides basic clinical pharmacology information relevant for planning and initiating COVID-19 clinical studies with chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine, summarizes safety data from healthy volunteer studies, and summarizes safety data from phase II and phase II/III clinical studies in patients with uncomplicated malaria, including a phase II/III study in pediatric patients following administration of azithromycin and chloroquine in combination. In addition, this work presents data describing the proposed mechanisms of action against the severe acute respiratory distress syndrome coronavirus-2 and summarizes clinical efficacy to date.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chloroquine/pharmacology , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacology , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Age Factors , Aging , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Chloroquine/adverse effects , Chloroquine/pharmacokinetics , Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic , Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic , Drug Interactions , Drug Therapy, Combination , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacokinetics , Liver Failure/epidemiology , Malaria/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , Renal Insufficiency/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
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