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1.
Pediatr Nephrol ; 36(9): 2627-2638, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1520348

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: COVID-19 is responsible for the 2019 novel coronavirus disease pandemic. Despite the vast research about the adult population, there has been little data collected on acute kidney injury (AKI) epidemiology, associated risk factors, treatments, and mortality in pediatric COVID-19 patients admitted to the ICU. AKI is a severe complication of COVID-19 among children and adolescents. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was conducted in PubMed/MEDLINE and Cochrane Center Trials to find all published literature related to AKI in COVID-19 patients, including incidence and outcomes. RESULTS: Twenty-four studies reporting the outcomes of interest were included. Across all studies, the overall sample size of COVID positive children was 1,247 and the median age of this population was 9.1 years old. Among COVID positive pediatric patients, there was an AKI incidence of 30.51%, with only 0.56% of these patients receiving KRT. The mortality was 2.55% among all COVID positive pediatric patients. The incidence of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) among COVID positive patients was 74.29%. CONCLUSION: AKI has shown to be a negative prognostic factor in adult patients with COVID-19 and now also in the pediatric cohort with high incidence and mortality rates. Additionally, our findings show a strong comparison in epidemiology between adult and pediatric COVID-19 patients; however, they need to be confirmed with additional data and studies.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Renal Replacement Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/immunology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/virology , Adult , Age Factors , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Incidence , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/mortality
2.
BMC Nephrol ; 22(1): 359, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496153

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common among patients hospitalised with COVID-19 and associated with worse prognosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiology, risk factors and outcomes of AKI in patients with COVID-19 in a large UK tertiary centre. METHODS: We analysed data of consecutive adults admitted with a laboratory-confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 across two sites of a hospital in London, UK, from 1st January to 13th May 2020. RESULTS: Of the 1248 inpatients included, 487 (39%) experienced AKI (51% stage 1, 13% stage 2, and 36% stage 3). The weekly AKI incidence rate gradually increased to peak at week 5 (3.12 cases/100 patient-days), before reducing to its nadir (0.83 cases/100 patient-days) at the end the study period (week 10). Among AKI survivors, 84.0% had recovered renal function to pre-admission levels before discharge and none required on-going renal replacement therapy (RRT). Pre-existing renal impairment [odds ratio (OR) 3.05, 95%CI 2.24-4,18; p <  0.0001], and inpatient diuretic use (OR 1.79, 95%CI 1.27-2.53; p <  0.005) were independently associated with a higher risk for AKI. AKI was a strong predictor of 30-day mortality with an increasing risk across AKI stages [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.59 (95%CI 1.19-2.13) for stage 1; p < 0.005, 2.71(95%CI 1.82-4.05); p < 0.001for stage 2 and 2.99 (95%CI 2.17-4.11); p < 0.001for stage 3]. One third of AKI3 survivors (30.7%), had newly established renal impairment at 3 to 6 months. CONCLUSIONS: This large UK cohort demonstrated a high AKI incidence and was associated with increased mortality even at stage 1. Inpatient diuretic use was linked to a higher AKI risk. One third of survivors with AKI3 exhibited newly established renal impairment already at 3-6 months.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Renal Replacement Therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/mortality , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Incidence , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Kidney Function Tests/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Patient Acuity , Renal Replacement Therapy/methods , Renal Replacement Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , United Kingdom/epidemiology
3.
Anaesthesist ; 70(7): 573-581, 2021 07.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453676

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In a pandemic situation the overall mortality rate is of considerable interest; however, these data must always be seen in relation to the given healthcare system and the availability of local level of care. A recently published German data evaluation of more than 10,000 COVID-19 patients treated in 920 hospitals showed a high mortality rate of 22% in hospitalized patients and of more than 50% in patients requiring invasive ventilation. Because of the high infection rates in Bavaria, a large number of COVID-19 patients with considerable severity of disease were treated at the intensive care units of the LMU hospital. The LMU hospital is a university hospital and a specialized referral center for the treatment of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). OBJECTIVE: Data of LMU intensive care unit (ICU) patients were systematically evaluated and compared with the recently published German data. METHODS: Data of all COVID-19 patients with invasive and noninvasive ventilation and with completed admission at the ICU of the LMU hospital until 31 July 2020 were collected. Data were processed using descriptive statistics. RESULTS: In total 70 critically ill patients were included in the data evaluation. The median SAPS II on admission to the ICU was 62 points. The median age was 66 years and 81% of the patients were male. More than 90% were diagnosed with ARDS and received invasive ventilation. Treatment with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) was necessary in 10% of the patients. The median duration of ventilation was 16 days, whereby 34.3% of patients required a tracheostomy. Of the patients 27.1% were transferred to the LMU hospital from external hospitals with reference to our ARDS/ECMO program. Patients from external hospitals had ARDS of higher severity than the total study population. In total, nine different substances were used for virus-specific treatment of COVID-19. The most frequently used substances were hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin. Immunomodulatory treatment, such as Cytosorb® (18.6%) and methylprednisolone (25.7%) were also frequently used. The overall in-hospital mortality rate of ICU patients requiring ventilation was 28.6%. The mortality rates of patients from external hospitals, patients with renal replacement therapy and patients with ECMO therapy were 47.4%, 56.7% and 85.7%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The mortality rate in the ventilated COVID-19 intensive care patients was considerably different from the general rate in Germany. The data showed that treatment in an ARDS referral center could result in a lower mortality rate. Low-dose administration of steroids may be another factor to improve patient outcome in a preselected patient population. In the authors' opinion, critically ill COVID-19 patients should be treated in an ARDS center provided that sufficient resources are available.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Critical Illness/therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Female , Germany , Hospital Mortality , Hospitals, University , Humans , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Transfer , Renal Replacement Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Treatment Outcome
4.
Med Intensiva (Engl Ed) ; 45(6): 325-331, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343315

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe outcomes of critically ill patients with COVID-19, particularly the association of renal replacement therapy to mortality. DESIGN: A single-center prospective observational study was carried out. SETTING: ICU of a tertiary care center. PATIENTS: Consecutive adults with COVID-19 admitted to the ICU. INTERVENTION: Renal replacement therapy. MAIN VARIABLES OF INTEREST: Demographic data, medical history, illness severity, type of oxygen therapy, laboratory data and use of renal replacement therapy to generate a logistic regression model describing independent risk factors for mortality. RESULTS: Of the total of 166 patients, 51% were mechanically ventilated and 26% required renal replacement therapy. The overall hospital mortality rate was 36%, versus 56% for those requiring renal replacement therapy, and 68% for those with both mechanical ventilation and renal replacement therapy. The logistic regression model identified four independent risk factors for mortality: age (adjusted OR 2.8 [95% CI 1.8-4.4] for every 10-year increase), mechanical ventilation (4.2 [1.7-10.6]), need for continuous venovenous hemofiltration (2.3 [1.3-4.0]) and C-reactive protein (1.1 [1.0-1.2] for every 10mg/L increase). CONCLUSIONS: In our cohort, acute kidney injury requiring renal replacement therapy was associated to a high mortality rate similar to that associated to the need for mechanical ventilation, while multiorgan failure necessitating both techniques implied an extremely high mortality risk.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , COVID-19/complications , Critical Illness/therapy , Renal Replacement Therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/mortality , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/blood , Comorbidity , Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy , Critical Illness/mortality , District of Columbia/epidemiology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitals, University/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Organ Failure/etiology , Multiple Organ Failure/mortality , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Procedures and Techniques Utilization/statistics & numerical data , Prospective Studies , Renal Replacement Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Risk Factors , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data , Treatment Outcome
6.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 73(6): 914-920, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1210637

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Patients with systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases (ARDs) continue to be concerned about risks of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcomes. This study was undertaken to evaluate the risks of severe outcomes in COVID-19 patients with systemic ARDs compared to COVID-19 patients without systemic ARDs. METHODS: Using a large multicenter electronic health record network, we conducted a comparative cohort study of patients with systemic ARDs diagnosed as having COVID-19 (identified by diagnostic code or positive molecular test result) compared to patients with COVID-19 who did not have systemic ARDs, matched for age, sex, race/ethnicity, and body mass index (primary matched model) and additionally matched for comorbidities and health care utilization (extended matched model). Thirty-day outcomes were assessed, including hospitalization, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, mechanical ventilation, acute renal failure requiring renal replacement therapy, ischemic stroke, venous thromboembolism, and death. RESULTS: We initially identified 2,379 COVID-19 patients with systemic ARDs (mean age 58 years; 79% female) and 142,750 comparators (mean age 47 years; 54% female). In the primary matched model (2,379 patients with systemic ARDs and 2,379 matched comparators with COVID-19 without systemic ARDs), patients with systemic ARDs had a significantly higher risk of hospitalization (relative risk [RR] 1.14 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.03-1.26]), ICU admission (RR 1.32 [95% CI 1.03-1.68]), acute renal failure (RR 1.81 [95% CI 1.07-3.07]), and venous thromboembolism (RR 1.74 [95% CI 1.23-2.45]) versus comparators but did not have a significantly higher risk of mechanical ventilation or death. In the extended model, all risks were largely attenuated, except for the risk of venous thromboembolism (RR 1.60 [95% CI 1.14-2.25]). CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that COVID-19 patients with systemic ARDs may be at a higher risk of hospitalization, ICU admission, acute renal failure, and venous thromboembolism when compared to COVID-19 patients without systemic ARDs. These risks may be largely mediated by comorbidities, except for the risk of venous thromboembolism.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Rheumatic Diseases/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/virology , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Renal Replacement Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Rheumatic Diseases/virology , Risk Factors , United States/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/virology
7.
JCI Insight ; 6(4)2021 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1150281

ABSTRACT

BackgroundMitochondrial DNA (MT-DNA) are intrinsically inflammatory nucleic acids released by damaged solid organs. Whether circulating cell-free MT-DNA quantitation could be used to predict the risk of poor COVID-19 outcomes remains undetermined.MethodsWe measured circulating MT-DNA levels in prospectively collected, cell-free plasma samples from 97 subjects with COVID-19 at hospital presentation. Our primary outcome was mortality. Intensive care unit (ICU) admission, intubation, vasopressor, and renal replacement therapy requirements were secondary outcomes. Multivariate regression analysis determined whether MT-DNA levels were independent of other reported COVID-19 risk factors. Receiver operating characteristic and area under the curve assessments were used to compare MT-DNA levels with established and emerging inflammatory markers of COVID-19.ResultsCirculating MT-DNA levels were highly elevated in patients who eventually died or required ICU admission, intubation, vasopressor use, or renal replacement therapy. Multivariate regression revealed that high circulating MT-DNA was an independent risk factor for these outcomes after adjusting for age, sex, and comorbidities. We also found that circulating MT-DNA levels had a similar or superior area under the curve when compared against clinically established measures of inflammation and emerging markers currently of interest as investigational targets for COVID-19 therapy.ConclusionThese results show that high circulating MT-DNA levels are a potential early indicator for poor COVID-19 outcomes.FundingWashington University Institute of Clinical Translational Sciences COVID-19 Research Program and Washington University Institute of Clinical Translational Sciences (ICTS) NIH grant UL1TR002345.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Cell-Free Nucleic Acids/blood , DNA, Mitochondrial/blood , Severity of Illness Index , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , ROC Curve , Renal Replacement Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Vasoconstrictor Agents/therapeutic use
8.
Am J Nephrol ; 52(2): 161-172, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1150270

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Renal involvement in COVID-19 is less well characterized in settings with vigilant public health surveillance, including mass screening and early hospitalization. We assessed kidney complications among COVID-19 patients in Hong Kong, including the association with risk factors, length of hospitalization, critical presentation, and mortality. METHODS: Linked electronic records of all patients with confirmed COVID-19 from 5 major designated hospitals were extracted. Duplicated records due to interhospital transferal were removed. Primary outcome was the incidence of in-hospital acute kidney injury (AKI). Secondary outcomes were AKI-associated mortality, incident renal replacement therapy (RRT), intensive care admission, prolonged hospitalization and disease course (defined as >90th percentile of hospitalization duration [35 days] and duration from symptom onset to discharge [43 days], respectively), and change of estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Patients were further stratified into being symptomatic or asymptomatic. RESULTS: Patients were characterized by young age (median: 38.4, IQR: 28.4-55.8 years) and short time (median: 5, IQR: 2-9 days) from symptom onset to admission. Among the 591 patients, 22 (3.72%) developed AKI and 4 (0.68%) required RRT. The median time from symptom onset to in-hospital AKI was 15 days. AKI increased the odds of prolonged hospitalization and disease course by 2.0- and 3.5-folds, respectively. Estimated GFR 24 weeks post-discharge reduced by 7.51 and 1.06 mL/min/1.73 m2 versus baseline (upon admission) in the AKI and non-AKI groups, respectively. The incidence of AKI was comparable between asymptomatic (4.8%, n = 3/62) and symptomatic (3.7%, n = 19/519) patients. CONCLUSION: The overall rate of AKI among COVID-19 patients in Hong Kong is low, which could be attributable to a vigilant screening program and early hospitalization. Among patients who developed in-hospital AKI, the duration of hospitalization is prolonged and kidney function impairment can persist for up to 6 months post-discharge. Mass surveillance for COVID-19 is warranted in identifying asymptomatic subjects for earlier AKI management.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , Mass Screening/organization & administration , Renal Replacement Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/immunology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Early Diagnosis , Female , Glomerular Filtration Rate/immunology , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Incidence , Length of Stay , Male , Mass Screening/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Patient Discharge , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index
9.
BMC Nephrol ; 22(1): 92, 2021 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1136211

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common manifestation among patients critically ill with SARS-CoV-2 infection (Coronavirus 2019) and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The pathophysiology of renal failure in this context is not fully understood, but likely to be multifactorial. The intensive care unit outcomes of patients following COVID-19 acute critical illness with associated AKI have not been fully explored. We conducted a cohort study to investigate the risk factors for acute kidney injury in patients admitted to and intensive care unit with COVID-19, its incidence and associated outcomes. METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of all patients admitted to our adult intensive care unit suffering from SARS-CoV-2 infection from 14th March 2020 until 12th May 2020. Acute kidney injury was defined using the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcome (KDIGO) criteria. The outcome analysis was assessed up to date as 3rd of September 2020. RESULTS: A total of 81 patients admitted during this period. All patients had acute hypoxic respiratory failure and needed either noninvasive or invasive mechanical ventilatory support. Thirty-six patients (44%) had evidence of AKI (Stage I-33%, Stage II-22%, Renal Replacement Therapy (RRT)-44%). All patients with AKI stage III had RRT. Age, diabetes mellitus, immunosuppression, lymphopenia, high D-Dimer levels, increased APACHE II and SOFA scores, invasive mechanical ventilation and use of inotropic or vasopressor support were significantly associated with AKI. The peak AKI was at day 4 and mean duration of RRT was 12.5 days. The mortality was 25% for the AKI group compared to 6.7% in those without AKI. Among those received RRT and survived their illness, the renal function recovery is complete and back to baseline in all patients. CONCLUSION: Acute kidney injury and renal replacement therapy is common in critically ill patients presenting with COVID-19. It is associated with increased severity of illness on admission to ICU, increased mortality and prolonged ICU and hospital length of stay. Recovery of renal function was complete in all survived patients.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , COVID-19/complications , APACHE , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/mortality , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Critical Illness , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Incidence , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Recovery of Function , Renal Replacement Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Risk Factors , Water-Electrolyte Balance
10.
Nefrologia (Engl Ed) ; 41(1): 34-40, 2021.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065496

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: In December 2019, a coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, caused by SARS-CoV-2, took place in Wuhan, China, and was declared a global pandemic in March 2020 by the World Health Organization. It is a prominently respiratory infection, with potential cardiological, hematological, gastrointestinal and renal complications. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is found in 0.5-25% of hospitalized COVID-19 patients and constitutes a negative prognostic factor. Renal damage mechanisms are not completely clear. We report the clinical evolution of hospitalized COVID-19 patients who presented with AKI requiring attention from the Nephrology team in a tertiary hospital in Madrid, Spain. METHODS: This is an observational prospective study including all COVID-19 cases that required hospitalization and Nephrology management from March 6th to May 12th 2020. We collected clinical and analytical data of baseline characteristics, COVID-19 and AKI evolutions. RESULTS: We analyzed 41 patients with a mean age of 66.8 years (SD 2.1), 90.2% males, and with a history of chronic kidney disease in 36.6%. A percentage of 56.1 presented with severe pneumonia or acute respiratory distress syndrome, and 31.7% required intensive care. AKI etiology was prerenal in 61%, acute tubular necrosis in the context of sepsis in 24.4%, glomerular in 7.3% and tubular toxicity in 7.3% of the cases. We reported proteinuria in 88.9% and hematuria in 79.4% of patients. A percentage of 48.8 required renal replacement therapy. Median length of stay was 12 days (IQR 9-23) and 22% of the population died. Patients who developed AKI during hospital stay presented with higher C-reactive protein, LDH and D-dimer values, more severe pulmonary damage, more frequent ICU admission, treatment with lopinavir/ritonavir and biological drugs and renal replacement therapy requirement. CONCLUSIONS: Hypovolemia and dehydration are a frequent cause of AKI among COVID-19 patients. Those who develop AKI during hospitalization display worse prognostic factors in terms of pulmonary damage, renal damage, and analytical findings. We believe that monitorization of renal markers, as well as individualized fluid management, can play a key role in AKI prevention.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Acute Kidney Injury/mortality , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Patient Discharge/statistics & numerical data , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Renal Replacement Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Spain/epidemiology , Statistics, Nonparametric
11.
Chest ; 159(2): 524-536, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-996765

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has placed unprecedented burden on the delivery of intensive care services worldwide. RESEARCH QUESTION: What is the global point estimate of deaths and risk factors for patients who are admitted to ICUs with severe COVID-19? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: In this systematic review and meta-analysis Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane library were searched up to August 1, 2020. Pooled prevalence of participant characteristics, clinical features, and outcome data was calculated with the use of random effects models. Subgroup analyses were based on geographic distribution, study type, quality assessment, sample size, end date, and patient disposition. Studies that reported in-hospital mortality rate of adult patients (age >18 years) with confirmed COVID-19 admitted to an ICU met study eligibility criteria. Critical evaluation was performed with the Newcastle Ottawa Scale for nonrandomized studies. RESULTS: Forty-five studies with 16,561 patients from 17 countries across four continents were included. Patients with COVID-19 who were admitted to ICUs had a mean age of 62.6 years (95% CI, 60.4-64.7). Common comorbidities included hypertension (49.5%; 95% CI, 44.9-54.0) and diabetes mellitus (26.6%; 95% CI, 22.7-30.8). More than three-quarters of cases experienced the development of ARDS (76.1%; 95% CI, 65.7-85.2). Invasive mechanical ventilation was required in 67.7% (95% CI, 59.1-75.7) of case, vasopressor support in 65.9% (95% CI, 52.4-78.4) of cases, renal replacement therapy in 16.9% (95% CI, 12.1-22.2) of cases, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in 6.4% (95% CI, 4.1-9.1) of cases. The duration of ICU and hospital admission was 10.8 days (95% CI, 9.3-18.4) and 19.1 days (95% CI, 16.3-21.9), respectively, with in-hospital mortality rate of 28.1% (95% CI, 23.4-33.0; I2 = 96%). No significant subgroup effect was observed. INTERPRETATION: Critically ill patients with COVID-19 who are admitted to the ICU require substantial organ support and prolonged ICU and hospital level care. The pooled estimate of global death from severe COVID-19 is <1 in 3.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/statistics & numerical data , Hospital Mortality , Intensive Care Units , Renal Replacement Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Vasoconstrictor Agents/therapeutic use , Acute Kidney Injury/physiopathology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Coinfection/physiopathology , Coinfection/therapy , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Heart Diseases/physiopathology , Heart Diseases/therapy , Hospitalization , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombosis/physiopathology , Thrombosis/therapy
12.
Blood Purif ; 50(4-5): 520-530, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-992129

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Critically ill patients with COVID-19 may develop multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, including acute kidney injury (AKI). We report the incidence, risk factors, associations, and outcomes of AKI and renal replacement therapy (RRT) in critically ill COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of adult patients with COVID-19 diagnosis admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) between March 2020 and May 2020. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was applied to identify risk factors for the development of AKI and use of RRT. The primary outcome was 60-day mortality after ICU admission. RESULTS: 101 (50.2%) patients developed AKI (72% on the first day of invasive mechanical ventilation [IMV]), and thirty-four (17%) required RRT. Risk factors for AKI included higher baseline Cr (OR 2.50 [1.33-4.69], p = 0.005), diuretic use (OR 4.14 [1.27-13.49], p = 0.019), and IMV (OR 7.60 [1.37-42.05], p = 0.020). A higher C-reactive protein level was an additional risk factor for RRT (OR 2.12 [1.16-4.33], p = 0.023). Overall 60-day mortality was 14.4% {23.8% (n = 24) in the AKI group versus 5% (n = 5) in the non-AKI group (HR 2.79 [1.04-7.49], p = 0.040); and 35.3% (n = 12) in the RRT group versus 10.2% (n = 17) in the non-RRT group, respectively (HR 2.21 [1.01-4.85], p = 0.047)}. CONCLUSIONS: AKI was common among critically ill COVID-19 patients and occurred early in association with IMV. One in 6 AKI patients received RRT and 1 in 3 patients treated with RRT died in hospital. These findings provide important prognostic information for clinicians caring for these patients.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , Renal Replacement Therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Acute Kidney Injury/blood , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brazil/epidemiology , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Comorbidity , Creatinine/blood , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Organ Failure/etiology , Multiple Organ Failure/mortality , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Renal Replacement Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome
13.
Ren Fail ; 43(1): 1-15, 2020 Nov 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-951457

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: A meta-analysis and systematic review was conducted on kidney-related outcomes of three recent pandemics: SARS, MERS, and COVID-19, which were associated with potentially fatal acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). METHODS: A search of all published studies until 16 June 2020 was performed. The incidence/prevalence and mortality risk of acute and chronic renal events were evaluated, virus prevalence, and mortality in preexisting hemodialysis patients was investigated. RESULTS: A total of 58 eligible studies involving 13452 hospitalized patients with three types of coronavirus infection were included. The reported incidence of new-onset acute kidney injury (AKI) was 12.5% (95% CI: 7.6%-18.3%). AKI significantly increased the mortality risk (OR = 5.75, 95% CI 3.75-8.77, p < 0.00001) in patients with coronavirus infection. The overall rate of urgent-start kidney replacement therapy (urgent-start KRT) use was 8.9% (95% CI: 5.0%-13.8%) and those who received urgent-start KRT had a higher risk of mortality (OR = 3.43, 95% CI 2.02-5.85, p < 0.00001). Patients with known chronic kidney disease (CKD) had a higher mortality than those without CKD (OR = 1.97, 95% CI 1.56-2.49, p < 0.00001). The incidence of coronavirus infection was 7.7% (95% CI: 4.9%-11.1%) in prevalent hemodialysis patients with an overall mortality rate of 26.2% (95% CI: 20.6%-32.6%). CONCLUSIONS: Primary kidney involvement is common with coronavirus infection and is associated with significantly increased mortality. The recognition of AKI, CKD, and urgent-start KRT as major risk factors for mortality in coronavirus-infected patients are important steps in reducing future mortality and long-term morbidity in hospitalized patients with coronavirus infection.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/virology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , Coronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Humans , Incidence , Kidney Failure, Chronic/epidemiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Kidney Failure, Chronic/virology , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Renal Replacement Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/mortality , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/physiopathology
14.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 16(1): 14-25, 2020 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-926261

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with higher risk of AKI. We aimed to describe rates and characterize predictors and health outcomes associated with AKI in a national cohort of US veterans hospitalized with COVID-19. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: In a cohort of 5216 US veterans hospitalized with COVID-19 identified through July 23, 2020, we described changes in serum creatinine and examined predictors of AKI and the associations between AKI, health resource utilization, and death, utilizing logistic regressions. We characterized geographic and temporal variations in AKI rates and estimated variance explained by key variables utilizing Poisson regressions. RESULTS: In total, 1655 (32%) participants had AKI; 961 (58%), 223 (13%), and 270 (16%) met Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes definitions of stage 1, 2, and 3 AKI, respectively, and 201 (12%) received KRT. Eight percent of participants had AKI within 1 day of hospitalization, and 47% did not recover to baseline serum creatinine by discharge. Older age, Black race, male gender, obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and lower eGFR were significant predictors of AKI during hospitalization with COVID-19. AKI was associated with higher mechanical ventilation use (odds ratio, 6.46; 95% confidence interval, 5.52 to 7.57) and longer hospital stay (5.56 additional days; 95% confidence interval, 4.78 to 6.34). AKI was also associated with higher risk of death (odds ratio, 6.71; 95% confidence interval, 5.62 to 8.04); this association was stronger in Blacks (P value of interaction <0.001). Hospital-level rates of AKI exhibited substantial geographic variability, ranging from 10% to 56%. Between March and July 2020, AKI rates declined from 40% to 27%; proportions of AKI stage 3 and AKI requiring KRT decreased from 44% to 17%. Both geographic and temporal variabilities were predominately explained by percentages of Blacks (31% and 49%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: AKI is common during hospitalization with COVID-19 and associated with higher risk of health care resource utilization and death. Nearly half of patients with AKI did not recover to baseline by discharge. Substantial geographic variation and temporal decline in rates and severity of AKI were observed. PODCAST: This article contains a podcast at https://www.asn-online.org/media/podcast/CJASN/2020_11_16_CJN09610620_final.mp3.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/blood , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , African Americans/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/physiopathology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Age Factors , Aged , Comorbidity , Creatinine/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/epidemiology , Renal Replacement Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors , Spatio-Temporal Analysis , Survival Rate , United States/epidemiology , Veterans/statistics & numerical data
15.
Cardiol Rev ; 29(1): 39-42, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-900593

ABSTRACT

Patients older than 65 years hospitalized with COVID-19 have higher rates of intensive care unit admission and death when compared with younger patients. Cardiovascular conditions associated with COVID-19 include myocardial injury, acute myocarditis, cardiac arrhythmias, cardiomyopathies, cardiogenic shock, thromboembolic disease, and cardiac arrest. Few studies have described the clinical course of those at the upper extreme of age. We characterize the clinical course and outcomes of 73 patients with 80 years of age or older hospitalized at an academic center between March 15 and May 13, 2020. These patients had multiple comorbidities and often presented with atypical clinical findings such as altered sensorium, generalized weakness and falls. Cardiovascular manifestations observed at the time of presentation included new arrhythmia in 7/73 (10%), stroke/intracranial hemorrhage in 5/73 (7%), and elevated troponin in 27/58 (47%). During hospitalization, 38% of all patients required intensive care, 13% developed a need for renal replacement therapy, and 32% required vasopressor support. All-cause mortality was 47% and was highest in patients who were ever in intensive care (71%), required mechanical ventilation (83%), or vasopressors (91%), or developed a need for renal replacement therapy (100%). Patients older than 80 years old with COVID-19 have multiple unique risk factors which can be associated with increased cardiovascular involvement and death.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Hospital Mortality , Renal Replacement Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Vasoconstrictor Agents/therapeutic use , Academic Medical Centers , Accidental Falls , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Aged, 80 and over , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , Aspartate Aminotransferases/metabolism , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , Cause of Death , Consciousness Disorders/physiopathology , Dyspnea/physiopathology , Female , Ferritins/metabolism , Fever/physiopathology , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Hospitalization , Humans , Hypoxia/physiopathology , Hypoxia/therapy , Independent Living , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Intracranial Hemorrhages/etiology , Intracranial Hemorrhages/physiopathology , Leukocyte Count , Liver Diseases/etiology , Liver Diseases/metabolism , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Muscle Weakness/physiopathology , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/metabolism , Nursing Homes , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Procalcitonin/metabolism , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/physiopathology , Troponin I/metabolism
16.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 27(1): 47-54, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-893706

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) is a major cause of hospital admission and represents a challenge for patient management during intensive care unit (ICU) stay. We aimed to describe the clinical course and outcomes of COVID-19 pneumonia in critically ill patients. METHODS: We performed a systematic search of peer-reviewed publications in MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library up to 15th August 2020. Preprints and reports were also included if they met the inclusion criteria. Study eligibility criteria were full-text prospective, retrospective or registry-based publications describing outcomes in patients admitted to the ICU for COVID-19, using a validated test. Participants were critically ill patients admitted in the ICU with COVID-19 infection. RESULTS: From 32 articles included, a total of 69 093 patients were admitted to the ICU and were evaluated. Most patients included in the studies were male (76 165/128 168, 59%, 26 studies) and the mean patient age was 56 (95%CI 48.5-59.8) years. Studies described high ICU mortality (21 145/65 383, 32.3%, 15 studies). The median length of ICU stay was 9.0 (95%CI 6.5-11.2) days, described in five studies. More than half the patients admitted to the ICU required mechanical ventilation (31 213/53 465, 58%, 23 studies) and among them mortality was very high (27 972/47 632, 59%, six studies). The duration of mechanical ventilation was 8.4 (95%CI 1.6-13.7) days. The main interventions described were the use of non-invasive ventilation, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, renal replacement therapy and vasopressors. CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review, including approximately 69 000 ICU patients, demonstrates that COVID-19 infection in critically ill patients is associated with great need for life-sustaining interventions, high mortality, and prolonged length of ICU stay.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , Critical Care/methods , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Illness , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Renal Replacement Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome , Vasoconstrictor Agents/therapeutic use
17.
Am J Nephrol ; 51(10): 786-796, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-814274

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although diffuse alveolar damage and respiratory failure are the key features of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the involvement of other organs such as the kidney has also been reported. The reports of the incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) in COVID-19 patients vary widely. In this study, we report our unique experience with AKI in COVID-19 patients in a low socioeconomic and predominantly ethnic minority group and provide its incidence, risk factors, and prognosis to expand the current understanding of this complication. METHODS: In this single-center, retrospective cohort study, we analyzed the data of 469 COVID-19 patients admitted to the Brookdale University Hospital in Brooklyn, NY, from March 18 through April 23, 2020. Information regarding demographics, comorbidities, medications, clinical and laboratory data, and outcomes was collected from the electronic medical records. Both univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine the association of AKI with in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: The median age was 66 years (interquartile range [IQR] 25-75; range 19-101 years), and 268 (57.14%) patients were male. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) as determined by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study Equation was low (<60 mL/min/1.73 m2) in 207 (44.1%) patients. During hospitalization, 128 (27.3%) patients developed AKI, and the incidence was significantly higher in those patients presenting with a low eGFR (N = 81, 39.1%; p < 0.001). Male sex, hypertension, the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and non-steroidal anti-inflammatories, hemodynamic instability, mechanical ventilation, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and admission elevated ferritin, creatinine kinase, brain natriuretic peptide, and troponin 1 were identified as the risk factors for in-hospital AKI. Ninety-seven (28.45%) patients died in the non-AKI group versus 91 (71.1%) in the AKI group (p < 0.001). The Cox proportional hazard model after adjusting for age, gender, comorbidities, hemodynamic status, and PF ratio (arterial oxygen partial pressure [PaO2]/fractional inspired oxygen [FiO2]) determined that on admission, an elevated blood urea nitrogen (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.75; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.23-2.48), a low eGFR (HR 1.43; CI 1.1-2.03), AKI stage 1 (HR 1.14; CI 0.64-2.03), AKI stage 2 (HR 1.86; CI 1.03-3.56), and AKI stage 3 (HR 2.1; CI 1.3-2.81) were independent risk factors for in-hospital mortality. Renal replacement therapy (RRT) did not improve survival in stage III AKI. CONCLUSION: AKI in our hospitalized COVID-19 patients was common and carried a high mortality, especially in patients with AKI stage 3. RRT did not improve survival. Policy changes and planning for this high incidence of AKI in COVID-19 patients and its associated high mortality are necessary at the local and national levels.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/mortality , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Hospitals, Urban/organization & administration , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Policy , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/virology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Ethnic Groups/statistics & numerical data , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitals, Urban/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Minority Groups/statistics & numerical data , New York City/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prognosis , Renal Replacement Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
18.
BMC Nephrol ; 21(1): 419, 2020 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-810431

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infection with the severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has led to a worldwide pandemic with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, overwhelming healthcare systems globally. Preliminary reports suggest a high incidence of infection and mortality with SARS-CoV-2 in patients receiving kidney replacement therapy (KRT). The aims of this study are to report characteristics, rates and outcomes of all patients affected by infection with SARS-CoV-2 undergoing KRT in Scotland. METHODS: Study design was an observational cohort study. Data were linked between the Scottish Renal Registry, Health Protection Scotland and the Scottish Intensive Care Society Audit Group national data sets using a unique patient identifier (Community Health Index (CHI)) for each individual by the Public Health and Intelligence unit of Public Health, Scotland. Descriptive statistics and survival analyses were performed. RESULTS: During the period 1st March 2020 to 31st May 2020, 110 patients receiving KRT tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 amounting to 2% of the prevalent KRT population. Of those affected, 86 were receiving haemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis and 24 had a renal transplant. Patients who tested positive were older and more likely to reside in more deprived postcodes. Mortality was high at 26.7% in the dialysis patients and 29.2% in the transplant patients. CONCLUSION: The rate of detected SARS-CoV-2 in people receiving KRT in Scotland was relatively low but with a high mortality for those demonstrating infection. Although impossible to confirm, it appears that the measures taken within dialysis units coupled with the national shielding policy, have been effective in protecting this population from infection.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Coronavirus Infections , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Kidney Transplantation/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Renal Replacement Therapy , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic/epidemiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/surgery , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Public Health/methods , Registries/statistics & numerical data , Renal Replacement Therapy/methods , Renal Replacement Therapy/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Scotland/epidemiology
19.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) ; 22(10): 1780-1788, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-767484

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus responsible for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is associated with high incidence of multiorgan dysfunction and death. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which facilitates SARS-CoV-2 host cell entry, may be impacted by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), two commonly used antihypertensive classes. In a multicenter, international randomized controlled trial that began enrollment on March 31, 2020, participants are randomized to continuation vs withdrawal of their long-term outpatient ACEI or ARB upon hospitalization with COVID-19. The primary outcome is a hierarchical global rank score incorporating time to death, duration of mechanical ventilation, duration of renal replacement or vasopressor therapy, and multiorgan dysfunction severity. Approval for the study has been obtained from the Institutional Review Board of each participating institution, and all participants will provide informed consent. A data safety monitoring board has been assembled to provide independent oversight of the project.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , COVID-19/complications , Multiple Organ Failure/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adult , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/adverse effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Incidence , Male , Multiple Organ Failure/mortality , Prospective Studies , Renal Replacement Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Severity of Illness Index , Vasoconstrictor Agents/therapeutic use , Withholding Treatment/statistics & numerical data
20.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 9: CD013708, 2020 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-737854

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Supplemental oxygen is frequently administered to patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), including ARDS secondary to viral illness such as coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19). An up-to-date understanding of how best to target this therapy (e.g. arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) or peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) aim) in these patients is urgently required. OBJECTIVES: To address how oxygen therapy should be targeted in adults with ARDS (particularly ARDS secondary to COVID-19 or other respiratory viruses) and requiring mechanical ventilation in an intensive care unit, and the impact oxygen therapy has on mortality, days ventilated, days of catecholamine use, requirement for renal replacement therapy, and quality of life. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane COVID-19 Study Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, and Embase from inception to 15 May 2020 for ongoing or completed randomized controlled trials (RCTs). SELECTION CRITERIA: Two review authors independently assessed all records in accordance with standard Cochrane methodology for study selection. We included RCTs comparing supplemental oxygen administration (i.e. different target PaO2 or SpO2 ranges) in adults with ARDS and receiving mechanical ventilation in an intensive care setting. We excluded studies exploring oxygen administration in patients with different underlying diagnoses or those receiving non-invasive ventilation, high-flow nasal oxygen, or oxygen via facemask. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: One review author performed data extraction, which a second review author checked. We assessed risk of bias in included studies using the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool. We used the GRADE approach to judge the certainty of the evidence for the following outcomes; mortality at longest follow-up, days ventilated, days of catecholamine use, and requirement for renal replacement therapy. MAIN RESULTS: We identified one completed RCT evaluating oxygen targets in patients with ARDS receiving mechanical ventilation in an intensive care setting. The study randomized 205 mechanically ventilated patients with ARDS to either conservative (PaO2 55 to 70 mmHg, or SpO2 88% to 92%) or liberal (PaO2 90 to 105 mmHg, or SpO2 ≥ 96%) oxygen therapy for seven days. Overall risk of bias was high (due to lack of blinding, small numbers of participants, and the trial stopping prematurely), and we assessed the certainty of the evidence as very low. The available data suggested that mortality at 90 days may be higher in those participants receiving a lower oxygen target (odds ratio (OR) 1.83, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03 to 3.27). There was no evidence of a difference between the lower and higher target groups in mean number of days ventilated (14.0, 95% CI 10.0 to 18.0 versus 14.5, 95% CI 11.8 to 17.1); number of days of catecholamine use (8.0, 95% CI 5.5 to 10.5 versus 7.2, 95% CI 5.9 to 8.4); or participants receiving renal replacement therapy (13.7%, 95% CI 5.8% to 21.6% versus 12.0%, 95% CI 5.0% to 19.1%). Quality of life was not reported. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We are very uncertain as to whether a higher or lower oxygen target is more beneficial in patients with ARDS and receiving mechanical ventilation in an intensive care setting. We identified only one RCT with a total of 205 participants exploring this question, and rated the risk of bias as high and the certainty of the findings as very low. Further well-conducted studies are urgently needed to increase the certainty of the findings reported here. This review should be updated when more evidence is available.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Intensive Care Units , Oxygen/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Bias , COVID-19 , Catecholamines/therapeutic use , Conservative Treatment , Humans , Odds Ratio , Pandemics , Renal Replacement Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Concept , Time Factors
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