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1.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 1220, 2022 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1735246

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 shares the feature of autoantibody production with systemic autoimmune diseases. In order to understand the role of these immune globulins in the pathogenesis of the disease, it is important to explore the autoantibody spectra. Here we show, by a cross-sectional study of 246 individuals, that autoantibodies targeting G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) and RAS-related molecules associate with the clinical severity of COVID-19. Patients with moderate and severe disease are characterized by higher autoantibody levels than healthy controls and those with mild COVID-19 disease. Among the anti-GPCR autoantibodies, machine learning classification identifies the chemokine receptor CXCR3 and the RAS-related molecule AGTR1 as targets for antibodies with the strongest association to disease severity. Besides antibody levels, autoantibody network signatures are also changing in patients with intermediate or high disease severity. Although our current and previous studies identify anti-GPCR antibodies as natural components of human biology, their production is deregulated in COVID-19 and their level and pattern alterations might predict COVID-19 disease severity.


Subject(s)
Autoantibodies/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled/immunology , Renin-Angiotensin System/immunology , Autoantibodies/blood , Autoimmunity , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/classification , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Machine Learning , Male , Multivariate Analysis , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1/immunology , Receptors, CXCR3/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
2.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 7(1): 57, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1702971

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly transmissible disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that poses a major threat to global public health. Although COVID-19 primarily affects the respiratory system, causing severe pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome in severe cases, it can also result in multiple extrapulmonary complications. The pathogenesis of extrapulmonary damage in patients with COVID-19 is probably multifactorial, involving both the direct effects of SARS-CoV-2 and the indirect mechanisms associated with the host inflammatory response. Recognition of features and pathogenesis of extrapulmonary complications has clinical implications for identifying disease progression and designing therapeutic strategies. This review provides an overview of the extrapulmonary complications of COVID-19 from immunological and pathophysiologic perspectives and focuses on the pathogenesis and potential therapeutic targets for the management of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/complications , COVID-19/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/complications , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/complications , Lymphopenia/complications , Myocarditis/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/drug therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/immunology , Acute Kidney Injury/virology , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/drug therapy , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/immunology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/virology , Endothelial Cells/drug effects , Endothelial Cells/immunology , Endothelial Cells/virology , Humans , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Lymphopenia/drug therapy , Lymphopenia/immunology , Lymphopenia/virology , Myocarditis/drug therapy , Myocarditis/immunology , Myocarditis/virology , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Pulmonary Embolism/immunology , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , Renin-Angiotensin System/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
3.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257016, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1484849

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Activation of the immune system is implicated in the Post-Acute Sequelae after SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC) but the mechanisms remain unknown. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) cleaves angiotensin II (Ang II) resulting in decreased activation of the AT1 receptor and decreased immune system activation. We hypothesized that autoantibodies against ACE2 may develop after SARS-CoV-2 infection, as anti-idiotypic antibodies to anti-spike protein antibodies. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We tested plasma or serum for ACE2 antibodies in 67 patients with known SARS-CoV-2 infection and 13 with no history of infection. None of the 13 patients without history of SARS-CoV-2 infection and 1 of the 20 outpatients that had a positive PCR test for SARS-CoV-2 had levels of ACE2 antibodies above the cutoff threshold. In contrast, 26/32 (81%) in the convalescent group and 14/15 (93%) of patients acutely hospitalized had detectable ACE2 antibodies. Plasma from patients with antibodies against ACE2 had less soluble ACE2 activity in plasma but similar amounts of ACE2 protein compared to patients without ACE2 antibodies. We measured the capacity of the samples to inhibit ACE2 enzyme activity. Addition of plasma from patients with ACE2 antibodies led to decreased activity of an exogenous preparation of ACE2 compared to patients that did not have antibodies. CONCLUSIONS: Many patients with a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection have antibodies specific for ACE2. Patients with ACE2 antibodies have lower activity of soluble ACE2 in plasma. Plasma from these patients also inhibits exogenous ACE2 activity. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that ACE2 antibodies develop after SARS-CoV-2 infection and decrease ACE2 activity. This could lead to an increase in the abundance of Ang II, which causes a proinflammatory state that triggers symptoms of PASC.


Subject(s)
Autoantibodies/blood , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/blood , Angiotensin II/blood , Angiotensin II/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Autoantibodies/immunology , Autoantibodies/isolation & purification , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/blood , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1/blood , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1/genetics , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1/immunology , Renin-Angiotensin System/genetics , Renin-Angiotensin System/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/isolation & purification
4.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257016, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388955

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Activation of the immune system is implicated in the Post-Acute Sequelae after SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC) but the mechanisms remain unknown. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) cleaves angiotensin II (Ang II) resulting in decreased activation of the AT1 receptor and decreased immune system activation. We hypothesized that autoantibodies against ACE2 may develop after SARS-CoV-2 infection, as anti-idiotypic antibodies to anti-spike protein antibodies. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We tested plasma or serum for ACE2 antibodies in 67 patients with known SARS-CoV-2 infection and 13 with no history of infection. None of the 13 patients without history of SARS-CoV-2 infection and 1 of the 20 outpatients that had a positive PCR test for SARS-CoV-2 had levels of ACE2 antibodies above the cutoff threshold. In contrast, 26/32 (81%) in the convalescent group and 14/15 (93%) of patients acutely hospitalized had detectable ACE2 antibodies. Plasma from patients with antibodies against ACE2 had less soluble ACE2 activity in plasma but similar amounts of ACE2 protein compared to patients without ACE2 antibodies. We measured the capacity of the samples to inhibit ACE2 enzyme activity. Addition of plasma from patients with ACE2 antibodies led to decreased activity of an exogenous preparation of ACE2 compared to patients that did not have antibodies. CONCLUSIONS: Many patients with a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection have antibodies specific for ACE2. Patients with ACE2 antibodies have lower activity of soluble ACE2 in plasma. Plasma from these patients also inhibits exogenous ACE2 activity. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that ACE2 antibodies develop after SARS-CoV-2 infection and decrease ACE2 activity. This could lead to an increase in the abundance of Ang II, which causes a proinflammatory state that triggers symptoms of PASC.


Subject(s)
Autoantibodies/blood , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/blood , Angiotensin II/blood , Angiotensin II/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Autoantibodies/immunology , Autoantibodies/isolation & purification , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/blood , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1/blood , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1/genetics , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1/immunology , Renin-Angiotensin System/genetics , Renin-Angiotensin System/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/isolation & purification
5.
Front Immunol ; 12: 686029, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317224

ABSTRACT

More than one year since its emergence, corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is still looming large with a paucity of treatment options. To add to this burden, a sizeable subset of patients who have recovered from acute COVID-19 infection have reported lingering symptoms, leading to significant disability and impairment of their daily life activities. These patients are considered to suffer from what has been termed as "chronic" or "long" COVID-19 or a form of post-acute sequelae of COVID-19, and patients experiencing this syndrome have been termed COVID-19 long-haulers. Despite recovery from infection, the persistence of atypical chronic symptoms, including extreme fatigue, shortness of breath, joint pains, brain fogs, anxiety and depression, that could last for months implies an underlying disease pathology that persist beyond the acute presentation of the disease. As opposed to the direct effects of the virus itself, the immune response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is believed to be largely responsible for the appearance of these lasting symptoms, possibly through facilitating an ongoing inflammatory process. In this review, we hypothesize potential immunological mechanisms underlying these persistent and prolonged effects, and describe the multi-organ long-term manifestations of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Anxiety/etiology , Arthralgia/etiology , Autoimmunity , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Depression/etiology , Dyspnea/etiology , Fatigue/etiology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/immunology , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Incidence , Prevalence , Renin-Angiotensin System/immunology
6.
J Autoimmun ; 122: 102683, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1267726

ABSTRACT

The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a major role in COVID-19. Severity of several inflammation-related diseases has been associated with autoantibodies against RAS, particularly agonistic autoantibodies for angiotensin type-1 receptors (AA-AT1) and autoantibodies against ACE2 (AA-ACE2). Disease severity of COVID-19 patients was defined as mild, moderate or severe following the WHO Clinical Progression Scale and determined at medical discharge. Serum AA-AT1 and AA-ACE2 were measured in COVID-19 patients (n = 119) and non-infected controls (n = 23) using specific solid-phase, sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Serum LIGHT (TNFSF14; tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 14) levels were measured with the corresponding assay kit. At diagnosis, AA-AT1 and AA-ACE2 levels were significantly higher in the COVID-19 group relative to controls, and we observed significant association between disease outcome and serum AA-AT1 and AA-ACE2 levels. Mild disease patients had significantly lower levels of AA-AT1 (p < 0.01) and AA-ACE2 (p < 0.001) than moderate and severe patients. No significant differences were detected between males and females. The increase in autoantibodies was not related to comorbidities potentially affecting COVID-19 severity. There was significant positive correlation between serum levels of AA-AT1 and LIGHT (TNFSF14; rPearson = 0.70, p < 0.001). Both AA-AT1 (by agonistic stimulation of AT1 receptors) and AA-ACE2 (by reducing conversion of Angiotensin II into Angiotensin 1-7) may lead to increase in AT1 receptor activity, enhance proinflammatory responses and severity of COVID-19 outcome. Patients with high levels of autoantibodies require more cautious control after diagnosis. Additionally, the results encourage further studies on the possible protective treatment with AT1 receptor blockers in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Autoantibodies/blood , Autoantigens/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1/immunology , Aged , Autoantibodies/immunology , COVID-19/blood , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Renin-Angiotensin System/immunology , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Heart Lung Circ ; 30(6): 786-794, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217564

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-2, which is responsible for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), uses angiotensin (ANG)-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as the entrance receptor. Although most COVID-19 cases are mild, some are severe or critical, predominantly due to acute lung injury. It has been widely accepted that a counter regulatory renin-angiotensin system (RAS) axis including the ACE2/ANG [1-7]/Mas protects the lungs from acute lung injury. However, recent evidence suggests that the generation of protective ANG [1-7] in the lungs is predominantly mediated by proinflammatory prolyl oligopeptidase (POP), which has been repeatedly demonstrated to be involved in lung pathology. This review contends that acute lung injury in severe COVID-19 is characterised by a) ACE2 downregulation and malfunction (inflammatory signalling) due to viral occupation, and b) dysregulation of the protective RAS axis, predominantly due to increased activity of proinflammatory POP. It follows that a reasonable treatment strategy in COVID-19-related acute lung injury would be delivering functional recombinant (r) ACE2 forms to trap the virus. Additionally, or alternatively to rACE2 delivery, the potential benefits resulting from lowering POP activity should also be explored. These treatment strategies deserve further investigation.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19 , Renin-Angiotensin System/immunology , Signal Transduction , Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Acute Lung Injury/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/virology , Down-Regulation , Drug Discovery , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Signal Transduction/immunology
9.
Mol Biol Rep ; 48(3): 2917-2928, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1173966

ABSTRACT

The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and its metabolites play an important role in homeostasis of body, especially the cardiovascular system. In this study, we discuss the imbalance of multiple systems during the infection and the importance of therapeutic choice, dosing, and laboratory monitoring of cardiac and anti-coagulant therapies in COVID-19 patients. The crosstalk between angiotensin, kinin-kallikrein system, as well as inflammatory and coagulation systems plays an essential role in COVID-19. Cardiac complications and coagulopathies imply the crosstalks between the mentioned systems. We believe that the blockage of bradykinin can be a good option in the management of COVID-19 and CVD in patients and that supportive treatment of respiratory and cardiologic complications is needed in COVID-19 patients. Ninety-one percent of COVID-19 patients who were admitted to hospital with a prolonged aPTT were positive for lupus anticoagulant, which increases the risk of thrombosis and prolonged aPTT. Therefore, the question that is posed at this juncture is whether it is safe to use the prophylactic dose of heparin particularly in those with elevated D-dimer levels. It should be noted that timing is of high importance in anti-coagulant therapy; therefore, we should consider the level of D-dimer, fibrinogen, drug-drug interactions, and risk factors during thromboprophylaxis administration. Fibrinogen is an independent predictor of resistance to heparin and should be considered before thromboprophylaxis. Alteplase and Futhan might be a good choice to assess the condition of heparin resistance. Finally, the treatment option, dosing, and laboratory monitoring of anticoagulant therapy are critical decisions in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Bradykinin/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/virology , Kallikreins/blood , Renin-Angiotensin System/immunology , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology , Thrombosis/drug therapy , Thrombosis/prevention & control , Thrombosis/virology
10.
J Clin Pharmacol ; 61(8): 987-1000, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1103313

ABSTRACT

Since the discovery of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), numerous research has been undertaken to delineate the various effects of the virus which manifests in many ways all over the body. The association between the SARS-CoV-2 invasion mechanism and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) receptors, created many debates about the possible consequences of using RAAS-modulating drugs including angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) during the pandemic. Many clinical studies were conducted to assess the outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in patients who use ACEi/ARBs following the arguments claiming to discontinue these drugs as a precautionary measure. Although several studies mainly analyzed the outcomes of the disease, this review aimed to compare specific blood markers in both groups of COVID-19 patients to gain better insight into the interaction of ACEi/ARBs with different body functions during the infection. Several databases were searched using a combination of keywords followed by screening and data extraction. Only 28 studies met our inclusion criteria, the majority of which showed no significant difference between the inflammation markers of COVID-19 patients who used or did not use ACEi/ARBs. Interestingly, 6 studies reported lower inflammatory markers in COVID-19 patients who used ACEi/ARBs, and 6 studies reported better outcomes among the same group. We therefore concluded that the use of ACEi/ARBs may not lead to worse prognosis of COVID-19 and may even play a protective role against the hyperinflammatory response associated with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Immunity , Renin-Angiotensin System/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , Humans , Immunity/drug effects , Immunity/physiology , Prognosis , Protective Factors
11.
J Neurovirol ; 27(1): 35-51, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1061059

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in 2019, it is gaining worldwide attention at the moment. Apart from respiratory manifestations, neurological dysfunction in COVID-19 patients, especially the occurrence of cerebrovascular diseases (CVD), has been intensively investigated. In this review, the effects of COVID-19 infection on CVD were summarized as follows: (I) angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) may be involved in the attack on vascular endothelial cells by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), leading to endothelial damage and increased subintimal inflammation, which are followed by hemorrhage or thrombosis; (II) SARS-CoV-2 could alter the expression/activity of ACE2, consequently resulting in the disruption of renin-angiotensin system which is associated with the occurrence and progression of atherosclerosis; (III) upregulation of neutrophil extracellular traps has been detected in COVID-19 patients, which is closely associated with immunothrombosis; (IV) the inflammatory cascade induced by SARS-CoV-2 often leads to hypercoagulability and promotes the formation and progress of atherosclerosis; (V) antiphospholipid antibodies are also detected in plasma of some severe cases, which aggravate the thrombosis through the formation of immune complexes; (VI) hyperglycemia in COVID-19 patients may trigger CVD by increasing oxidative stress and blood viscosity; (VII) the COVID-19 outbreak is a global emergency and causes psychological stress, which could be a potential risk factor of CVD as coagulation, and fibrinolysis may be affected. In this review, we aimed to further our understanding of CVD-associated COVID-19 infection, which could improve the therapeutic outcomes of patients. Personalized treatments should be offered to COVID-19 patients at greater risk for stroke in future clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Atherosclerosis/complications , COVID-19/complications , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/complications , Hemorrhage/complications , Hyperglycemia/complications , Stroke/complications , Thrombosis/complications , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Atherosclerosis/diagnosis , Atherosclerosis/drug therapy , Atherosclerosis/virology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Cardiovascular Agents/therapeutic use , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/diagnosis , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/drug therapy , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/virology , Extracellular Traps/drug effects , Extracellular Traps/immunology , Hemorrhage/diagnosis , Hemorrhage/drug therapy , Hemorrhage/virology , Humans , Hyperglycemia/diagnosis , Hyperglycemia/drug therapy , Hyperglycemia/virology , Inflammation , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , Renin-Angiotensin System/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/drug therapy , Stroke/virology , Thrombosis/diagnosis , Thrombosis/drug therapy , Thrombosis/virology
13.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 320(1): H296-H304, 2021 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-961166

ABSTRACT

Biological sex is increasingly recognized as a critical determinant of health and disease, particularly relevant to the topical COVID-19 pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus. Epidemiological data and observational reports from both the original SARS epidemic and the most recent COVID-19 pandemic have a common feature: males are more likely to exhibit enhanced disease severity and mortality than females. Sex differences in cardiovascular disease and COVID-19 share mechanistic foundations, namely, the involvement of both the innate immune system and the canonical renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Immunological differences suggest that females mount a rapid and aggressive innate immune response, and the attenuated antiviral response in males may confer enhanced susceptibility to severe disease. Furthermore, the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is involved in disease pathogenesis in cardiovascular disease and COVID-19, either to serve as a protective mechanism by deactivating the RAS or as the receptor for viral entry, respectively. Loss of membrane ACE2 and a corresponding increase in plasma ACE2 are associated with worsened cardiovascular disease outcomes, a mechanism attributed to a disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM17). SARS-CoV-2 infection also leads to ADAM17 activation, a positive feedback cycle that exacerbates ACE2 loss. Therefore, the relationship between cardiovascular disease and COVID-19 is critically dependent on the loss of membrane ACE2 by ADAM17-mediated proteolytic cleavage. This article explores potential mechanisms involved in COVID-19 that may contribute to sex-specific susceptibility focusing on the innate immune system and the RAS, namely, genetics and sex hormones. Finally, we highlight here the added challenges of gender in the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity/immunology , Androgens/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Estrogens/immunology , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Receptors, Coronavirus/genetics , ADAM17 Protein/metabolism , Adaptive Immunity/genetics , Androgens/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/mortality , Cardiovascular Diseases/genetics , Cardiovascular Diseases/immunology , Estrogens/metabolism , Female , Genes, X-Linked/genetics , Genes, X-Linked/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate/genetics , Male , Promoter Regions, Genetic , Receptors, Coronavirus/metabolism , Renin-Angiotensin System/genetics , Renin-Angiotensin System/immunology , Response Elements/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Characteristics , Sex Factors , X Chromosome Inactivation
14.
Curr Drug Targets ; 22(3): 254-281, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-883780

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is becoming the major health issue in recent human history with thousands of deaths and millions of cases worldwide. Newer research and old experience with other coronaviruses highlighted a probable underlying mechanism of disturbance of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) that is associated with the intrinsic effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection. OBJECTIVE: In this review, we aimed to describe the intimate connections between the RAS components, the immune system and COVID-19 pathophysiology. METHODS: This non-systematic review article summarizes recent evidence on the relationship between COVID-19 and the RAS. RESULTS: Several studies have indicated that the downregulation of membrane-bound ACE2 may exert a key role for the impairment of immune functions and for COVID-19 patients' outcomes. The downregulation may occur by distinct mechanisms, particularly: (1) the shedding process induced by the SARS-CoV-2 fusion pathway, which reduces the amount of membrane-bound ACE2, stimulating more shedding by the high levels of Angiotensin II; (2) the endocytosis of ACE2 receptor with the virus itself and (3) by the interferon inhibition caused by SARS-CoV-2 effects on the immune system, which leads to a reduction of ACE2 receptor expression. CONCLUSION: Recent research provides evidence of a reduction of the components of the alternative RAS axis, including ACE2 and Angiotensin-(1-7). In contrast, increased levels of Angiotensin II can activate the AT1 receptor in several organs. Consequently, increased inflammation, thrombosis and angiogenesis occur in patients infected with SARS-COV-2. Attention should be paid to the interactions of the RAS and COVID-19, mainly in the context of novel vaccines and proposed medications.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Renin-Angiotensin System/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/genetics , Down-Regulation , Endocytosis/drug effects , Endocytosis/immunology , Humans , Inflammation , Mice , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Virus Shedding/drug effects , Virus Shedding/immunology
15.
Front Immunol ; 11: 2014, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-732898

ABSTRACT

To date the pathophysiology of COVID-19 remains unclear: this represents a factor determining the current lack of effective treatments. In this paper, we hypothesized a complex host response to SARS-CoV-2, with the Contact System (CS) playing a pivotal role in innate immune response. CS is linked with different proteolytic defense systems operating in human vasculature: the Kallikrein-Kinin (KKS), the Coagulation/Fibrinolysis and the Renin-Angiotensin (RAS) Systems. We investigated the role of the mediators involved. CS consists of Factor XII (FXII) and plasma prekallikrein (complexed to high-molecular-weight kininogen-HK). Autoactivation of FXII by contact with SARS-CoV-2 could lead to activation of intrinsic coagulation, with fibrin formation (microthrombosis), and fibrinolysis, resulting in increased D-dimer levels. Activation of kallikrein by activated FXII leads to production of bradykinin (BK) from HK. BK binds to B2-receptors, mediating vascular permeability, vasodilation and edema. B1-receptors, binding the metabolite [des-Arg9]-BK (DABK), are up-regulated during infections and mediate lung inflammatory responses. BK could play a relevant role in COVID-19 as already described for other viral models. Angiotensin-Converting-Enzyme (ACE) 2 displays lung protective effects: it inactivates DABK and converts Angiotensin II (Ang II) into Angiotensin-(1-7) and Angiotensin I into Angiotensin-(1-9). SARS-CoV-2 binds to ACE2 for cell entry, downregulating it: an impaired DABK inactivation could lead to an enhanced activity of B1-receptors, and the accumulation of Ang II, through a negative feedback loop, may result in decreased ACE activity, with consequent increase of BK. Therapies targeting the CS, the KKS and action of BK could be effective for the treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Fibrinolysis/immunology , Kallikrein-Kinin System/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Renin-Angiotensin System/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Bradykinin/metabolism , COVID-19 , Capillary Permeability , Complement C1 Inhibitor Protein , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Factor XIIa/metabolism , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Kininogen, High-Molecular-Weight/metabolism , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Plasma Kallikrein/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prekallikrein/metabolism , Receptor, Bradykinin B1/metabolism , Receptor, Bradykinin B2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Vasodilation
16.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 8(10): 3251-3258, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-731806

ABSTRACT

There is a striking age-related disparity in the prevalence and severity of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-induced coronavirus disease 2019 infections, which might be explained by age-dependent immunological mechanisms. These include age-related physiological differences in immunological responses, cross-neutralizing antibodies, and differences in levels and binding affinity of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, the SARS-CoV-2 target receptor; antibody-dependent enhancement in adults manifesting with an overexuberant systemic inflammation in response to infection; and the increased likelihood of comorbidities in adults and the elderly. Emerging immunological phenomena such as Pediatric Multi-System Inflammatory Disorder Temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 or Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children are now being observed, though the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Understanding the mechanisms through which pediatric patients are protected from severe novel coronaviruses infections will provide critical clues to the pathophysiology of coronavirus disease 2019 infection and inform future therapeutic and prophylactic interventions. Asymptomatic carriage in children may have major public health implications, which will have an impact on social and health care policies on screening and isolation practices, school reopening, and safe distancing requirements in the community.


Subject(s)
Age Factors , Antibody-Dependent Enhancement/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Immunosenescence/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Asymptomatic Infections , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disease Susceptibility , Humans , Infant , Inflammation/immunology , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Policy Making , Renin-Angiotensin System/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Young Adult
17.
Front Immunol ; 11: 1472, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-643141

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 has spread rapidly around the globe. However, despite its high pathogenicity and transmissibility, the severity of the associated disease, COVID-19, varies widely. While the prognosis is favorable in most patients, critical illness, manifested by respiratory distress, thromboembolism, shock, and multi-organ failure, has been reported in about 5% of cases. Several studies have associated poor COVID-19 outcomes with the exhaustion of natural killer cells and cytotoxic T cells, lymphopenia, and elevated serum levels of D-dimer. In this article, we propose a common pathophysiological denominator for these negative prognostic markers, endogenous, angiotensin II toxicity. We hypothesize that, like in avian influenza, the outlook of COVID-19 is negatively correlated with the intracellular accumulation of angiotensin II promoted by the viral blockade of its degrading enzyme receptors. In this model, upregulated angiotensin II causes premature vascular senescence, leading to dysfunctional coagulation, and immunity. We further hypothesize that angiotensin II blockers and immune checkpoint inhibitors may be salutary for COVID-19 patients with critical illness by reversing both the clotting and immune defects (Graphical Abstract).


Subject(s)
Angiotensin II/blood , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Up-Regulation , Age Factors , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Brain/immunology , Brain/metabolism , COVID-19 , Cellular Senescence/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Critical Illness , Cytokines/metabolism , Dopamine/metabolism , Down-Regulation , Humans , Immunotherapy/methods , Mitochondria/metabolism , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prognosis , Renin-Angiotensin System/immunology , SARS-CoV-2
18.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) ; 22(7): 1120-1126, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-634269

ABSTRACT

Investigations reported that hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases were the most prevalent comorbidities among the patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Hypertension appeared consistently as the most prevalent risk factors in COVID-19 patients. Some investigations speculated about the association between renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and susceptibility to COVID-19, as well as the relationship between RAAS inhibitors and increased mortality in these patients. This raised concern about the potential association between hypertension (and its treatment) and propensity for COVID-19. There are only a few follow-up studies that investigated the impact of comorbidities on outcome in these patients with conflicting findings. Hypertension has been proven to be more prevalent in patients with an adverse outcome (admission in intensive care unit, use of mechanical ventilation, or death). So far, there is no study that demonstrated independent predictive value of hypertension on mortality in COVID-19 patients. There are many speculations about this coronavirus and its relation with different risk factors and underlying diseases. The aim of this review was to summarize the current knowledge about the relationship between hypertension and COVID-19 and the role of hypertension on outcome in these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Hypertension/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/adverse effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Disease Susceptibility , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Predictive Value of Tests , Prevalence , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , Renin-Angiotensin System/immunology , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors
19.
J Mol Cell Cardiol ; 145: 84-87, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-602090

ABSTRACT

We believe that, in parallel to the attempts for direct blockade of the SARS-CoV-2 penetration into host cell and repurposing drugs, finding new therapeutic strategies for patients with lung injury or cardiovascular complications/coagulopathies associated with COVID-19 should be paid particular attention. Apelin or its receptor agonists are of great potential treatment for COVID-19 through suppressing angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and angiotensin II (Ang-II) production, as well as, down-regulating angiotensin receptor 1 (AT1R) and ACE2 up-regulation. These drugs have potential to improve acute lung injury and cardiovascular/coagulopathy complications in COVID-19 which are associated with elevated Ang-II/Ang(1-7) ratio.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Apelin Receptors/therapeutic use , Apelin/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Angiotensin I/metabolism , Angiotensin II/biosynthesis , Angiotensin II/blood , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Apelin/metabolism , Apelin Receptors/agonists , Apelin Receptors/metabolism , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Drug Repositioning/methods , Humans , Mice , Pandemics , Peptide Fragments/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1/metabolism , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , Renin-Angiotensin System/immunology , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Cytokine ; 133: 155151, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-437203

ABSTRACT

Patients with COVID-19 who require ICU admission might have the cytokine storm. It is a state of out-of-control release of a variety of inflammatory cytokines. The molecular mechanism of the cytokine storm has not been explored extensively yet. The attachment of SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), as its cellular receptor, triggers complex molecular events that leads to hyperinflammation. Four molecular axes that may be involved in SARS-CoV-2 driven inflammatory cytokine overproduction are addressed in this work. The virus-mediated down-regulation of ACE2 causes a burst of inflammatory cytokine release through dysregulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (ACE/angiotensin II/AT1R axis), attenuation of Mas receptor (ACE2/MasR axis), increased activation of [des-Arg9]-bradykinin (ACE2/bradykinin B1R/DABK axis), and activation of the complement system including C5a and C5b-9 components. The molecular clarification of these axes will elucidate an array of therapeutic strategies to confront the cytokine storm in order to prevent and treat COVID-19 associated acute respiratory distress syndrome.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Inflammation/metabolism , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Bradykinin/metabolism , COVID-19 , Complement C5a/immunology , Complement C5a/metabolism , Complement C5b/immunology , Complement C5b/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/enzymology , Humans , Inflammation/enzymology , Inflammation/immunology , Models, Molecular , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/enzymology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/metabolism , Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled/metabolism , Renin-Angiotensin System/immunology , SARS-CoV-2
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