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1.
Eur J Intern Med ; 103: 23-28, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2178274

ABSTRACT

The role of a dysregulated renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in the pathogenesis of COVID-19 is well recognized. The imbalance between angiotensin II (Ang II) and Angiotensin1-7 (Ang1,7) caused by the interaction between SARS-CoV-2 and the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors exerts a pivotal role on the clinical picture and outcome of COVID-19. ACE2 receptors are not the exclusive angiotensinases in nature. Other angiotensinases (PRCP, and POP) have the potential to limit the detrimental effects of the interactions between ACE2 and the Spike proteins. In the cardiovascular disease continuum, ACE2 activity tends to decrease, and POP/PRCP activity to increase, from the health status to advanced deterioration of the cardiovascular system. The failure of the counter-regulatory RAS axis during the acute phase of COVID-19 is characterized by a decrease of ACE2 expression coupled to unchanged activity of other angiotensinases, therefore failing to limit the accumulation of Ang II. COVID-19 vaccines increase the endogenous synthesis of SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins. Once synthetized, the free-floating spike proteins circulate in the blood, interact with ACE2 receptors and resemble the pathological features of SARS-CoV-2 ("Spike effect" of COVID-19 vaccines). It has been noted that an increased catalytic activity of POP/PRCP is typical in elderly individuals with comorbidities or previous cardiovascular events, but not in younger people. Thus, the adverse reactions to COVID-19 vaccination associated with Ang II accumulation are generally more common in younger and healthy subjects. Understanding the relationships between different mechanisms of Ang II cleavage and accumulation offers the opportunity to close the pathophysiological loop between the risk of progression to severe forms of COVID-19 and the potential adverse events of vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines , Endopeptidases , Humans , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A , Renin-Angiotensin System , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
2.
Hypertension ; 76(5): 1350-1367, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2153223

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is associated with significant morbidity and mortality throughout the world, predominantly due to lung and cardiovascular injury. The virus responsible for COVID-19-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2-gains entry into host cells via ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2). ACE2 is a primary enzyme within the key counter-regulatory pathway of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), which acts to oppose the actions of Ang (angiotensin) II by generating Ang-(1-7) to reduce inflammation and fibrosis and mitigate end organ damage. As COVID-19 spans multiple organ systems linked to the cardiovascular system, it is imperative to understand clearly how severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 may affect the multifaceted RAS. In addition, recognition of the role of ACE2 and the RAS in COVID-19 has renewed interest in its role in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease in general. We provide researchers with a framework of best practices in basic and clinical research to interrogate the RAS using appropriate methodology, especially those who are relatively new to the field. This is crucial, as there are many limitations inherent in investigating the RAS in experimental models and in humans. We discuss sound methodological approaches to quantifying enzyme content and activity (ACE, ACE2), peptides (Ang II, Ang-[1-7]), and receptors (types 1 and 2 Ang II receptors, Mas receptor). Our goal is to ensure appropriate research methodology for investigations of the RAS in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and COVID-19 to ensure optimal rigor and reproducibility and appropriate interpretation of results from these investigations.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Blood Pressure Determination/methods , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Hypertension/physiopathology , Incidence , Male , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Prognosis , Research Design , Risk Assessment , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(22)2022 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2143219

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 is caused by SARS-CoV-2 and is more severe in the elderly, racial minorities, and those with comorbidities such as hypertension and diabetes. These pathologies are often controlled with medications involving the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). RAAS is an endocrine system involved in maintaining blood pressure and blood volume through components of the system. SARS-CoV-2 enters the cells through ACE2, a membrane-bound protein related to RAAS. Therefore, the use of RAAS inhibitors could worsen the severity of COVID-19's symptoms, especially amongst those with pre-existing comorbidities. Although a vaccine is currently available to prevent and reduce the symptom severity of COVID-19, other options, such as nitric oxide and hydrogen sulfide, may also have utility to prevent and treat this virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hydrogen Sulfide , Hypertension , Humans , Aged , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology , Hydrogen Sulfide/therapeutic use , Nitric Oxide , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Hypertension/drug therapy
5.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 20117, 2022 Nov 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2133630

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 gains cell entry via angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) 2, a membrane-bound enzyme of the "alternative" (alt) renin-angiotensin system (RAS). ACE2 counteracts angiotensin II by converting it to potentially protective angiotensin 1-7. Using mass spectrometry, we assessed key metabolites of the classical RAS (angiotensins I-II) and alt-RAS (angiotensins 1-7 and 1-5) pathways as well as ACE and ACE2 concentrations in 159 patients hospitalized with COVID-19, stratified by disease severity (severe, n = 76; non-severe: n = 83). Plasma renin activity (PRA-S) was calculated as the sum of RAS metabolites. We estimated ACE activity using the angiotensin II:I ratio (ACE-S) and estimated systemic alt-RAS activation using the ratio of alt-RAS axis metabolites to PRA-S (ALT-S). We applied mixed linear models to assess how PRA-S and ACE/ACE2 concentrations affected ALT-S, ACE-S, and angiotensins II and 1-7. Median angiotensin I and II levels were higher with severe versus non-severe COVID-19 (angiotensin I: 86 versus 30 pmol/L, p < 0.01; angiotensin II: 114 versus 58 pmol/L, p < 0.05), demonstrating activation of classical RAS. The difference disappeared with analysis limited to patients not taking a RAS inhibitor (angiotensin I: 40 versus 31 pmol/L, p = 0.251; angiotensin II: 76 versus 99 pmol/L, p = 0.833). ALT-S in severe COVID-19 increased with time (days 1-6: 0.12; days 11-16: 0.22) and correlated with ACE2 concentration (r = 0.831). ACE-S was lower in severe versus non-severe COVID-19 (1.6 versus 2.6; p < 0.001), but ACE concentrations were similar between groups and correlated weakly with ACE-S (r = 0.232). ACE2 and ACE-S trajectories in severe COVID-19, however, did not differ between survivors and non-survivors. Overall RAS alteration in severe COVID-19 resembled severity of disease-matched patients with influenza. In mixed linear models, renin activity most strongly predicted angiotensin II and 1-7 levels. ACE2 also predicted angiotensin 1-7 levels and ALT-S. No single factor or the combined model, however, could fully explain ACE-S. ACE2 and ACE-S trajectories in severe COVID-19 did not differ between survivors and non-survivors. In conclusion, angiotensin II was elevated in severe COVID-19 but was markedly influenced by RAS inhibitors and driven by overall RAS activation. ACE-S was significantly lower with severe COVID-19 and did not correlate with ACE concentrations. A shift to the alt-RAS axis because of increased ACE2 could partially explain the relative reduction in angiotensin II levels.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Peptide Hormones , Humans , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Renin-Angiotensin System , Angiotensin I , Angiotensin II , SARS-CoV-2 , Renin , Antihypertensive Agents
7.
Ann Intern Med ; 173(6): JC35, 2020 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110753

ABSTRACT

SOURCE CITATION: Reynolds HR, Adhikari S, Pulgarin C, et al. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors and risk of Covid-19. N Engl J Med. 2020;382:2441-8. 32356628.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , Antihypertensive Agents , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Humans , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 456: 116267, 2022 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117610

ABSTRACT

Organophosphates (OPs) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants, widely used as pesticides in agricultural fields. In addition, they serve as flame-retardants, plasticizers, antifoaming or antiwear agents in lacquers, hydraulic fluids, and floor polishing agents. Therefore, world-wide and massive application of these compounds have increased the risk of unintentional exposure to non-targets including the human beings. OPs are neurotoxic agents as they inhibit the activity of acetylcholinesterase at synaptic cleft. Moreover, they can fuel cardiovascular issues in the form of myocardities, cardiac oedema, arrhythmia, systolic malfunction, infarction, and altered electrophysiology. Such pathological outcomes might increase the severity of cardiovascular diseases which are the leading cause of mortality in the developing world. Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) is the ongoing global health emergency caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection. Similar to OPs, SARS-CoV-2 disrupts cytokine homeostasis, redox-balance, and angiotensin-II/AT1R axis to promote cardiovascular injuries. Therefore, during the current pandemic milieu, unintentional exposure to OPs through several environmental sources could escalate cardiac maladies in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Humans , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Organophosphates , Acetylcholinesterase , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Inflammation/chemically induced , Cardiovascular Diseases/chemically induced , Oxidative Stress
9.
BMJ ; 379: e072175, 2022 11 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117032

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether disrupting the renin angiotensin system with angiotensin receptor blockers will improve clinical outcomes in people with covid-19. DESIGN: CLARITY was a pragmatic, adaptive, multicentre, phase 3, randomised controlled trial. SETTING: 17 hospital sites in India and Australia. PARTICIPANTS: Participants were at least 18 years old, previously untreated with angiotensin receptor blockers, with a laboratory confirmed diagnosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection who had been admitted to hospital for management of covid-19. INTERVENTION: Oral angiotensin receptor blockers (telmisartan in India) or placebo (1:1) for 28 days. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary endpoint was covid-19 disease severity using a modified World Health Organization Clinical Progression Scale (WHO scale) at day 14. Secondary outcomes were WHO scale scores at day 28, mortality, intensive care unit admission, and respiratory failure. Analyses were evaluated on an ordinal scale in the intention-to-treat population. RESULTS: Between 3 May 2020 and 13 November 2021, 2930 people were screened for eligibility, with 393 randomly assigned to angiotensin receptor blockers (of which 388 (98.7%) to telmisartan 40 mg/day) and 394 to the control group. 787 participants were randomised: 778 (98.9%) from India and nine (1.1%) from Australia. The median WHO scale score at day 14 was 1 (interquartile range 1-1) in 384 participants assigned angiotensin receptor blockers and 1 (1-1) in 382 participants assigned placebo (adjusted odds ratio 1.51 (95% credible interval 1.02 to 2.23), probability of an odds ratio of >1 (Pr(OR>1)=0.98). WHO scale scores at day 28 showed little evidence of difference between groups (1.02 (0.55 to 1.87), Pr(OR>1)=0.53). The trial was stopped when a prespecified futility rule was met. CONCLUSIONS: In patients admitted to hospital for covid-19, mostly with mild disease, not requiring oxygen, no evidence of benefit, based on disease severity score, was found for treatment with angiotensin receptor blockers, using predominantly 40 mg/day of telmisartan. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04394117.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists , COVID-19 , Humans , Adolescent , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Telmisartan/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Renin-Angiotensin System
10.
Physiol Rep ; 10(22): e15512, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115675

ABSTRACT

Previous studies suggested that ongoing treatment with renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitor drugs may alter the course of SARS-CoV-2 infection and promote the development of more severe forms of the disease. The authors conducted a comparative, observational study to retrospectively analyze data collected from 394 patients admitted to ICU due to SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. The primary aim of the study was to establish an association between the use of RAAS inhibitor drugs and mortality in the ICU. The secondary aims of the study were to establish an association between the use of RAAS inhibitor drugs and clinical severity at ICU admission, the need for tracheal intubation, total days of mechanical ventilation, and the ICU length of stay. The authors found no statistically significant difference in ICU mortality between patients on RAAS inhibitor drugs at admission and those who were not (31.3% versus 26.2% mortality, p-value 0.3). However, the group of patients taking RAAS inhibitor drugs appeared to be more critical at ICU admission, and this difference became statistically significant in the subgroup of non-hypertensive patients. ICU mortality in the subgroup of non-hypertensive patients treated with RAAS inhibitor drugs also tended to be higher. Overexpression of the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in human cells, induced by RAAS inhibitor drugs, promotes viral entry-replication of SARS-CoV-2 and alters the basal balance of the RAAS, which may explain the findings observed in the present study. These phenomena may be amplified in non-hypertensive patients treated with RAAS inhibitor therapy.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , COVID-19 , Renin-Angiotensin System , Humans , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Prognosis , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Intensive Care Units , Hospitalization
12.
Cells ; 11(21)2022 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090009

ABSTRACT

Low back pain is a clinically highly relevant musculoskeletal burden and is associated with inflammatory as well as degenerative processes of the intervertebral disc. However, the pathophysiology and cellular pathways contributing to this devastating condition are still poorly understood. Based on previous evidence, we hypothesize that tissue renin-angiotensin system (tRAS) components, including the SARS-CoV-2 entry receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), are present in human nucleus pulposus (NP) cells and associated with inflammatory and degenerative processes. Experiments were performed with NP cells from four human donors. The existence of angiotensin II, angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AGTR1), AGTR2, MAS-receptor (MasR), and ACE2 in human NP cells was validated with immunofluorescent staining and gene expression analysis. Hereafter, the cell viability was assessed after adding agonists and antagonists of the target receptors as well as angiotensin II in different concentrations for up to 48 h of exposure. A TNF-α-induced inflammatory in vitro model was employed to assess the impact of angiotensin II addition and the stimulation or inhibition of the tRAS receptors on inflammation, tissue remodeling, expression of tRAS markers, and the release of nitric oxide (NO) into the medium. Furthermore, protein levels of IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and intracellular as well as secreted angiotensin II were assessed after exposing the cells to the substances, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) levels were evaluated by utilizing Western blot. The existence of tRAS receptors and angiotensin II were validated in human NP cells. The addition of angiotensin II only showed a mild impact on gene expression markers. However, there was a significant increase in NO secreted by the cells. The gene expression ratios of pro-inflammatory/anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-6/IL-10, IL-8/IL-10, and TNF-α/IL-10 were positively correlated with the AGTR1/AGTR2 and AGTR1/MAS1 ratios, respectively. The stimulation of the AGTR2 MAS-receptor and the inhibition of the AGTR1 receptor revealed beneficial effects on the gene expression of inflammatory and tissue remodeling markers. This finding was also present at the protein level. The current data showed that tRAS components are expressed in human NP cells and are associated with inflammatory and degenerative processes. Further characterization of the associated pathways is warranted. The findings indicate that tRAS modulation might be a novel therapeutic approach to intervertebral disc disease.


Subject(s)
Nucleus Pulposus , Renin-Angiotensin System , Humans , Angiotensin II/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Interleukin-10/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Interleukin-8/metabolism , Nucleus Pulposus/cytology , Nucleus Pulposus/metabolism , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
13.
Kidney Blood Press Res ; 47(9): 565-575, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2064352

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as well as the transmembrane protease serine type 2 (TMPRSS2) have been found to play roles in cell entry for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). SARS-CoV-2 infection risk and severity of COVID-19 might be indicated by the expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in the lung. METHODS: A high-salt diet rat model and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) blockade were used to test whether these factors affect ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression in the lung. A normal (0.3% NaCl), a medium (2% NaCl), or a high (8% NaCl) salt diet was fed to rats for 12 weeks, along with enalapril or telmisartan, before examining the lung for histopathological alteration. Using immunofluorescence and qRT-PCR, the localization as well as mRNA expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 were investigated. RESULTS: The findings provide evidence that both TMPRSS2 and ACE2 are highly expressed in bronchial epithelial cells as well as ACE2 was also expressed in alveolar type 2 cells. High-salt diet exposure in rats leads to elevated ACE2 expression on protein level. Treatment with RAAS blockers had no effect on lung tissue expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2. CONCLUSIONS: These findings offer biological support regarding the safety of these drugs that are often prescribed to COVID-19 patients with cardiovascular comorbidity. High salt intake, on the other hand, might adversely affect COVID-19 outcome. Our preclinical data should stimulate clinical studies addressing this point of concern.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Renin-Angiotensin System , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Enalapril/pharmacology , Lung , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Rats , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , Serine Endopeptidases , Sodium Chloride, Dietary/adverse effects , Telmisartan/pharmacology
15.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1002375, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2055022

ABSTRACT

The Endoplasmic Reticulum Aminopeptidase 1 and 2 (ERAP1 and ERAP2) and Insulin Regulated Aminopeptidase (IRAP) are three M1 zinc metalloproteases whose role in antigen processing is the refining of peptidome either in the Endoplasmic reticulum (ERAP1 and ERAP2), or in the endosomes (IRAP). However, other novel and distinct functions are emerging. Here, we focus specifically on ERAP2. This gene has a peculiar evolutionary history, being absent in rodents and undergoing in humans to a balanced selection of two haplotypes, one of which not expressing the full length ERAP2. These observations suggest that its role in antigen presentation is not essential. An additional, less investigated role is in the regulation of the Renin Angiotensin System (RAS). ERAP1 and ERAP2 cleave Angiotensin II (Ang II) into Ang III and IV, which counteract the action of Ang II whereas IRAP is itself the receptor for Ang IV. We have recently reported that macrophages, independently from the haplotype, express and release a N-terminus ERAP2 "short" form which directly binds IRAP and the two molecules are co-expressed in the endosomes and on the cell membrane. This new evidence suggests that the maintenance of the ERAP2 gene in humans could be due to its activity in the regulation of the RAS system, possibly as an Ang IV agonist. Its role in the immune-mediated diseases as well as in disorders more specifically related to an imbalance of the RAS system, including hypertension, pre-eclampsia but also viral infections such as COVID-19, is discussed here.


Subject(s)
Aminopeptidases , COVID-19 , Angiotensin II/metabolism , Antigen Presentation , Humans , Insulin/metabolism , Minor Histocompatibility Antigens/genetics , Minor Histocompatibility Antigens/metabolism , Renin-Angiotensin System/genetics , Zinc
16.
Can Respir J ; 2022: 8698825, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053441

ABSTRACT

Two and a half years after COVID-19 was first reported in China, thousands of people are still dying from the disease every day around the world. The condition is forcing physicians to adopt new treatment strategies while emphasizing continuation of vaccination programs. The renin-angiotensin system plays an important role in the development and progression of COVID-19 patients. Nonetheless, administration of recombinant angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 has been proposed for the treatment of the disease. The catalytic activity of cellular ACE2 (cACE2) and soluble ACE2 (sACE2) prevents angiotensin II and Des-Arg-bradykinin from accumulating in the body. On the other hand, SARS-CoV-2 mainly enters cells via cACE2. Thus, inhibition of ACE2 can prevent viral entry and reduce viral replication in host cells. The benefits of bradykinin inhibitors (BKs) have been reported in some COVID-19 clinical trials. Furthermore, the effects of cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors on ACE2 cleavage and prevention of viral entry into host cells have been reported in COVID-19 patients. However, the administration of COX inhibitors can reduce innate immune responses and have the opposite effect. A few studies suggest benefits of low-dose radiation therapy (LDR) in treating acute respiratory distress syndrome in COVID-19 patients. Nonetheless, radiation therapy can stimulate inflammatory pathways, resulting in adverse effects on lung injury in these patients. Overall, progress is being made in treating COVID-19 patients, but questions remain about which drugs will work and when. This review summarizes studies on the effects of a recombinant ACE2, BK and COX inhibitor, and LDR in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Angiotensin II/metabolism , Angiotensin II/pharmacology , Bradykinin/metabolism , Bradykinin/pharmacology , Bradykinin/therapeutic use , Humans , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/therapeutic use , Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases/metabolism , Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases/pharmacology , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Life Sci ; 307: 120866, 2022 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2049614

ABSTRACT

Severe COVID-19 is associated with the dynamic changes in coagulation parameters. Coagulopathy is considered as a major extra-pulmonary risk factor for severity and mortality of COVID-19; patients with elevated levels of coagulation biomarkers have poorer in-hospital outcomes. Oxidative stress, alterations in the activity of cytochrome P450 enzymes, development of the cytokine storm and inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) enzyme malfunction and renin-angiotensin system (RAS) imbalance are among other mechanisms suggested to be involved in the coagulopathy induced by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). The activity and function of coagulation factors are reported to have a circadian component. Melatonin, a multipotential neurohormone secreted by the pineal gland exclusively at night, regulates the cytokine system and the coagulation cascade in infections such as those caused by coronaviruses. Herein, we review the mechanisms and beneficial effects of melatonin against coagulopathy induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Melatonin , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Blood Platelets/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , Cytokines/pharmacology , Humans , Melatonin/pharmacology , Melatonin/therapeutic use , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Renin-Angiotensin System , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Res Vet Sci ; 152: 564-568, 2022 Dec 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2042118

ABSTRACT

Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is an enzyme within the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system that plays a role in regulating blood pressure. However, it is also a cellular receptor for infection with SARS coronaviruses. Although most cats develop subclinical or mild disease following infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) acquired from human patients, a previous study has suggested hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a potential risk factor for the development of severe disease in the cat. Herein we investigate the ACE2 protein expression in the lung, heart, and kidney from a small subset of cats with (n = 10) and without HCM (n = 10) by immunohistochemistry. The abundance and intensity of ACE2 expression is slightly elevated in alveoli (p = 0.09; 0.07, respectively) and bronchioles (p = 0.095; 0.37, respectively). However, statistically elevated abundance and intensity of ACE-2 expression was only evident in the heart of cats with HCM (p = 0.032; p = 0.011, respectively). Further investigation did not demonstrate a statistical correlation between the ACE2 expression in the heart in relation to the heart weight to body weight ratio, and the ventricular wall ratio. Current findings suggest an overexpression of ACE2 in HCM cases but follow up study is warranted to understand the pathophysiological process.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic , Cat Diseases , Humans , Cats , Animals , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Follow-Up Studies , COVID-19/veterinary , Renin-Angiotensin System , Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic/genetics , Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic/veterinary , Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic/metabolism
20.
Front Immunol ; 13: 958418, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022743

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To investigate the clinical predictors of in-hospital mortality in hospitalized patients with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection during the Omicron period. Methods: All consecutive hospitalized laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients between January and May 2022 were retrospectively analyzed. All patients underwent accurate physical, laboratory, radiographic and echocardiographic examination. Primary endpoint was in-hospital mortality. Results: 74 consecutive COVID-19 patients (80.0 ± 12.6 yrs, 45.9% males) were included. Patients who died during hospitalization (27%) and those who were discharged alive (73%) were separately analyzed. Compared to patients discharged alive, those who died were significantly older, with higher comorbidity burden and greater prevalence of laboratory, radiographic and echographic signs of pulmonary and systemic congestion. Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) (OR 1.76, 95%CI 1.07-2.92), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) (OR 1.24, 95%CI 1.10-1.39) and absence of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI)/angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) therapy (OR 0.01, 95%CI 0.00-0.22) independently predicted the primary endpoint. CCI ≥7 and NLR ≥9 were the best cut-off values for predicting mortality. The mortality risk for patients with CCI ≥7, NLR ≥9 and not in ACEI/ARBs therapy was high (86%); for patients with CCI <7, NLR ≥9, with (16.6%) or without (25%) ACEI/ARBs therapy was intermediate; for patients with CCI <7, NLR <9 and in ACEI/ARBs therapy was of 0%. Conclusions: High comorbidity burden, high levels of NLR and the undertreatment with ACEI/ARBs were the main prognostic indicators of in-hospital mortality. The risk stratification of COVID-19 patients at hospital admission would help the clinicians to take care of the high-risk patients and reduce the mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Renin-Angiotensin System , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Comorbidity , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Lymphocytes , Male , Neutrophils , Retrospective Studies
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