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1.
J Int Med Res ; 50(1): 3000605211069281, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613174

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the validity and test-retest reliability of the novel 'TIB' Olfactory Test Device (TIB) and to determine its normative values. METHODS: The study stratified the study subjects into normosmic, hyposmic and anosmic groups according to their olfactory function. The olfactory function of the subjects was evaluated using both the traditional Chinese version of the University of Pennsylvania of Smell Identification Test (UPSIT-TC) and the TIB. The normosmic group was used to retest with the UPSIT-TC and TIB at an inter-test interval of at least 7 days. The cut-off scores of TIB among the three different groups were determined by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. RESULTS: This study enrolled 180 subjects: 60 in each group. The mean scores of TIB were 44.1 for the normosmic group, 27.5 for the hyposmic group and 10.9 for the anosmic group. The TIB scores were significantly different across the three groups. There was a significant correlation between the first and second TIB tests (r = 0.506). The cut-off scores were 41 for normosmic subjects and 24 for hyposmic subjects. CONCLUSION: The validity and test-retest reliability results suggest that the TIB is an appropriate olfactory test for the Taiwanese population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Humans , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Smell
2.
SAR QSAR Environ Res ; 32(11): 863-888, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1606722

ABSTRACT

The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS CoV-2) was introduced as an epidemic in 2019 and had millions of deaths worldwide. Given the importance of this disease, the recommendation and design of new active compounds are crucial. 3-chymotrypsin-like protease (3 CLpro) inhibitors have been identified as potent compounds for treating SARS-CoV-2 disease. So, the design of new 3 CLpro inhibitors was proposed using a quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) study. In this context, a powerful adaptive least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (ALASSO) penalized variable selection method with inherent advantages coupled with a nonlinear artificial neural network (ANN) modelling method were used to provide a QSAR model with high interpretability and predictability. After evaluating the accuracy and validity of the developed ALASSO-ANN model, new compounds were proposed using effective descriptors, and the biological activity of the new compounds was predicted. Ligand-receptor (LR) interactions were also performed to confirm the interaction strength of the compounds using molecular docking (MD) study. The pharmacokinetics properties and calculated Lipinski's rule of five were applied to all proposed compounds. Due to the ease of synthesis of these suggested new compounds, it is expected that they have acceptable pharmacological properties.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Molecular Docking Simulation , Neural Networks, Computer , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacokinetics , Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology
3.
J Biomed Sci ; 29(1): 1, 2022 Jan 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605455

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is an exceptional public health crisis that demands the timely creation of new therapeutics and viral detection. Owing to their high specificity and reliability, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have emerged as powerful tools to treat and detect numerous diseases. Hence, many researchers have begun to urgently develop Ab-based kits for the detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and Ab drugs for use as COVID-19 therapeutic agents. The detailed structure of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein is known, and since this protein is key for viral infection, its receptor-binding domain (RBD) has become a major target for therapeutic Ab development. Because SARS-CoV-2 is an RNA virus with a high mutation rate, especially under the selective pressure of aggressively deployed prophylactic vaccines and neutralizing Abs, the use of Ab cocktails is expected to be an important strategy for effective COVID-19 treatment. Moreover, SARS-CoV-2 infection may stimulate an overactive immune response, resulting in a cytokine storm that drives severe disease progression. Abs to combat cytokine storms have also been under intense development as treatments for COVID-19. In addition to their use as drugs, Abs are currently being utilized in SARS-CoV-2 detection tests, including antigen and immunoglobulin tests. Such Ab-based detection tests are crucial surveillance tools that can be used to prevent the spread of COVID-19. Herein, we highlight some key points regarding mAb-based detection tests and treatments for the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Pandemics , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
4.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 6, 2022 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607365

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the City of Vancouver, Canada, non-profit food hubs such as food banks, neighbourhood houses, community centres, and soup kitchens serve communities that face food insecurity. Food that is available yet inaccessible cannot ensure urban food security. This study seeks to highlight food access challenges, especially in terms of mobility and transportation, faced by users of non-profit food hubs in the City of Vancouver before and during the COVID-19 crisis. METHODS: This study involved an online survey (n = 84) and semi-structured follow-up key informant interviews (n = 10) with individuals at least 19 years old who accessed food at a non-profit food hub located in the City of Vancouver more than once before and during the COVID-19 crisis. RESULTS: 88.5% of survey respondents found food obtained from non-profit food hubs to be either very or somewhat important to their household's overall diet. In their journey to access food at non-profit food hubs in the City of Vancouver, many survey respondents face barriers such as transportation distance/time, transportation inconveniences/reliability/accessibility, transportation costs, line-ups at non-profit food hubs, and schedules of non-profit food hubs. Comments from interview participants corroborate these barriers. CONCLUSIONS: Drawing from the findings, this study recommends that non-profit food hubs maintain a food delivery option and that the local transportation authority provides convenient and reliable paratransit service. Furthermore, this study recommends that the provincial government considers subsidizing transit passes for low-income households, that the provincial and/or federal governments consider bolstering existing government assistance programs, and that the federal government considers implementing a universal basic income. This study emphasizes how the current two-tier food system perpetuates stigma and harms the well-being of marginalized populations in the City of Vancouver in their journey to obtain food.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Food Supply , Humans , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Transportation , Young Adult
5.
Indian J Public Health ; 65(4): 410-413, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607361

ABSTRACT

Generation Z has seen drastic changes in the medical sector with the health-care industry constantly updating itself with newer tools to provide quality treatment. The COVID-19 pandemic has greatly tested the services in every aspect of life and has led to an unprecedented increase in the online storage of patient data. Electronic health records (EHRs) are real-time records that make health information of any patient available securely to authorized users. EHRs in the Indian scenario are still in their budding stages, described as "islands of excellence in an ocean of inadequacy." The central institutes and corporate hospitals have implemented it, but the state medical colleges and peripheral health centers have miles to go. These patient data records become an essential tool in physician's decision-making, expertise, and management. One can review the data which is just a click away even after the patients have been discharged, especially in the follow-up period. The current scenario is such that health-care workers and nonhealth-care workers alike share the data of the patients in respect to their records, radiographs, and laboratory data using social media such as WhatsApp, Facebook, and Telegram. In the absence of adequate regulations, the reliability of the EHRs is questionable and doubt creates a preference for the traditional medical services among the health-care workers. To conclude, a clear and precise guideline that can enlighten the patient and health-care workers is the need of the hour. The concerns of online storage of data need to be alleviated and privacy regulations need to be addressed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , India/epidemiology , Pandemics , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 21(10): 1365-1372, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597413

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The banning of mass-gathering indoor events to prevent SARS-CoV-2 spread has had an important effect on local economies. Despite growing evidence on the suitability of antigen-detecting rapid diagnostic tests (Ag-RDT) for mass screening at the event entry, this strategy has not been assessed under controlled conditions. We aimed to assess the effectiveness of a prevention strategy during a live indoor concert. METHODS: We designed a randomised controlled open-label trial to assess the effectiveness of a comprehensive preventive intervention for a mass-gathering indoor event (a live concert) based on systematic same-day screening of attendees with Ag-RDTs, use of facial masks, and adequate air ventilation. The event took place in the Sala Apolo, Barcelona, Spain. Adults aged 18-59 years with a negative result in an Ag-RDT from a nasopharyngeal swab collected immediately before entering the event were randomised 1:1 (block randomisation stratified by age and gender) to either attend the indoor event for 5 hours or go home. Nasopharyngeal specimens used for Ag-RDT screening were analysed by real-time reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) and cell culture (Vero E6 cells). 8 days after the event, a nasopharyngeal swab was collected and analysed by Ag-RDT, RT-PCR, and a transcription-mediated amplification test (TMA). The primary outcome was the difference in incidence of RT-PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection at 8 days between the control and the intervention groups, assessed in all participants who were randomly assigned, attended the event, and had a valid result for the SARS-CoV-2 test done at follow-up. The trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04668625. FINDINGS: Participant enrollment took place during the morning of the day of the concert, Dec 12, 2020. Of the 1140 people who responded to the call and were deemed eligible, 1047 were randomly assigned to either enter the music event (experimental group) or continue with normal life (control group). Of the 523 randomly assigned to the experimental group, 465 were included in the analysis of the primary outcome (51 did not enter the event and eight did not take part in the follow-up assessment), and of the 524 randomly assigned to the control group, 495 were included in the final analysis (29 did not take part in the follow-up). At baseline, 15 (3%) of 495 individuals in the control group and 13 (3%) of 465 in the experimental group tested positive on TMA despite a negative Ag-RDT result. The RT-PCR test was positive in one case in each group and cell viral culture was negative in all cases. 8 days after the event, two (<1%) individuals in the control arm had a positive Ag-RDT and PCR result, whereas no Ag-RDT nor RT-PCR positive results were found in the intervention arm. The Bayesian estimate for the incidence between the experimental and control groups was -0·15% (95% CI -0·72 to 0·44). INTERPRETATION: Our study provides preliminary evidence on the safety of indoor mass-gathering events during a COVID-19 outbreak under a comprehensive preventive intervention. The data could help restart cultural activities halted during COVID-19, which might have important sociocultural and economic implications. FUNDING: Primavera Sound Group and the #YoMeCorono Initiative. TRANSLATION: For the Spanish translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Mass Screening , Middle Aged , Reproducibility of Results , Spain , Young Adult
7.
Front Public Health ; 9: 765501, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1591734

ABSTRACT

Introduction: During the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic there have been much publicised shortages in Personal Protective Equipment for frontline health care workers, from masks to gowns. Recent previous airborne pandemics provide an opportunity to learn how to effectively lead and manage supply chains during crisis situations. Identifying and plotting this learning against time will reveal what has been learnt, when and, significantly, what can be learnt for the future. Aims: (i) To identify the temporal trajectory of leadership and management learning in health supply chain management through pandemics and (ii) to identify leadership and management lessons to enable the resilient supply of key items such as PPE in future pandemics. Methods: We undertook a scoping review in line with PRISMA (scoping review extension) searching Business Source Premier, Health Business Elite, Medline, ProQuest Business Collection and PubMed. Search terms were focused on recent airborne pandemics (SARS; Ebola; Zika virus; H1N1 swine flu, COVID-19), supply chain management, PPE, leadership, learning, inhibitors and facilitators and resilience e.g., SARS AND supply chain* AND ("personal protective equipment" OR PPE) (leaders* OR manage*) Titles and abstracts were downloaded to Endnote and duplicates removed. Two authors independently screened all of the titles and abstracts. Inclusion criteria focused on leadership and management in health supply chains during pandemics, peer reviewed or grey literature (either from business journals or reports): exclusion criteria included not in English and not focused on a named pandemic. Once interrater reliability was assured, authors completed a title and abstract screening independently. Ten percent of the resultant full text articles were screened by both authors, once agreement was reached the full text articles were screened independently noting reasons for exclusion. A data extraction tool was designed to capture findings from the final articles included in the review. Results/Discussion: We found 92 articles and, after screening, included 30 full text articles. The majority were focused on COVID-19 (N = 27) and most were from the USA (N = 13). We identified four themes related to leadership and management of pandemic PPE supply chains, (i) Leadership and management learning for pandemic PPE supply chain management, (ii) Inhibitors of PPE supply chain resilience during a pandemic, (iii) Facilitators employed to manage the immediate impacts of PPE supply chain demands during a pandemic,and (iv) Facilitators proposed to ensure longer term resilience of PPE supply chains during pandemics Our study suggests there has been limited leadership and management learning for PPE supply chains from previous pandemics, however there has been extensive learning through the COVID-19 pandemic. Lessons included the importance of planning, the significance of collaboration and relationship building. Resilience of PPE supply chains was reported to be dependent on multiple levels from individuals to organisation level and also interdependent on (i) sustainability, (ii) the practise of PPE and (iii) long term environmental impact of PPE suggesting the need, long term, to move to a circular economy approach.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , Animals , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Leadership , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Swine
8.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261590, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598523

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the reliability and factorial validity of General Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) in the context of university students in Bangladesh. The research aimed to assess whether the original one-dimensional model or a model containing both somatic and cognitive-emotional factors is appropriate. A repeated cross-sectional survey design based on convenience sampling was used to collect data from 677 university students. The factor structure of the GAD-7 was assessed by exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and its convergent validity was determined by investigating its correlations with Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and Patient Health Questionnaire Anxiety-Depression Scale (PHQ-ADS). Results showed excellent reliability of GAD-7 as measured by Cronbach's α. CFA suggested that a modified one-factor model is appropriate for the sample. This model provided high values of comparative fit index (CFI), goodness of fit index (GFI), and Tucker Lewis Index (TLI), low value of standardized root mean square residual (SRMR) and a non-significant root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA). Correlation between GAD-7 and PHQ-9 was 0.751 and 0.934 between GAD-7 and PHQ-ADS. Overall, the study provided support for modified unidimensional structure for GAD-7 and showed high internal consistency along with good convergent validity.


Subject(s)
Anxiety Disorders/diagnosis , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , Patient Health Questionnaire , Psychometrics/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Bangladesh , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depressive Disorder/diagnosis , Depressive Disorder/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/diagnosis , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/psychology , Reproducibility of Results , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Students/psychology , Universities , Young Adult
9.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261745, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598351

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 pandemic has had a global major healthcare, social and economic impact. In present study we aim to adapt the Fear of COVID-19 Scale to Hungarian. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forward-backward translation method was used to translate the English version of the scale to Hungarian. Participants were a convenience sample of 2175 university students and employees. The study was conducted between January 18th and February 12th 2021. The test battery included Hungarian versions of Fear of COVID-19 scale, short Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-H) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). RESULTS: The scale showed one-factor structure, the loadings on the factor were significant and strong (from .47 to .84). Internal consistency was very good (α = .84). Construct validity for the Fear of COVID-19 Scale was supported by significant and positive correlations with STAI (r = 0.402; p < 0.001) and BDI-H (r = 0.270; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The Hungarian version of Fear of COVID-19 Scale is a reliable and valid tool in assessing fear of coronavirus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Fear/psychology , Pandemics , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales/standards , Psychometrics/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/virology , Faculty/psychology , Female , Humans , Hungary/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Reproducibility of Results , Students/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
10.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(12): e28318, 2021 12 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598280

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has become one of the most critical public health problems worldwide. Because many COPD patients are using video-based social media to search for health information, there is an urgent need to assess the information quality of COPD videos on social media. Recently, the short-video app TikTok has demonstrated huge potential in disseminating health information and there are currently many COPD videos available on TikTok; however, the information quality of these videos remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the information quality of COPD videos on TikTok. METHODS: In December 2020, we retrieved and screened 300 videos from TikTok and collected a sample of 199 COPD-related videos in Chinese for data extraction. We extracted the basic video information, coded the content, and identified the video sources. Two independent raters assessed the information quality of each video using the DISCERN instrument. RESULTS: COPD videos on TikTok came mainly from two types of sources: individual users (n=168) and organizational users (n=31). The individual users included health professionals, individual science communicators, and general TikTok users, whereas the organizational users consisted of for-profit organizations, nonprofit organizations, and news agencies. For the 199 videos, the mean scores of the DISCERN items ranged from 3.42 to 4.46, with a total mean score of 3.75. Publication reliability (P=.04) and overall quality (P=.02) showed significant differences across the six types of sources, whereas the quality of treatment choices showed only a marginally significant difference (P=.053) across the different sources. CONCLUSIONS: The overall information quality of COPD videos on TikTok is satisfactory, although the quality varies across different sources and according to specific quality dimensions. Patients should be selective and cautious when watching COPD videos on TikTok.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Social Media , Humans , Information Dissemination , Public Health , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy , Reproducibility of Results , Video Recording
11.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2021: 8016525, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598096

ABSTRACT

Smart health surveillance technology has attracted wide attention between patients and professionals or specialists to provide early detection of critical abnormal situations without the need to be in direct contact with the patient. This paper presents a secure smart monitoring portable multivital signal system based on Internet-of-Things (IoT) technology. The implemented system is designed to measure the key health parameters: heart rate (HR), blood oxygen saturation (SpO2), and body temperature, simultaneously. The captured physiological signals are processed and encrypted using the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) algorithm before sending them to the cloud. An ESP8266 integrated unit is used for processing, encryption, and providing connectivity to the cloud over Wi-Fi. On the other side, trusted medical organization servers receive and decrypt the measurements and display the values on the monitoring dashboard for the authorized specialists. The proposed system measurements are compared with a number of commercial medical devices. Results demonstrate that the measurements of the proposed system are within the 95% confidence interval. Moreover, Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE), Mean Absolute Error (MAE), and Mean Relative Error (MRE) for the proposed system are calculated as 1.44, 1.12, and 0.012, respectively, for HR, 1.13, 0.92, and 0.009, respectively, for SpO2, and 0.13, 0.11, and 0.003, respectively, for body temperature. These results demonstrate the high accuracy and reliability of the proposed system.


Subject(s)
Cloud Computing , Internet of Things , Communication , Humans , Reproducibility of Results
12.
Front Public Health ; 9: 728904, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597989

ABSTRACT

Background: Several studies indicate a high prevalence of depression around the world during the period of the COVID-19 pandemic. Using a valid instrument to capture the depression of an individual in this situation is both important and timely. The present study aims to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Persian version of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) among the public during the COVID-19 pandemic in Iran. Method: This is a cross-sectional study that was conducted in the Iranian population (n = 600) from April to July 2020. A two-part online form was used: sociodemographic characteristics and depression items (CES-D). The construct validity and internal consistency reliability of the scale were evaluated. Result: The results of the exploratory factor analysis illustrated two factors with 43.35% of the total variance of the depression were explained. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that this model fits well. Internal consistency reliability was evaluated, and it was acceptable. Conclusion: The findings demonstrated that, in the Iranian sample, this depression scale yielded two factors (somatic and positive affects) solutions with suitable psychometric properties.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Pandemics , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
13.
Nat Microbiol ; 7(1): 97-107, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1596437

ABSTRACT

Global and national surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 epidemiology is mostly based on targeted schemes focused on testing individuals with symptoms. These tested groups are often unrepresentative of the wider population and exhibit test positivity rates that are biased upwards compared with the true population prevalence. Such data are routinely used to infer infection prevalence and the effective reproduction number, Rt, which affects public health policy. Here, we describe a causal framework that provides debiased fine-scale spatiotemporal estimates by combining targeted test counts with data from a randomized surveillance study in the United Kingdom called REACT. Our probabilistic model includes a bias parameter that captures the increased probability of an infected individual being tested, relative to a non-infected individual, and transforms observed test counts to debiased estimates of the true underlying local prevalence and Rt. We validated our approach on held-out REACT data over a 7-month period. Furthermore, our local estimates of Rt are indicative of 1-week- and 2-week-ahead changes in SARS-CoV-2-positive case numbers. We also observed increases in estimated local prevalence and Rt that reflect the spread of the Alpha and Delta variants. Our results illustrate how randomized surveys can augment targeted testing to improve statistical accuracy in monitoring the spread of emerging and ongoing infectious disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Models, Statistical , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Basic Reproduction Number , Bias , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , Forecasting , Humans , Prevalence , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spatio-Temporal Analysis , United Kingdom/epidemiology
14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(24)2021 12 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595516

ABSTRACT

The Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14) has been used to assess the impact that oral health problems can have on an individual's life. Different theoretical models were proposed to evaluate the results. The aims of this study were to evaluate the fit of different factorial models of the OHIP-14 to non-dental patients (NDP) and dental patients (DP) samples from Brazil and Finland and to estimate the differential functioning of the items in the OHIP-14 between the samples. Two studies were conducted, one in Brazil and the other in Finland, composed of five samples (Brazil-Sample 1 (S1): DP, n = 434, age: 25.3 [SD = 6.3] years; S2: NDP, n = 1486, age: 24.7 [SD = 5.6] years; S3: DP, n = 439, age: 29.0 [SD = 6.7] years; Finland-S4: DP, n = 482, age: 26.3 [SD = 5.4] years; S5: NDP, n = 2425, age: 26.7 [DP = 5.5] years). The fit of the OHIP-14 models to the data was estimated using a confirmatory strategy (validity based on the internal structure). Differential item functioning (DIF) between samples was estimated. For NDP from both countries, the response pattern severely violated the normality assumption in six items of the OHIP-14, indicating that the instrument does not fit for these samples. For DP, the model with the best fit was unifactorial, which deals with the estimation of the general impact of oral health on an individual's life, without addressing specific dimensions. Configural invariance was refuted between samples. DIF indicated that the characteristic of the sample (NDP and DP) in both countries interfered in the response given to the items, with the response level being more adequate for the latent PD trait. The validity of data related to the impact of oral health problems on an individual's life was confirmed through a unifactorial model. OHIP-14 works properly in DP samples and was limited in NDP samples, being also influenced by cultural context and age.


Subject(s)
Oral Health , Quality of Life , Adult , Brazil , Humans , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
15.
Int J Surg ; 97: 106204, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587512

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has resulted in a catastrophic pandemic and severely impacted people's livelihoods worldwide. In addition, the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants has posed a severe threat to humankind. Due to the dearth of therapeutic options during the commencement of the pandemic, convalescent plasma therapy (CPT) played a significant part in the management of patients with severe form of COVID-19. Several recent studies have proposed various protective effects of CPT, such as antiviral, anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombotic, and immunomodulatory actions, curtailing the devastating consequences of the SARS-CoV-2 infection. On the contrary, several clinical studies have raised some serious concerns about the effectiveness and reliability of CPT in the management of patients with COVID-19. The protective effects of CPT in severely ill patients are yet to be proved. Moreover, the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants has raised concerns about the effectiveness of CPT against COVID-19. Therefore, to establish concrete evidence of the efficacy of CPT and adjudicate its inclusion in the management of COVID-19, an updated review of present literature is required, which could help in the development of an efficient therapeutic regimen to treat COVID-19 amid the emergence of new viral variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Reproducibility of Results
16.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 24108, 2021 12 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585796

ABSTRACT

Despite the great potential of Virtual Reality (VR) to arouse emotions, there are no VR affective databases available as it happens for pictures, videos, and sounds. In this paper, we describe the validation of ten affective interactive Virtual Environments (VEs) designed to be used in Virtual Reality. These environments are related to five emotions. The testing phase included using two different experimental setups to deliver the overall experience. The setup did not include any immersive VR technology, because of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, but the VEs were designed to run on stereoscopic visual displays. We collected measures related to the participants' emotional experience based on six discrete emotional categories plus neutrality and we included an assessment of the sense of presence related to the different experiences. The results showed how the scenarios can be differentiated according to the emotion aroused. Finally, the comparison between the two experimental setups demonstrated high reliability of the experience and strong adaptability of the scenarios to different contexts of use.


Subject(s)
Arousal/physiology , COVID-19/psychology , Databases, Factual/statistics & numerical data , Emotions/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Virtual Reality , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Emotions/classification , Empathy , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Photic Stimulation/methods , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Young Adult
17.
BMC Res Notes ; 14(1): 463, 2021 Dec 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582019

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: During the COVID-19 pandemic, most countries implemented lockdowns that motivated changes in the dietary patterns, physical activity, and body mass index (BMI) of consumers worldwide, as well as the emergence of new food marketing strategies in social media. We sought to design and validate a methodology for monitoring and evaluating the Facebook marketing strategies of multinational fast-food chains in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. DATA DESCRIPTION: We developed three datasets. First, a dataset with the Uniform Resource Locators (URLs) of 1015 Facebook posts of five fast-food chains present in Argentina, Bolivia, Guatemala, and Peru. Second, a dataset of 106 content-analyzed posts we used in a pilot to determine intercoder reliability using statistical tests. Third, a dataset of a final sample of the 1015 content-analyzed posts that we used to determine the variables most frequently used. Following a mixed-methods approach, we developed 29 variables that recorded general information, as well as the marketing strategies we identified in the posts, including 14 COVID-19 specific variables. These data should help to monitor the social media marketing strategies that fast-food chains have introduced during the COVID-19 lockdowns, thus providing initial evidence about how they could be contributing to an unhealthy food environment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Media , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Latin America , Marketing , Pandemics , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Front Public Health ; 9: 730647, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581129

ABSTRACT

Background: The onset of the pandemic necessitated abrupt transition to telehealth consultations. Although there is a few tools that gauge the patients' perception about their experiences, none of them are contextualized to an emergency in the Middle East and North Africa region. Accordingly, this study aims at developing and validating a tool to address this gap, and deploying it to assess the patients' perception of telehealth services during COVID-19 in Dubai, United Arab Emirates (UAE). Methods: A convergent mixed methods design was adapted. A random selection of 100 patients from Dubai, UAE were invited to participate. Qualitative and quantitative datasets were collected using a tailor-made survey. The qualitative data, collected through open-ended questions, was analyzed using multi-staged thematic analysis. As for the quantitative data, it captured the patients' extent of satisfaction, and was assessed using SPSS (with a series of descriptive and inferential analyses). The qualitative and quantitative findings were then merged via joint display analysis. Results: Out of the 100 patients that were randomly selected, 94 patients participated in this study. The reliability score of Cronbach's Alpha for the instrument was 98.9%. The percentage of the total average of satisfaction was 80.67%. The Principal Component Analysis showed that 88.1% of the variance can be explained by the instrument (p < 0.001). The qualitative data analysis expanded upon the quantitative findings enabling a better understanding of the patients' perception. Three themes, revolving around the quality of the patient telehealth experiences, surfaced: "Factors that worked to the benefit of the patients," "Factors that the patients were not in favor of," and "Opportunities for improvements as perceived by the patients." Discussion: This study introduced a novel patient satisfaction with telehealth consultation survey contextualized to the COVID-19 times in Dubai, UAE. The participants were quite satisfied with the quality of their experience, however they suggested areas for improvement. Regional healthcare decision-makers can leverage the identified advantages and opportunities for improvement of telehealth. This will enable making informed decisions regarding the continuity of telehealth irrespective of how matters unfold in relation to the pandemic. It will also better prepare the healthcare sector for potential resurgence(s) of COVID-19 and/or the occurrence of other similar emergencies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Humans , Patient Satisfaction , Perception , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(1)2021 12 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580847

ABSTRACT

Low-cost carriers (LCCs) in Saudi Arabia operate in a competitive, highly demanding environment. Customer-related attributes may be influenced by the levels of service quality in a no-frills airline, which might impact satisfaction and loyalty. Given the unique traveler and market characteristics of the aviation sector in the kingdom, we sought to investigate the impact of service quality of LCCs on customer satisfaction and loyalty and the perceived airline image. A total of 299 passengers at two international airports were approached using a modified SERVQUAL scale. Results revealed that service quality was a significant predictor of customer satisfaction (ß = 0.46, p < 0.0001), airline image (ß = 0.55, p < 0.0001), and customer loyalty (ß = 0.16, p = 0.006). The responsiveness dimension was the most important dimension of service quality, since it predicted all other constructs (satisfaction, loyalty, and brand image). Airline tangibles and reliability were independently associated with brand image and loyalty, respectively. Based on these results, LCCs should tailor future strategic plans that rely heavily on improving different service quality measures, particularly the responsiveness domain.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Personal Satisfaction , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Patient Satisfaction , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(1)2021 Dec 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580815

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 outbreak is associated with sleep problems and mental health issues among individuals. Therefore, there is a need to assess sleep efficiency during this tough period. Unfortunately, the commonly used instrument on insomnia severity-the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI)-has never been translated and validated among Bangladeshis. Additionally, the ISI has never been validated during a major protracted disaster (such as the COVID-19 outbreak) when individuals encounter mental health problems. The present study aimed to translate the ISI into Bangla language (ISI-Bangla) and validate its psychometric properties. First, the linguistic validity of the ISI-Bangla was established. Then, 9790 Bangladeshis (mean age = 26.7 years; SD = 8.5; 5489 [56.1%] males) completed the Bangla versions of the following questionnaires: ISI, Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S), and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). All the participants also answered an item on suicidal ideation. Classical test theory and Rasch analyses were conducted to evaluate the psychometric properties of the ISI-Bangla. Both classical test theory and Rasch analyses support a one-factor structure for the ISI-Bangla. Moreover, no substantial differential item functioning was observed across different subgroups (gender, depression status (determined using PHQ-9), and suicidal ideation). Additionally, concurrent validity of the ISI-Bangla was supported by significant and moderate correlations with FCV-19S and PHQ-9; known-group validity was established by the significant difference of the ISI-Bangla scores between participants who experienced suicidal ideation and those without. The present psychometric validation conducted during the COVID-19 outbreak suggests that the ISI-Bangla is a promising and operationally adequate instrument to assess insomnia in Bangladeshis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Adult , Humans , Male , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology
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