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1.
Psico USF ; 26(spe): 33-44, 2021. tab
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-2197459

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to estimate validity evidence based on the internal structure and accuracy of the adapted version of the Learning Strategies Assessment Scale for High School (EAVAP-EM), using Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). Participants were 701 first- to third-year high school students (M = 16.1; SD = 1.0), from public and private institutions in the states of Paraná and São Paulo. The CFA indicated the presence of the three factors of the EAVAP-EM, with adequate internal consistency. The instrument also showed good fit indices. There were positive and significant correlations between the factors, with magnitude ranging from medium to large. Moreover, students reported making more use of metacognitive strategies. The results evinced significant advances regarding measures with good psychometric parameters to assess learning strategies, considering their relevance to the psychoeducational context (AU).


Objetivou-se no presente estudo estimar indicadores de validade com base na estrutura interna e precisão da versão adaptada da Escala de Avaliação das Estratégias de Aprendizagem para o Ensino Médio (EAVAP-EM), por meio de uma análise fatorial confirmatória (AFC). Participaram 701 alunos do primeiro ao terceiro ano do Ensino Médio (M = 16,1; DP = 1,0), provenientes de instituições públicas e particulares dos estados do Paraná e de São Paulo. A AFC indicou a presença dos três fatores da EAVAP-EM, com consistência interna considerada adequada, sendo que o instrumento apresentou bons índices de ajuste. Houve correlações positivas e significativas entre os fatores, com magnitude variando de média a grande. Ainda, os estudantes reportaram fazer mais uso de estratégias metacognitivas. Os resultados evidenciam importantes avanços no que concerne a medidas com bons indicadores psicométricos para avaliação das estratégias de aprendizagem, considerando sua relevância ao contexto psicoeducacional (AU).


El objetivo del presente estudio fue estimar evidencias de validez a partir de la estructura interna y la precisión de la versión adaptada de la Escala de Evaluación de Estrategias de Aprendizaje para la Escuela Preparatoria (EAVAP-EM), mediante un Análisis Factorial Confirmatorio (AFC). Participaron 701 estudiantes de primero a tercer año de secundaria (M = 16.1; DS = 1.0), de instituciones públicas y privadas de las provincias de Paraná y São Paulo. El AFC indicó la presencia de los tres factores del EAVAP-EM, con consistencia interna considerada adecuada. El instrumento mostró índices de ajuste adecuados. Hubo correlaciones positivas y significativas entre los factores, cuya magnitud varió de moderada a alta. Además, los estudiantes informaron que hacen un mayor uso de las estrategias metacognitivas. Los resultados evidencian avances importantes en cuanto a medidas con buenos indicadores psicométricos para evaluar estrategias de aprendizaje, considerando su relevancia para el contexto psicoeducativo (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Psychometrics , Metacognition , Learning , Students/psychology , Reproducibility of Results , Education, Primary and Secondary
2.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(3): e26719, 2021 03 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2197901

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patient travel history can be crucial in evaluating evolving infectious disease events. Such information can be challenging to acquire in electronic health records, as it is often available only in unstructured text. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess the feasibility of annotating and automatically extracting travel history mentions from unstructured clinical documents in the Department of Veterans Affairs across disparate health care facilities and among millions of patients. Information about travel exposure augments existing surveillance applications for increased preparedness in responding quickly to public health threats. METHODS: Clinical documents related to arboviral disease were annotated following selection using a semiautomated bootstrapping process. Using annotated instances as training data, models were developed to extract from unstructured clinical text any mention of affirmed travel locations outside of the continental United States. Automated text processing models were evaluated, involving machine learning and neural language models for extraction accuracy. RESULTS: Among 4584 annotated instances, 2659 (58%) contained an affirmed mention of travel history, while 347 (7.6%) were negated. Interannotator agreement resulted in a document-level Cohen kappa of 0.776. Automated text processing accuracy (F1 85.6, 95% CI 82.5-87.9) and computational burden were acceptable such that the system can provide a rapid screen for public health events. CONCLUSIONS: Automated extraction of patient travel history from clinical documents is feasible for enhanced passive surveillance public health systems. Without such a system, it would usually be necessary to manually review charts to identify recent travel or lack of travel, use an electronic health record that enforces travel history documentation, or ignore this potential source of information altogether. The development of this tool was initially motivated by emergent arboviral diseases. More recently, this system was used in the early phases of response to COVID-19 in the United States, although its utility was limited to a relatively brief window due to the rapid domestic spread of the virus. Such systems may aid future efforts to prevent and contain the spread of infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases, Emerging/diagnosis , Electronic Health Records , Information Storage and Retrieval/methods , Public Health Surveillance/methods , Travel/statistics & numerical data , Algorithms , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Feasibility Studies , Female , Humans , Machine Learning , Male , Middle Aged , Natural Language Processing , Reproducibility of Results , United States/epidemiology
3.
Indian J Med Res ; 155(1): 156-164, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2201766

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: COVID-19 pandemic has triggered social stigma towards individuals affected and their families. This study describes the process undertaken for the development and validation of scales to assess stigmatizing attitudes and experiences among COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 participants from the community. Methods: COVID-19 Stigma Scale and Community COVID-19 Stigma Scale constituting 13 and six items, respectively, were developed based on review of literature and news reports, expert committee evaluation and participants' interviews through telephone for a multicentric study in India. For content validity, 61 (30 COVID-19-recovered and 31 non-COVID-19 participants from the community) were recruited. Test-retest reliability of the scales was assessed among 99 participants (41 COVID-19 recovered and 58 non-COVID-19). Participants were administered the scale at two-time points after a gap of 7-12 days. Cronbach's alpha, overall percentage agreement and kappa statistics were used to assess internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Results: Items in the scales were relevant and comprehensible. Both the scales had Cronbach's α above 0.6 indicating moderate-to-good internal consistency. Test-retest reliability assessed using kappa statistics indicated that for the COVID-19 Stigma Scale, seven items had a moderate agreement (0.4-0.6). For the Community COVID-19 Stigma Scale, four items had a moderate agreement. Interpretation & conclusions: Validity and reliability of the two stigma scales indicated that the scales were comprehensible and had moderate internal consistency. These scales could be used to assess COVID-19 stigma and help in the development of appropriate stigma reduction interventions for COVID-19 infected, and mitigation of stigmatizing attitudes in the community.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Stigma , Humans , India/epidemiology , Pandemics , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , Surveys and Questionnaires
4.
Indian J Med Res ; 155(1): 86-90, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2201765

ABSTRACT

To implement the strategy of test, track and treat to tackle the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, the number of real-time RT-PCR-based testing laboratories was increased for diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 in the country. To ensure reliability of the laboratory results, the Indian Council of Medical Research initiated external quality assessment (EQA) by deploying inter-laboratory quality control (ILQC) activity for these laboratories by nominating 34 quality control (QC) laboratories. This report presents the results of this activity for a period of September 2020 till November 2020. A total of 597 laboratories participated in this activity and 86 per cent of these scored ≥90 per cent concordance with QC laboratories. This ILQC activity showcased India's preparedness in quality diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Humans , Pandemics , Reproducibility of Results , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
5.
BMC Psychol ; 10(1): 280, 2022 Nov 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196477

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Fear is one of the basic emotions generated during periods of infectious diseases. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop and validate a scale that assesses monkeypox fear, the Monkeypox Fear Scale (MFS). METHODS: A total of 451 Peruvians participated (61% women and 39% men), with a mean age of 28.31 years (SD = 9.72). based on procedures from classical test theory (CTT) and item response theory (IRT). Classical Test Theory (CTT) and Item Response Theory (IRT) procedures were used. RESULTS: The results showed that MFS has a two-factor structure related to emotional and physiological fear factors (χ2 = 41.87; df = 12; p < .001; CFI = .99; TLI = .99; RMSEA = .074 [IC90% .051-.100]). In addition, the physiological and emotional factors showed good reliability. Measurement invariance analysis showed that the factor structure of the MFS is strictly invariant between male and female groups. Finally, the discrimination and difficulty parameters of the items show adequacy. In addition, the scale seems to be more accurate in measuring high levels of fear of monkeypox. CONCLUSION: The MFS has adequate psychometric evidence to assess fear of monkeypox in the Peruvian population. These findings may guide future studies related to the consequences of monkeypox on mental health.


Subject(s)
Monkeypox , Female , Humans , Male , Adult , Peru , Reproducibility of Results , Emotions , Mental Health
6.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 6375, 2022 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2185822

ABSTRACT

Since its onset in December 2019, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, SARS-CoV-2, has caused over 6.5 million deaths worldwide as of October 2022. Attempts to curb viral transmission rely heavily on reliable testing to detect infections since a large number of transmissions are carried through asymptomatic individuals. Many available detection methods fall short in terms of reliability or point-of-care applicability. Here, we report an electrochemical approach targeting a viral proteolytic enzyme, 3CLpro, as a marker of active infection. We detect proteolytic activity directly from untreated saliva within one minute of sample incubation using a reduction-oxidation pH indicator. Importantly, clinical tests of saliva samples from 50 subjects show accurate detection of SARS-CoV-2, with high sensitivity and specificity, validated by PCR testing. These, coupled with our platform's ultrafast detection, simplicity, low cost and point-of-care compatibility, make it a promising method for the real-world SARS-CoV-2 mass-screening.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Saliva , Reproducibility of Results , Electronics , Viral Proteases
7.
Rev Epidemiol Sante Publique ; 70(4): 177-182, 2022 Aug.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2182743

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Stigma underlies the violation of certain social, economic, and cultural rights of patients with schizophrenia, including their access to treatment and care. Measurement of stigma remains as complex and multifaceted as the phenomenon itself. Several measurement tools are available to assess the prevalence, intensity and qualities of stigma. The aim of the study was to carry out a cross-cultural adaptation of the Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue (EMIC), in the Moroccan Arabic dialect commonly known as "Darija". PATIENTS AND METHOD: The study was conducted in three psychiatric departments of public hospitals in the Souss-Massa region, located in southern Morocco. For the diagnosis of schizophrenia, the study was based on the decisions of the psychiatrists practicing at the study sites. The cross-cultural adaptation in Moroccan Darija of the stigma scale developed by Michel Weiss in the EMIC was carried out according to the six-step scientific method developed by Dorcas et al. RESULTS: Cronbach's alpha (internal consistency) was 0.845. Convergent validity determined by Pearson's coefficient showed a significant inter-item correlation and the intra-class correlation coefficient (test-retest) was 0.975 (0.993; 0.991). The item added in relation to the COVID-19 situation presented psychometric values similar to the others. CONCLUSION: The Darija version is culturally acceptable and can be used to approach the phenomenon of stigmatization in Morocco.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Schizophrenia , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Cultural Comparison , Humans , Language , Morocco/epidemiology , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , Schizophrenia/diagnosis , Schizophrenia/epidemiology , Schizophrenia/therapy , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
Elife ; 92020 08 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2155739

ABSTRACT

Temporal inference from laboratory testing results and triangulation with clinical outcomes extracted from unstructured electronic health record (EHR) provider notes is integral to advancing precision medicine. Here, we studied 246 SARS-CoV-2 PCR-positive (COVIDpos) patients and propensity-matched 2460 SARS-CoV-2 PCR-negative (COVIDneg) patients subjected to around 700,000 lab tests cumulatively across 194 assays. Compared to COVIDneg patients at the time of diagnostic testing, COVIDpos patients tended to have higher plasma fibrinogen levels and lower platelet counts. However, as the infection evolves, COVIDpos patients distinctively show declining fibrinogen, increasing platelet counts, and lower white blood cell counts. Augmented curation of EHRs suggests that only a minority of COVIDpos patients develop thromboembolism, and rarely, disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC), with patients generally not displaying platelet reductions typical of consumptive coagulopathies. These temporal trends provide fine-grained resolution into COVID-19 associated coagulopathy (CAC) and set the stage for personalizing thromboprophylaxis.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Blood Coagulation Disorders/diagnosis , Blood Coagulation Tests , Blood Coagulation , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Aged , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Coagulation Disorders/blood , Blood Coagulation Disorders/virology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Progression , Female , Fibrinogen/metabolism , Host Microbial Interactions , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Platelet Count , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Predictive Value of Tests , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors
9.
Front Public Health ; 10: 972348, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2154842

ABSTRACT

Background: More than 70 percent of the world's population is tortured with neck pain more than once in their vast life, of which 50-85% recur within 1-5 years of the initial episode. With medical resources affected by the epidemic, more and more people seek health-related knowledge via YouTube. This article aims to assess the quality and reliability of the medical information shared on YouTube regarding neck pain. Methods: We searched on YouTube using the keyword "neck pain" to include the top 50 videos by relevance, then divided them into five and seven categories based on their content and source. Each video was quantitatively assessed using the Journal of American Medical Association (JAMA), DISCERN, Global Quality Score (GQS), Neck Pain-Specific Score (NPSS), and video power index (VPI). Spearman correlation analysis was used to evaluate the correlation between JAMA, GQS, DISCERN, NPSS and VPI. A multiple linear regression analysis was applied to identify video features affecting JAMA, GQS, DISCERN, and NPSS. Results: The videos had a mean JAMA score of 2.56 (SD = 0.43), DISCERN of 2.55 (SD = 0.44), GQS of 2.86 (SD = 0.72), and NPSS of 2.90 (SD = 2.23). Classification by video upload source, non-physician videos had the greatest share at 38%, and sorted by video content, exercise training comprised 40% of the videos. Significant differences between the uploading sources were observed for VPI (P = 0.012), JAMA (P < 0.001), DISCERN (P < 0.001), GQS (P = 0.001), and NPSS (P = 0.007). Spearman correlation analysis showed that JAMA, DISCERN, GQS, and NPSS significantly correlated with each other (JAMA vs. DISCERN, p < 0.001, JAMA vs. GQS, p < 0.001, JAMA vs. NPSS, p < 0.001, DISCERN vs. GQS, p < 0.001, DISCERN vs. NPSS, p < 0.001, GQS vs. NPSS, p < 0.001). Multiple linear regression analysis suggested that a higher JAMA score, DISCERN, or GQS score were closely related to a higher probability of an academic, physician, non-physician or medical upload source (P < 0.005), and a higher NPSS score was associated with a higher probability of an academic source (P = 0.001) than of an individual upload source. Conclusions: YouTube videos pertaining to neck pain contain low quality, low reliability, and incomplete information. Patients may be put at risk for health complications due to inaccurate, and incomplete information, particularly during the COVID-19 crisis. Academic groups should be committed to high-quality video production and promotion to YouTube users.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Media , Humans , Information Dissemination , Pain , Patient Education as Topic , Reproducibility of Results , United States , Video Recording
10.
Open Heart ; 9(2)2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2153063

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Echocardiography is the cornerstone of heart failure (HF) diagnosis, but expertise is limited. Non-experts using handheld ultrasound devices (HUDs) challenge the clinical yield. Left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) is used for assessment and grading of HF. Mitral annular plane systolic excursion (MAPSE) reflects LV long-axis shortening. Automatic tools for quantification of EF (autoEF) and MAPSE (autoMAPSE) are available on HUDs. We aimed to explore the importance of user experience and image quality for autoEF and autoMAPSE on HUDs, and how image quality influences the feasibility, agreement and reliability in patients with suspected HF. METHODS: General practitioners, registered cardiac nurses and cardiologists represented the novice, intermediate and expert users, respectively, in this diagnostic accuracy study. 2543 images were evaluated by an external, blinded cardiologist by a five-parameter, prespecified score (four-chamber view, LV alignment, apical mispositioning, mitral annular assessment and number of visible endocardial segments) graded 0-6. RESULTS: Feasibility was higher with increasing image quality. In all recordings, irrespective of user, the average image quality score and the five prespecified scores were associated with the feasibility of autoEF and autoMAPSE (all p<0.001). Image quality was more important for the feasibility of autoMAPSE than autoEF. Image quality was not important for the agreement of autoEF (R2 2%) and autoMAPSE (R2 7%). Combining all user groups, the reliability was lower with larger within-patient variability in image quality of the repeated recordings (p≤0.005). Similar associations were not found in user group specific analyses (p≥0.16). Patients' characteristics were only weakly associated with image quality score (R2≤4%). DISCUSSION: Image quality was important for feasibility but does not explain the low agreement with reference or the modest within-patient reliability of automatic decision-support software on HUDs for all user groups in patients with suspected HF.


Subject(s)
Cardiologists , General Practitioners , Humans , Ventricular Function, Left , Reproducibility of Results , Stroke Volume
11.
Haemophilia ; 28(6): 1016-1021, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2152722

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: A complete functional assessment is essential to measure health status and treatment effects in patients with haemophilia. The Patient-Specific Functional Scale (PSFS) is a reliable, valid, simple and quick scale that measures physical function in patients with musculoskeletal disorders. However, the reliability and validity of the PSFS have not been evaluated in patients with haemophilia. AIM: The aim of this study was to validate the Patient-Specific Functional Scale in patients with haemophilia. METHODS: Twenty-eight patients with haemophilia participated in the study. They completed the PSFS and the Haemophilia Activity List (HAL) scales by telephone during an initial session, and then repeated the assessment in a follow-up session 1 week apart. Reliability was analysed by the internal correlation coefficient (ICC), the standard error of measurement (SEM) and the smallest detectable change (SDC). The concurrent validity of the PSFS was determined by correlating the initial score of the PSFS scale to the initial score of the HAL scale. Correlations were calculated by means of scatter plots and Pearson product-moment r correlation coefficient. RESULTS: ICC and SEM values showed excellent reliability for the PSFS scale, with a SDC of 1. A significant moderate correlation was found between the results of the PSFS and the HAL (r = .57, P < .001). CONCLUSION: The PSFS is a reliable and valid scale to measure the functionality of people with haemophilia.


Subject(s)
Hemophilia A , Musculoskeletal Diseases , Humans , Reproducibility of Results , Physical Therapy Modalities
12.
J Hum Hypertens ; 36(11): 945-951, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2151012

ABSTRACT

Out-of-office blood pressure (BP) measurement is considered an integral component of the diagnostic algorithm and management of hypertension. In the era of digitalization, a great deal of wearable BP measuring devices has been developed. These digital blood pressure monitors allow frequent BP measurements with minimal annoyance to the patient while they do promise radical changes regarding the diagnostic accuracy, as the importance of making an accurate diagnosis of hypertension has become evident. By increasing the number of BP measurements in different conditions, these monitors allow accurate identification of different clinical phenotypes, such as masked hypertension and pathological BP variability, that seem to have a negative impact on cardiovascular prognosis. Frequent measurements of BP and the incorporation of new features in BP variability, both enable well-rounded interpretation of BP data in the context of real-life settings. This article is a review of all different technologies and wearable BP monitoring devices.


Subject(s)
Hypertension , Wearable Electronic Devices , Humans , Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory , Blood Pressure/physiology , Reproducibility of Results , Blood Pressure Determination , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/therapy
13.
Psychiatry Res ; 316: 114728, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1955792

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: With the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, the various social distancing policies imposed have mandated psychiatrists to consider the option of using telepsychiatry as an alternative to face-to-face interview in Hong Kong. Limitations over sample size, methodology and information technology were found in previous studies and the reliability of symptoms assessment remained a concern. AIM: To evaluate the reliability of assessment of psychiatric symptoms by telepsychiatry comparing with face-to-face psychiatric interview. METHOD: This study recruited a sample of adult psychiatric patients in psychiatric wards in Queen Mary Hospital. Semi-structural interviews with the use of standardized psychiatric assessment scales were carried out in telepsychiatry and face-to-face interview respectively by two clinicians and the reliability of psychiatric symptoms elicited were assessed. RESULTS: 90 patients completed the assessments The inter-method reliability in Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale and Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale showed good agreement when compared with face-to-face interview. CONCLUSION: Symptoms assessment by telepsychiatry is comparable to assessment conducted by face-to-face interview.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychiatry , Telemedicine , Adult , Humans , Pandemics , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Psychiatry/methods , Reproducibility of Results , Symptom Assessment
14.
BMC Psychol ; 10(1): 130, 2022 May 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1849788

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Individual differences in one's perceived vulnerability to infectious diseases are implicated in psychological distress, social and behavioral disease avoidance phenomena. The Perceived Vulnerability to Disease Questionnaire (PVD) is the most extensively used measure when it comes to assessing subjective vulnerability to infectious diseases. However, this measure is not yet accessible to the Portuguese population. The present study aimed to adapt and validate the PVD with 136 Portuguese participants. METHODS: Factorial, convergent and discriminant validity (of both the scale and between each factor), and reliability analysis were assessed. RESULTS: A modified bifactorial model, comprised of Perceived Infectability and Germ Aversion factors, was obtained, with acceptable goodness-of-fit indices, adequate convergent and discriminant validity, and good internal consistencies. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the 10-items European-Portuguese PVD appears to be a reliable and valid measure of one's perceived vulnerability to disease, with potential relevance for application in both research and clinical practice pertaining to disease-avoidance processes.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases , Humans , Portugal , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , Surveys and Questionnaires
15.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(4): e25075, 2021 04 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141297

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Risk assessment of patients with acute COVID-19 in a telemedicine context is not well described. In settings of large numbers of patients, a risk assessment tool may guide resource allocation not only for patient care but also for maximum health care and public health benefit. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to determine whether a COVID-19 telemedicine risk assessment tool accurately predicts hospitalizations. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of a COVID-19 telemedicine home monitoring program serving health care workers and the community in Atlanta, Georgia, with enrollment from March 24 to May 26, 2020; the final call range was from March 27 to June 19, 2020. All patients were assessed by medical providers using an institutional COVID-19 risk assessment tool designating patients as Tier 1 (low risk for hospitalization), Tier 2 (intermediate risk for hospitalization), or Tier 3 (high risk for hospitalization). Patients were followed with regular telephone calls to an endpoint of improvement or hospitalization. Using survival analysis by Cox regression with days to hospitalization as the metric, we analyzed the performance of the risk tiers and explored individual patient factors associated with risk of hospitalization. RESULTS: Providers using the risk assessment rubric assigned 496 outpatients to tiers: Tier 1, 237 out of 496 (47.8%); Tier 2, 185 out of 496 (37.3%); and Tier 3, 74 out of 496 (14.9%). Subsequent hospitalizations numbered 3 out of 237 (1.3%) for Tier 1, 15 out of 185 (8.1%) for Tier 2, and 17 out of 74 (23%) for Tier 3. From a Cox regression model with age of 60 years or older, gender, and reported obesity as covariates, the adjusted hazard ratios for hospitalization using Tier 1 as reference were 3.74 (95% CI 1.06-13.27; P=.04) for Tier 2 and 10.87 (95% CI 3.09-38.27; P<.001) for Tier 3. CONCLUSIONS: A telemedicine risk assessment tool prospectively applied to an outpatient population with COVID-19 identified populations with low, intermediate, and high risk of hospitalization.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care , COVID-19/therapy , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Risk Assessment/methods , Telemedicine , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
16.
Lab Med ; 52(5): e137-e146, 2021 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2135433

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe a cross-institutional approach to verify the Abbott ARCHITECT SARS-CoV-2 antibody assay and to document the kinetics of the serological response. METHODS: We conducted analytical performance evaluation studies using the Abbott ARCHITECT SARS-CoV-2 antibody assay on 5 Abbott ARCHITECT i2000 automated analyzers at 2 academic medical centers. RESULTS: Within-run and between-run coefficients of variance (CVs) for the antibody assay did not exceed 5.6% and 8.6%, respectively, for each institution. Quantitative and qualitative results agreed for lithium heparin plasma, EDTA-plasma and serum specimen types. Results for all SARS-CoV-2 IgG-positive and -negative specimens were concordant among analyzers except for 1 specimen at 1 institution. Qualitative and quantitative agreement was observed for specimens exchanged between institutions. All patients had detectable antibodies by day 10 from symptom onset and maintained seropositivity throughout specimen procurement. CONCLUSIONS: The analytical performance characteristics of the Abbott ARCHITECT SARS-CoV-2 antibody assay within and between 2 academic medical center clinical laboratories were acceptable for widespread clinical-laboratory use.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing/standards , COVID-19/diagnosis , Immunoassay/standards , Immunoglobulin G/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Academic Medical Centers , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Observer Variation , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sensitivity and Specificity , Virginia
17.
Psychol Assess ; 34(4): 379-389, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2133253

ABSTRACT

The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) family of instruments has been commonly used for the evaluation of patients seeking surgical intervention for back pain. A new version of the MMPI, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-3 (MMPI-3), has been released with updated normative data, expanded and revised item content, and updated scales. The purpose of this investigation is to report reliability and validity findings for MMPI-3 scale scores of patients seeking spine surgery. Using a sample of 761 spine surgery candidates (390 men and 371 women), descriptive data, reliability and standard error of measurement, and zero-order correlations using external criteria (self-report and information gathered from a medical record review/clinical interview) were calculated. By and large, men and women produced MMPI-3 scale scores that were similar with a few exceptions. Many reliability estimates and standard errors of measurement were replicable compared to those reported for the MMPI-3 normative sample for scales that yielded adequate range. The scale scores of the MMPI-3 also yielded evidence of good convergent and discriminant validity when correlated with external criteria. Indeed, MMPI-3 scale scores accounted for 2%-15% of incremental variance in data obtained via the clinical interview and medical chart, once other self-report measures were accounted for. Overall, many of the MMPI-3 scale scores used in spine surgery evaluations appear to be reliable and valid. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
MMPI , Female , Humans , Male , Reproducibility of Results , Self Report
18.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1003876, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2142340

ABSTRACT

Background: Over the course of the COVID-19 pandemic, previous studies have shown that the physical as well as the mental health of children and adolescents significantly deteriorated. Future anxiety caused by the COVID-19 pandemic and its associations with quality of life has not previously been examined in school children. Methods: As part of a cross-sectional web-based survey at schools in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany, two years after the outbreak of the pandemic, school children were asked about COVID-19-related future anxiety using the German epidemic-related Dark Future Scale for children (eDFS-K). Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was assessed using the self-reported KIDSCREEN-10. The eDFS-K was psychometrically analyzed (internal consistency and confirmatory factor analysis) and thereafter examined as a predictor of HRQoL in a general linear regression model. Results: A total of N = 840 8-18-year-old children and adolescents were included in the analysis. The eDFS-K demonstrated adequate internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's α = 0.77), and the confirmatory factor analysis further supported the one-factor structure of the four-item scale with an acceptable model fit. Over 43% of students were found to have low HRQoL. In addition, 47% of the students sometimes to often reported COVID-19-related fears about the future. Children with COVID-19-related future anxiety had significantly lower HRQoL (B = - 0.94, p < 0.001). Other predictors of lower HRQoL were older age (B = - 0.63, p < 0.001), and female (B = - 3.12, p < 0.001) and diverse (B = - 6.82, p < 0.001) gender. Conclusion: Two years after the outbreak of the pandemic, school-aged children continue to exhibit low HRQoL, which is further exacerbated in the presence of COVID-19-related future anxiety. Intervention programs with an increased focus on mental health also addressing future anxiety should be provided.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quality of Life , Child , Humans , Adolescent , Female , Quality of Life/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Reproducibility of Results , Pandemics , Anxiety/epidemiology
19.
Front Public Health ; 10: 888097, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2142311

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in enormous increases in laboratory activities to keep pace with diagnostic testing and research efforts. However, traditional training, technical assistance, and capacity-building approaches were disrupted by the travel and movement restrictions put in place to control the spread of the disease. To address the needs of laboratorians and managers to conduct laboratory activities safely and securely during the pandemic, a highly interactive virtual training (IVT) workshop on biorisk management during COVID-19 was conducted through active learning strategies that connected speakers with participants. The objective of the training was to increase the basic knowledge and standards of biosafety and biosecurity practices, risk assessment, and control measures with reference specifically to the context of the COVID-19 pandemic and apply a rigorous evaluation methodology to assess the effectiveness of the IVT. The training covered a broad range of topics and encompassed national to international guidelines. Methods: Participants were selected through official channels at the national level, focusing on institutions within Pakistan. The sessions included lectures from international experts in biorisk management concepts, and incorporated poll questions as well as pre- and post-tests and feedback on the speakers' knowledge and presentation skills, to increase interactivity. The pre- and post-test comprised similar multiple-choice questions and provided to every participant to ascertain the impact of the training on awareness and knowledge of biorisk management topics and concepts, and results were compared using paired t-tests. For feedback on the speakers, participants were asked to submit their ratings measured on a five-point Likert scale. The reliability of the Likert scale was estimated using Cronbach's alpha. Analyses were performed using Microsoft Excel and SPSS version 23. Results: In total, 52 individuals from different laboratories across Pakistan and Pakistani students from abroad (China) as well participated in at least one session of the IVT. The participants' pre- and post-test scores showed a significant increase in knowledge and awareness (p < 0.001). The obtained Cronbach's alpha score was >0.8, indicating high reliability of the generated feedback on the IVT approach and speakers. Conclusion: The IVT on biosafety and biosecurity in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic proved beneficial for laboratory professionals and could be a useful model to continue in the future for raising awareness and knowledge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , Reproducibility of Results , Containment of Biohazards/methods , Laboratories
20.
Front Immunol ; 13: 981693, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2142011

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Emergence of new variants of SARS-CoV-2 might affect vaccine efficacy. Therefore, assessing the capacity of sera to neutralize variants of concern (VOCs) in BSL-2 conditions will help evaluating the immune status of population following vaccination or infection. Methods: Pseudotyped viruses bearing SARS-CoV-2 spike protein from Wuhan-Hu-1/D614G strains (wild type, WT), B.1.617.2 (Delta), or B.1.1.529 (Omicron) VOCs were generated to assess the neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) activity by a pseudovirus-based neutralization assay (PVNA). PVNA performance was assessed in comparison to the micro-neutralization test (MNT) based on live viruses. Sera collected from COVID-19 convalescents and vaccinees receiving mRNA (BNT16b2 or mRNA-1273) or viral vector (AZD1222 or Ad26.COV2.S) vaccines were used to measure nAbs elicited by two-dose BNT16b2, mRNA-1273, AZD1222 or one-dose Ad26.CO2.S, at different times from completed vaccination, ~ 1.5 month and ~ 4-6 months. Sera from pre-pandemic and unvaccinated individuals were analyzed as controls. Neutralizing activity following booster vaccinations against VOCs was also determined. Results: PVNA titers correlated with the gold standard MNT assay, validating the reliability of PVNA. Sera analyzed late from the second dose showed a reduced neutralization activity compared to sera collected earlier. Ad26.CO2.S vaccination led to very low or absent nAbs. Neutralization of Delta and Omicron BA.1 VOCs showed significant reduction of nAbs respect to WT strain. Importantly, booster doses enhanced Omicron BA.1 nAbs, with persistent levels at 3 months from boosting. Conclusions: PVNA is a reliable tool for assessing anti-SARS-CoV-2 nAbs helping the establishment of a correlate of protection and the management of vaccination strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , RNA Viruses , Ad26COVS1 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19/prevention & control , Carbon Dioxide , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Humans , Membrane Glycoproteins/metabolism , RNA, Messenger , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Viral Envelope Proteins
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