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1.
Medicina (B Aires) ; 82(2): 172-180, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1787123

ABSTRACT

We conducted a retrospective cohort study to report the clinical characteristics, incidence and outcomes of patients with severe COVID-19 with acute kidney injury (AKI). One-hundred and sixtytwo intensive care unit (ICU) admitted patients in a tertiary level hospital in the city of Buenos Aires with COVID-19 diagnosis were included. We hypothesized that COVID-19 related AKI would develop in the period of more severe hypoxemia as an early event and late AKI would be more probably related to intensive care unit complications. For this purpose, we divided subjects into two groups: those with early AKI and late AKI, before and after day 14 from symptom onset, respectively. A stepwise multivariate analysis was conducted to find possible AKI predictors. AKI incidence was 43.2% (n = 70) of the total patients admitted into ICU with severe COVID-19, 11.1% (n = 18) required renal replacement therapy. In-hospital mortality was higher (58.6%) for the AKI group. AKI occurred on a median time of 10 (IQR 5.5-17.5) days from symptom onset. A history of hypertension or heart failure, age and invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) requirement were identified as risk factors. Late AKI (n = 25, 35.7%) was associated with sepsis and nephrotoxic exposure, whereas early AKI occurred closer to the timing of IMV initiation and was more likely to have an unknown origin. In conclusion, AKI is frequent among critically ill patients with severe COVID-19 and it is associated with higher in-hospital mortality.


Llevamos a cabo un estudio retrospectivo con el objetivo de describir las características clínicas, incidencia y desenlaces de los pacientes con injuria renal aguda (IRA) asociada a la COVID-19. Se incluyeron 162 pacientes con diagnóstico de COVID-19 admitidos en una unidad de cuidados intensivos en un hospital de tercer nivel en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires. Nuestra hipótesis consistió en que la IRA asociada a COVID-19 sería un evento temprano asociado a la gravedad de la hipoxemia y la IRA tardía se relacionaría con complicaciones propias de la UCI. Por ello se clasificó la IRA en temprana y tardía, según sucediera antes o después de los 14 días desde el inicio de síntomas. Se realizó un análisis multivariado mediante regresión logística escalonada para evaluar posibles factores de riesgo. La incidencia de IRA fue de 43.2% (n = 70), 11.1% (n = 18) requirieron terapia de reemplazo renal. La mortalidad intrahospitalaria fue mayor (58.6%) en el grupo con IRA. El diagnóstico de IRA se realizó en una mediana de 10 (IQR = 5.5-17.5) días desde el inicio de los síntomas. El antecedente de hipertensión e insuficiencia cardíaca, la edad y el requerimiento de ventilación mecánica invasiva (VMI) fueron identificados como factores de riesgo para IRA. La IRA tardía (n = 25, 35.7%) estuvo asociada a sepsis y exposición a nefrotóxicos, mientras que la IRA temprana (n = 45, 64.2%) estuvo temporalmente asociada al inicio de la VMI y en muchos casos no se pudo filiar una etiología. En conclusión, la IRA es una complicación frecuente en pacientes con COVID-19 grave y está asociada a una alta mortalidad intrahospitalaria.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Renal Replacement Therapy/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
2.
Kidney360 ; 1(12): 1339-1344, 2020 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776861

ABSTRACT

Background: AKI has been reported in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia and it is associated with higher mortality. The aim of our study is to describe characteristics, outcomes, and 60-day hospital mortality of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia and AKI in the intensive care unit (ICU). Methods: We conducted a retrospective study in which all adult patients with confirmed COVID-19 who were admitted to ICUs of Montefiore Medical Center and developing AKI were included. The study period ranged from March 10 to April 11, 2020. The 60-day follow-up data through June 11, 2020 were obtained. Results: Of 300 adults admitted to the ICUs with COVID-19 pneumonia, 224 patients (75%) presented with AKI or developed AKI subsequent to admission. A total of 218 (97%) patients required invasive mechanical ventilation for moderate to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). A total of 113 (50%) patients had AKI on day 1 of ICU admission. The peak AKI stages observed were stage 1 in 49 (22%), stage 2 in 35 (16%), and stage 3 in 140 (63%) patients, respectively. Among patients with AKI, 114 patients (51%) required RRT. The mortality rate of patients requiring RRT was 70%. Of the 34 patients who were survivors, 25 (74%) were able to be weaned off RRT completely before hospital discharge. Nonsurvivors were older and had significantly higher admission and peak creatinine levels, admission hemoglobin, and peak phosphate levels compared with survivors. The 60-day hospital mortality was 67%. Conclusions: COVID-19 requiring ICU admission is associated with high incidence of severe AKI, necessitating RRT in approximately half of such patients. The majority of patients with COVID-19 and AKI in ICU developed moderate to severe ARDS, requiring invasive mechanical ventilation. Timing or severity of AKI did not affect outcomes. The 60-day hospital mortality is high (67%). Patients with AKI requiring RRT have high mortality, but survivors have good rates of RRT recovery. Podcast: This article contains a podcast at https://www.asn-online.org/media/podcast/K360/2020_12_31_KID0004282020.mp3.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Adult , COVID-19/therapy , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Renal Replacement Therapy/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies
3.
Kidney360 ; 1(7): 614-622, 2020 Jul 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776848

ABSTRACT

Background: AKI is a manifestation of COVID-19 (CoV-AKI). However, there is paucity of data from the United States, particularly from a predominantly black population. We report the phenotype and outcomes of AKI at an academic hospital in New Orleans. Methods: We conducted an observational study in patients hospitalized at Ochsner Medical Center over a 1-month period with COVID-19 and diagnosis of AKI (KDIGO). We examined the rates of RRT and in-hospital mortality as outcome measures. Results: Among 575 admissions (70% black) with COVID-19 [173 (30%) to an intensive care unit (ICU)], we found 161 (28%) cases of AKI (61% ICU and 14% general ward admissions). Patients were predominantly men (62%) and hypertensive (83%). Median body mass index (BMI) was higher among those with AKI (34 versus 31 kg/m2, P<0.0001). AKI over preexisting CKD occurred in 35%. Median follow-up was 25 (1-45) days. The in-hospital mortality rate for the AKI cohort was 50%. Vasopressors and/or mechanical ventilation were required in 105 (65%) of those with AKI. RRT was required in 89 (55%) patients. Those with AKI requiring RRT (AKI-RRT) had higher median BMI (35 versus 33 kg/m2, P=0.05) and younger age (61 versus 68, P=0.0003). Initial values of ferritin, C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, and lactate dehydrogenase were higher among those with AKI; and among them, values were higher for those with AKI-RRT. Ischemic acute tubular injury (ATI) and rhabdomyolysis accounted for 66% and 7% of causes, respectively. In 13%, no obvious cause of AKI was identified aside from COVID-19 diagnosis. Conclusions: CoV-AKI is associated with high rates of RRT and death. Higher BMI and inflammatory marker levels are associated with AKI as well as with AKI-RRT. Hemodynamic instability leading to ischemic ATI is the predominant cause of AKI in this setting.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , New Orleans , Renal Replacement Therapy/adverse effects , Risk Factors , United States
4.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(6): 2188-2195, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776798

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: COVID-19 disease can cause damage to various organs, especially the kidneys, so the main purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different aspects of kidney damages caused by COVID-19 in a narrative review study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To conduct this study, all studies related to the topic under discussion during 2020-2021 were reviewed by systematic search in internationally available databases including Web of Science, Science Direct, Scopus, PubMed, and Google Scholar. Finally, 42 completely related studies were selected to extract the results. RESULTS: The prevalence of acute kidney injury (AKI) varies in different parts of the world and has reached almost 70%. The results showed that, in general, a high percentage of COVID-19 patients had symptoms of renal dysfunction at the time of hospitalization, and the most important of these symptoms were proteinuria, hematuria, and increased serum creatinine. Based on the results, it can be said that AKI most likely occurs early in the disease and in parallel with lung damage. So far, various drugs have been used to control or treat COVID-19 and reduce inflammation in patients. Regardless of their usefulness, some of these drugs may adversely affect kidney function and damage the kidneys. The study results show that chronic kidney disease (CKD) in COVID-19 patients plays a minor role in renal replacement therapy (RRT), and the highest impact on the need for RRT is COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that one of the major negative effects of COVID-19 on the human body is kidney damage, among which acute kidney injury (AKI) is the most important one. In addition, the prevalence of AKI due to COVID-19 varies widely around the world. Although any medication may damage the kidneys, COVID-19 or anti-inflammatory drugs are not an exception to this rule, but more research is needed to gain more information.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Humans , Kidney , Proteinuria , Renal Replacement Therapy/adverse effects
5.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 151: w20572, 2021 07 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1332303

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The aim of this study was to analyse the demographics, risk factors and in-hospital mortality rates of patients admitted with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) to a tertiary care hospital in Switzerland. METHODS: In this single-centre retrospective cohort study at the University Hospital Basel, we included all patients with confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection hospitalised from 27 February 2020 to 10 May 2021. Patients’ characteristics were extracted from the electronic medical record system. The primary outcome of this study was temporal trends of COVID-19-related in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes were COVID-19-related mortality in patients hospitalised on the intensive care unit (ICU), admission to ICU, renal replacement therapy and length of hospital stay, as well as a descriptive analysis of risk factors for in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: During the study period we included 943 hospitalisations of 930 patients. The median age was 65 years (interquartile range [IQR] 53–76) and 63% were men. The numbers of elderly patients, patients with multiple comorbidities and need for renal replacement therapy decreased from the first and second to the third wave. The median length of stay and need for ICU admission were similar in all waves. Throughout the study period 88 patients (9.3%) died during the hospital stay. Crude in-hospital mortality was similar over the course of the first two waves (9.5% and 10.2%, respectively), whereas it decreased in the third wave (5.4%). Overall mortality in patients without comorbidities was low at 1.6%, but it increased in patients with any comorbidity to 12.6%. Predictors of all-cause mortality over the whole period were age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] per 10-year increase 1.81, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.45–2.26; p <0.001), male sex (aOR 1.68, 95% CI 1.00–2.82; p = 0.048), immunocompromising condition (aOR 2.09, 95% CI 1.01–4.33; p = 0.048) and chronic kidney disease (aOR 2.25, 95% CI 1.35–3.76; p = 0.002). CONCLUSION: In our study in-hospital mortality was 9.5%, 10.2% and 5.4% in the first, second and third waves, respectively. Age, immunocompromising condition, male sex and chronic kidney disease were factors associated with in-hospital mortality. Importantly, patients without any comorbidity had a very low in-hospital mortality regardless of age.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Hospital Mortality/trends , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Kidney Diseases/epidemiology , Kidney Diseases/therapy , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Renal Replacement Therapy/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Switzerland/epidemiology
8.
J Diabetes Res ; 2021: 6666086, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1052339

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The risk factors for acute kidney injury (AKI) development in patients with diabetes hospitalized for COVID-19 have not been fully studied yet. In this study, we aimed to estimate the rate of AKI among the hospitalized population with COVID-19 and to identify the risk factors associated with AKI among patients with diabetes. Material and Methods. This retrospective cohort study included 254 patients (127 with diabetes and 127 without diabetes) who were admitted for COVID-19 to a tertiary hospital in Tehran, Iran, between February and May 2020. Clinical characteristics and outcomes, radiological findings, and laboratory data, including data on AKI, hematuria, and proteinuria were recorded and analyzed. RESULTS: Of 254 patients, 142 (55.9%) were male and the mean (± SD) age was 65.7 years (±12.5). In total, 58 patients (22.8%) developed AKI during hospitalization, of whom 36 patients had diabetes (p = 0.04); most patients (74.1%) had stage 1 or 2 AKI. Also, 8 patients (13.8%) required renal replacement therapy (RRT) after developing AKI. Regardless of diabetes status, patients who developed AKI had significantly higher mortality rates compared with patients who did not develop AKI (p = 0.02). Hematuria and proteinuria were observed in 38.1% and 55% of patients, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that invasive mechanical ventilation, proteinuria, HBA1c level, history of cardiovascular disease, and use of statins were independent risk factors for AKI development in patients with diabetes. CONCLUSION: Results of this study showed that AKI develops in a considerable percentage of patients with COVID-19, especially in those with diabetes, and is significantly associated with mortality.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Complications/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Aged , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Female , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Hematuria/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Prevalence , Proteinuria/epidemiology , Renal Replacement Therapy/adverse effects , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome
9.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 115, 2020 03 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-823719

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The effect of renal replacement therapy (RRT) on the outcomes of severe acute kidney injury (AKI) after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is uncertain. This study aimed to evaluate the association of RRT with 6-month mortality in patients with severe AKI treated with targeted temperature management (TTM) after OHCA. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of a prospectively collected multicentre observational cohort study that included adult OHCA patients treated with TTM across 22 hospitals in South Korea between October 2015 and December 2018. AKI was diagnosed using the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes criteria. The primary outcome was 6-month mortality and the secondary outcome was cerebral performance category (CPC) at 6 months. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was performed to define the role of RRT in stage 3 AKI. RESULTS: Among 10,426 patients with OHCA, 1373 were treated with TTM. After excluding those who died within 48 h of return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and those with pre-arrest chronic kidney disease, our study cohort comprised 1063 patients. AKI developed in 590 (55.5%) patients and 223 (21.0%) had stage 3 AKI. Among them, 115 (51.6%) were treated with RRT. The most common treatment modality among RRT patients was continuous renal replacement therapy (111 [96.5%]), followed by intermittent haemodialysis (4 [3.5%]). The distributions of CPC (1-5) at 6 months for the non-RRT vs. the RRT group were 3/108 (2.8%) vs. 12/115 (10.4%) for CPC 1, 0/108 (0.0%) vs. 1/115 (0.9%) for CPC 2, 1/108 (0.9%) vs. 3/115 (2.6%) for CPC 3, 6/108 (5.6%) vs. 6/115 (5.2%) for CPC 4, and 98/108 (90.7%) vs. 93/115 (80.9%) for CPC 5, respectively (P = 0.01). The RRT group had significantly lower 6-month mortality than the non-RRT group (93/115 [81%] vs. 98/108 [91%], P = 0.04). Multivariate Cox regression analyses showed that RRT was independently associated with a lower risk of death in patients with stage 3 AKI (hazard ratio, 0.569 [95% confidence interval, 0.377-0.857, P = 0.01]). CONCLUSION: Dialysis interventions were independently associated with a lower risk of death in patients with stage 3 AKI treated with TTM after OHCA.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/mortality , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Hypothermia, Induced , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/mortality , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/therapy , Renal Replacement Therapy/adverse effects , Aged , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
10.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 15(9): 1259-1266, 2020 09 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-647141

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: During the coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak, the treatment of families with children on long-term KRT is challenging. This study was conducted to identify the current difficulties, worries regarding the next 2 months, and mental distress experienced by families with children on long-term KRT during the coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak and to deliver possible management approaches to ensure uninterrupted treatment for children on long-term KRT. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: A multicenter online survey was conducted between February 10 and 15, 2020, among the families with children on long-term KRT from five major pediatric dialysis centers in mainland China. The primary caregivers of children currently on long-term KRT were eligible and included. Demographic information, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection status, current difficulties, and worries regarding the next 2 months were surveyed using a self-developed questionnaire. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and the General Anxiety Disorder Scale-7 were used to screen for depressive symptoms and anxiety, respectively. RESULTS: Among the children in the 220 families included in data analysis, 113 (51%) children were on dialysis, and the other 107 (49%) had kidney transplants. No families reported confirmed or suspected cases of coronavirus disease 2019. Overall, 135 (61%) and 173 (79%) caregivers reported having difficulties now and having worries regarding the next 2 months, respectively. Dialysis supply shortage (dialysis group) and hard to have blood tests (kidney transplantation group) were most commonly reported. A total of 29 (13%) caregivers had depressive symptoms, and 24 (11%) had anxiety. After the survey, we offered online and offline interventions to address their problems. At the time of the submission of this paper, no treatment interruption had been reported. CONCLUSIONS: The coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak has had physical, mental, logistical, and financial effects on families with children on long-term KRT.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Family/psychology , Kidney Diseases/therapy , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Renal Replacement Therapy , Adaptation, Psychological , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , COVID-19 , Caregivers/psychology , Child , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cost of Illness , Family Relations , Female , Health Care Surveys , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Services Accessibility , Host Microbial Interactions , Humans , Kidney Diseases/psychology , Male , Mental Health , Middle Aged , Patient Safety , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Renal Replacement Therapy/adverse effects , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
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