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1.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 32(11): 2735-2742, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690626

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients receiving maintenance dialysis represent a high-risk, immune-compromised population with 15%-25% COVID-19 mortality rate who were unrepresented in clinical trials of mRNA vaccines. METHODS: All patients receiving maintenance dialysis who received two doses of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines with antibody test results drawn ≥14 days after the second dose, as documented in the electronic health record through March 18, 2021, were included. Response was on the basis of levels of Ig-G against the receptor binding domain of the S1 subunit of SARS-CoV-2 spike-antigen (seropositive ≥2 U/L) using an FDA-approved semiquantitative chemiluminescent assay (ADVIA Centaur XP/XPT COV2G). RESULTS: Among 186 patients on dialysis from 30 clinics in eight states tested 23±8 days after receiving two vaccine doses, there were 165 (88.7%) responders with 70% at maximum titer. There was no significant difference between BNT162b2/Pfizer (148 out of 168, 88.1%) and mRNA-1273/Moderna (17 out of 18, 94.4%), P=0.42. All 38 patients with COVID-19 history were responders, with 97% at maximum titer. Among patients without COVID-19, 127 out of 148 (85.8%) were responders, comparable between BNT162b2/Pfizer (113 out of 133) and mRNA-1273/Moderna (14 out of 15) vaccines (85.0% versus 93.3%, P=0.38). CONCLUSIONS: Most patients receiving maintenance dialysis responded after two doses of BNT162b2/Pfizer or mRNA-1273/Moderna vaccine, suggesting the short-term development of antispike antibody is good, giving hope that most of these patients who are vulnerable, once immunized, will be protected from COVID-19. Longer-term evaluation is needed to determine antibody titer durability and if booster dose(s) are warranted. Further research to evaluate the approach to patients without a serologic response is needed, including benefits of additional dose(s) or administration of alternate options.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Renal Dialysis , Renal Insufficiency/immunology , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Renal Insufficiency/blood , Renal Insufficiency/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
5.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 32(11): 2958-2969, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526711

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The long-term outcome of COVID-19-associated collapsing glomerulopathy is unknown. METHODS: We retrospectively identified 76 native kidney biopsies from patients with history of COVID-19 between March 2020 and April 2021. Presenting and outcome data were obtained for all 23 patients with collapsing glomerulopathy and for seven patients with noncollapsing podocytopathies. We performed APOL1 genotyping by Sanger sequencing, immunostaining for spike and nucleocapsid proteins, and in situ hybridization for SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: The 23 patients with COVID-19-associated collapsing glomerulopathy were median age 57 years (range, 35-72), included 16 men, and were predominantly (91%) Black. Severity of COVID-19 was mild or moderate in most (77%) patients. All but one patient presented with AKI, 17 had nephrotic-range proteinuria, and six had nephrotic syndrome. Fourteen (61%) patients required dialysis at presentation. Among 17 patients genotyped, 16 (94%) were high-risk APOL1. Among 22 (96%) patients with median follow-up at 155 days (range, 30-412), 11 (50%) received treatment for COVID-19, and eight (36%) received glucocorticoid therapy for podocytopathy. At follow-up, 19 (86%) patients were alive, and 15 (68%) were dialysis free, including seven of 14 who initially required dialysis. The dialysis-free patients included 64% (seven of 11) of those treated for COVID-19 and 75% (six of eight) of those treated with glucocorticoids for podocytopathy. Overall, 36% achieved partial remission of proteinuria, 32% had no remission, and 32% reached combined end points of ESKD or death. Viral infection of the kidney was not detected. CONCLUSIONS: Half of 14 patients with COVID-19-associated collapsing glomerulopathy requiring dialysis achieved dialysis independence, but the long-term prognosis of residual proteinuric CKD remains guarded, indicating a need for more effective therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Kidney Glomerulus/pathology , Podocytes/pathology , Renal Insufficiency/pathology , Renal Insufficiency/virology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Recovery of Function , Renal Dialysis , Renal Insufficiency/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
7.
J Artif Organs ; 23(3): 292-295, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453765

ABSTRACT

A 71-year-old man undergoing hemodialysis (HD) was admitted to our hospital with congestive heart failure (CHF) and pneumonia. After admission, ultrafiltration with HD was urgently performed because of a lack of respiratory improvement despite the use of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation. During HD, cerebral regional saturation of oxygen (rSO2) was monitored by INVOS 5100c oxygen saturation monitor (Covidien Japan, Japan) to evaluate changes in tissue oxygenation. At HD initiation, cerebral rSO2 was very low at 34% under the fraction of inspiratory oxygen (FiO2) of 0.4. Ultrafiltration was performed at the rate of 0.5 L/h thereafter, cerebral rSO2 gradually improved even as inhaling oxygen concentration decreased. At the end of HD, cerebral rSO2 improved at 40% under a FiO2 of 0.28 as excess body fluid was removed. After pneumonia and CHF improved, he was discharged. Reports of the association between cerebral oxygenation and acute CHF status in patients undergoing HD are limited; therefore, in our experience with this case, cerebral oxygenation deteriorated with the CHF status but was improved by adequate body-fluid management during HD.


Subject(s)
Brain/metabolism , Heart Failure/complications , Oxygen Consumption/physiology , Renal Dialysis , Renal Insufficiency/therapy , Aged , Heart Failure/metabolism , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Humans , Male , Monitoring, Physiologic , Renal Insufficiency/complications , Renal Insufficiency/metabolism
8.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(10): e2127369, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453500

ABSTRACT

Importance: Persons with kidney failure require treatment (ie, dialysis or transplantation) for survival. The burden of the COVID-19 pandemic and pandemic-related disruptions in care have disproportionately affected racial and ethnic minority and socially disadvantaged populations, raising the importance of understanding disparities in treatment initiation for kidney failure during the pandemic. Objective: To examine changes in the number and demographic characteristics of patients initiating treatment for incident kidney failure following the COVID-19 pandemic by race and ethnicity, county-level COVID-19 mortality rate, and neighborhood-level social disadvantage. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional time-trend study used data from US patients who developed kidney failure between January 1, 2018, and June 30, 2020. Data were analyzed between January and July 2021. Exposures: COVID-19 pandemic. Main Outcomes and Measures: Number of patients initiating treatment for incident kidney failure and mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at treatment initiation. Results: The study population included 127 149 patients with incident kidney failure between January 1, 2018, and June 30, 2020 (mean [SD] age, 62.8 [15.3] years; 53 021 [41.7%] female, 32 932 [25.9%] non-Hispanic Black, and 19 835 [15.6%] Hispanic/Latino patients). Compared with the pre-COVID-19 period, in the first 4 months of the pandemic (ie, March 1 through June 30, 2020), there were significant decreases in the proportion of patients with incident kidney failure receiving preemptive transplantation (1805 [2.1%] pre-COVID-19 vs 551 [1.4%] during COVID-19; P < .001) and initiating hemodialysis treatment with an arteriovenous fistula (2430 [15.8%] pre-COVID-19 vs 914 [13.4%] during COVID-19; P < .001). The mean (SD) eGFR at initiation declined from 9.6 (5.0) mL/min/1.73 m2 to 9.5 (4.9) mL/min/1.73 m2 during the pandemic (P < .001). In stratified analyses by race/ethnicity, these declines were exclusively observed among non-Hispanic Black patients (mean [SD] eGFR: 8.4 [4.6] mL/min/1.73 m2 pre-COVID-19 vs 8.1 [4.5] mL/min/1.73 m2 during COVID-19; P < .001). There were significant declines in eGFR at initiation for patients residing in counties in the highest quintile of COVID-19 mortality rates (9.5 [5.0] mL/min/1.73 m2 pre-COVID-19 vs 9.2 [5.0] mL/min/1.73 m2 during COVID-19; P < .001), but not for patients residing in other counties. The number of patients initiating treatment for incident kidney failure was approximately 30% lower than projected in April 2020. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional study of US adults, the COVID-19 pandemic was associated with a substantially lower number of patients initiating treatment for incident kidney failure and treatment initiation at lower levels of kidney function during the first 4 months, particularly for Black patients and people living in counties with high COVID-19 mortality rates.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Services Accessibility/trends , Healthcare Disparities/trends , Minority Groups , Renal Insufficiency/therapy , Social Class , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Services Accessibility/economics , Healthcare Disparities/economics , Healthcare Disparities/ethnology , Humans , Kidney Transplantation/economics , Kidney Transplantation/trends , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Poisson Distribution , Renal Dialysis/economics , Renal Dialysis/trends , Renal Insufficiency/economics , Renal Insufficiency/ethnology , Residence Characteristics , United States/epidemiology , Vulnerable Populations , Young Adult
10.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 32(11): 2735-2742, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1344187

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients receiving maintenance dialysis represent a high-risk, immune-compromised population with 15%-25% COVID-19 mortality rate who were unrepresented in clinical trials of mRNA vaccines. METHODS: All patients receiving maintenance dialysis who received two doses of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines with antibody test results drawn ≥14 days after the second dose, as documented in the electronic health record through March 18, 2021, were included. Response was on the basis of levels of Ig-G against the receptor binding domain of the S1 subunit of SARS-CoV-2 spike-antigen (seropositive ≥2 U/L) using an FDA-approved semiquantitative chemiluminescent assay (ADVIA Centaur XP/XPT COV2G). RESULTS: Among 186 patients on dialysis from 30 clinics in eight states tested 23±8 days after receiving two vaccine doses, there were 165 (88.7%) responders with 70% at maximum titer. There was no significant difference between BNT162b2/Pfizer (148 out of 168, 88.1%) and mRNA-1273/Moderna (17 out of 18, 94.4%), P=0.42. All 38 patients with COVID-19 history were responders, with 97% at maximum titer. Among patients without COVID-19, 127 out of 148 (85.8%) were responders, comparable between BNT162b2/Pfizer (113 out of 133) and mRNA-1273/Moderna (14 out of 15) vaccines (85.0% versus 93.3%, P=0.38). CONCLUSIONS: Most patients receiving maintenance dialysis responded after two doses of BNT162b2/Pfizer or mRNA-1273/Moderna vaccine, suggesting the short-term development of antispike antibody is good, giving hope that most of these patients who are vulnerable, once immunized, will be protected from COVID-19. Longer-term evaluation is needed to determine antibody titer durability and if booster dose(s) are warranted. Further research to evaluate the approach to patients without a serologic response is needed, including benefits of additional dose(s) or administration of alternate options.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Renal Dialysis , Renal Insufficiency/immunology , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Renal Insufficiency/blood , Renal Insufficiency/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
11.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(8): 851-862, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1340912

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the Île-de-France region (henceforth termed Greater Paris), extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) was considered early in the COVID-19 pandemic. We report ECMO network organisation and outcomes during the first wave of the pandemic. METHODS: In this multicentre cohort study, we present an analysis of all adult patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe ARDS requiring ECMO who were admitted to 17 Greater Paris intensive care units between March 8 and June 3, 2020. Central regulation for ECMO indications and pooling of resources were organised for the Greater Paris intensive care units, with six mobile ECMO teams available for the region. Details of complications (including ECMO-related complications, renal replacement therapy, and pulmonary embolism), clinical outcomes, survival status at 90 days after ECMO initiation, and causes of death are reported. Multivariable analysis was used to identify pre-ECMO variables independently associated with 90-day survival after ECMO. FINDINGS: The 302 patients included who underwent ECMO had a median age of 52 years (IQR 45-58) and Simplified Acute Physiology Score-II of 40 (31-56), and 235 (78%) of whom were men. 165 (55%) were transferred after cannulation by a mobile ECMO team. Before ECMO, 285 (94%) patients were prone positioned, median driving pressure was 18 cm H2O (14-21), and median ratio of the partial pressure of arterial oxygen to the fraction of inspired oxygen was 61 mm Hg (IQR 54-70). During ECMO, 115 (43%) of 270 patients had a major bleeding event, 27 of whom had intracranial haemorrhage; 130 (43%) of 301 patients received renal replacement therapy; and 53 (18%) of 294 had a pulmonary embolism. 138 (46%) patients were alive 90 days after ECMO. The most common causes of death were multiorgan failure (53 [18%] patients) and septic shock (47 [16%] patients). Shorter time between intubation and ECMO (odds ratio 0·91 [95% CI 0·84-0·99] per day decrease), younger age (2·89 [1·41-5·93] for ≤48 years and 2·01 [1·01-3·99] for 49-56 years vs ≥57 years), lower pre-ECMO renal component of the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score (0·67, 0·55-0·83 per point increase), and treatment in centres managing at least 30 venovenous ECMO cases annually (2·98 [1·46-6·04]) were independently associated with improved 90-day survival. There was no significant difference in survival between patients who had mobile and on-site ECMO initiation. INTERPRETATION: Beyond associations with similar factors to those reported on ECMO for non-COVID-19 ARDS, 90-day survival among ECMO-assisted patients with COVID-19 was strongly associated with a centre's experience in venovenous ECMO during the previous year. Early ECMO management in centres with a high venovenous ECMO case volume should be advocated, by applying centralisation and regulation of ECMO indications, which should also help to prevent a shortage of resources. FUNDING: None.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Intensive Care Units , Pulmonary Embolism , Renal Insufficiency , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/adverse effects , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/statistics & numerical data , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Intensive Care Units/organization & administration , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Renal Insufficiency/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency/etiology , Renal Insufficiency/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Analysis
15.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(1)2021 Jan 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066836

ABSTRACT

This case represents a rare fulminant course of fried-rice associated food poisoning in an immunocompetent person due to pre-formed exotoxin produced by Bacillus cereus, with severe manifestations of sepsis, including multi-organ (hepatic, renal, cardiac, respiratory and neurological) failure, shock, metabolic acidosis, rhabdomyolysis and coagulopathy. Despite maximal supportive measures (continuous renal replacement therapy, plasmapheresis, N-acetylcysteine infusion and blood products, and broad-spectrum antimicrobials) and input from a multidisciplinary team (consisting of infectious diseases, intensive care, gastroenterology, surgery, toxicology, immunology and haematology), mortality resulted. This case is the first to use whole genome sequencing techniques to confirm the toxigenic potential of B. cereus It has important implications for food preparation and storage, particularly given its occurrence in home isolation during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Bacillus cereus/genetics , Exotoxins/genetics , Foodborne Diseases/diagnosis , Acetylcysteine/therapeutic use , Acidosis/physiopathology , Acidosis/therapy , Adult , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/therapy , Bacillus cereus/isolation & purification , Blood Coagulation Disorders/physiopathology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/therapy , Blood Transfusion , Brain Diseases , Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy , Fatal Outcome , Female , Foodborne Diseases/microbiology , Foodborne Diseases/physiopathology , Foodborne Diseases/therapy , Free Radical Scavengers/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunocompetence , Liver Failure/physiopathology , Liver Failure/therapy , Multiple Organ Failure/physiopathology , Multiple Organ Failure/therapy , Plasmapheresis , Renal Insufficiency/physiopathology , Renal Insufficiency/therapy , Rhabdomyolysis/physiopathology , Rhabdomyolysis/therapy , Sepsis/physiopathology , Sepsis/therapy , Shock/physiopathology , Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization , Whole Genome Sequencing
16.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 32(2): 385-396, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1058330

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection disproportionally affects frail, elderly patients and those with multiple chronic comorbidities. Whether patients on RRT have an additional risk because of their specific exposure and complex immune dysregulation is controversial. METHODS: To describe the incidence, characteristics, and outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infection, we conducted a prospective, multicenter, region-wide registry study in adult patients on RRT versus the general population from March 2 to May 25, 2020. This study comprised all patients undergoing RRT in the Flanders region of Belgium, a country that has been severely affected by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). RESULTS: At the end of the epidemic wave, crude and age-standardized cumulative incidence rates of SARS-CoV-2 infection were 5.3% versus 2.5%, respectively, among 4297 patients on hemodialysis, and 1.4% versus 1.6%, respectively, among 3293 patients with kidney transplants (compared with 0.6% in the general population). Crude and age-standardized cumulative mortality rates were 29.6% versus 19.9%, respectively, among patients on hemodialysis, and 14.0% versus 23.0%, respectively, among patients with transplants (compared with 15.3% in the general population). We found no excess mortality in the hemodialysis population when compared with mean mortality rates during the same 12-week period in 2015-2019 because COVID-19 mortality was balanced by lower than expected mortality among uninfected patients. Only 0.18% of the kidney transplant population died of SARS-CoV-2 infection. CONCLUSIONS: Mortality associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection is high in patients on RRT. Nevertheless, the epidemic's overall effect on the RRT population remained remarkably limited in Flanders. Calculation of excess mortality and age standardization provide a more reliable picture of the mortality burden of COVID-19 among patients on RRT.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency/therapy , Renal Replacement Therapy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Belgium , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Registries , Renal Insufficiency/complications , Renal Insufficiency/mortality
18.
Hemodial Int ; 25(2): 214-219, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-957839

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Management of vulnerable patients during the COVID-19 pandemic requires careful precautions. Hemodialysis patients constitute a large group of at-risk patients that not only suffer from a compromised immune system but also are at a higher risk due to frequent admission to healthcare units. Therefore, a better understanding on the pathogenesis and possible risk factors of COVID-19 in hemodialysis patients is of high importance. METHODS: A total of 670 maintained hemodialysis patients from all dialysis units of the East Azerbaijan Province of Iran, including 44 COVID-19 patients were included in the present study. Possible associations between the backgrounds of patients and the incidence of COVID-19 were assessed. Also, hemodialysis patients with COVID-19 were compared to 211 nonhemodialysis COVID-19 patients. FINDINGS: Chronic glomerulonephritis patients and those with blood group A demonstrated a higher incidence of COVID-19. On the other hand, patients with blood group AB+ and those with hypertension etiology of kidney failure demonstrated a lower incidence of COVID-19. Hemodialysis patients with COVID-19 had higher counts of polymorphonuclears (PMNs) in their peripheral blood compared to other COVID-19 patients. DISCUSSION: A better comprehension on the risk factors associated with COVID-19 in hemodialysis patients can improve our understanding on the pathogenesis of COVID-19 in different situations and help the enhancement of current therapeutics for COVID-19 in hemodialysis patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Renal Dialysis/statistics & numerical data , Renal Insufficiency/virology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Incidence , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Renal Dialysis/methods , Renal Insufficiency/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency/therapy , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Young Adult
20.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(4): 1600-1603, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-740526

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has recently spread worldwide, presenting primarily in the form of pneumonia or other respiratory disease. In addition, gastrointestinal manifestations have increasingly been reported as one of the extrapulmonary features of the virus. We report two cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection complicated by paralytic ileus. The first patient was a 33-year-old man who was hospitalized with severe COVID-19 pneumonia requiring ventilator support and intensive care. He developed large bowel dilatation and perforation of the mid-transverse colon, and underwent laparotomy and colonic resection. Histopathology of the resected bowel specimen showed acute inflammation, necrosis, and hemorrhage, supporting a role for COVID-19-induced micro-thrombosis leading to perforation. The second patient was a 33-year-old man who had severe COVID-19 pneumonia, renal failure, and acute pancreatitis. His hospital course was complicated with paralytic ileus, and he improved with conservative management. Both cases were observed to have elevated liver transaminases, which is consistent with other studies. Several authors have postulated that the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptors, the host receptors for COVID-19, that are present on enterocytes in both the small and large bowel might mediate viral entry and resultant inflammation. This is a potential mechanism of paralytic ileus in cases of severe COVID-19 infection. Recognizing paralytic ileus as a possible complication necessitates timely diagnosis and management.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Intestinal Perforation/virology , Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction/virology , Pancreatitis/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Renal Insufficiency/virology , Adult , Biomarkers/metabolism , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Humans , Intestinal Perforation/diagnostic imaging , Intestinal Perforation/physiopathology , Intestinal Perforation/therapy , Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction/diagnostic imaging , Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction/physiopathology , Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction/therapy , Liver/enzymology , Liver/pathology , Liver/virology , Male , Pancreatitis/diagnostic imaging , Pancreatitis/physiopathology , Pancreatitis/therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Positive-Pressure Respiration/methods , Renal Dialysis , Renal Insufficiency/diagnostic imaging , Renal Insufficiency/physiopathology , Renal Insufficiency/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Transaminases/metabolism
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