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2.
Med Sci Monit ; 28: e935879, 2022 Mar 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753960

ABSTRACT

According to world statistics, men are more susceptible to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) than are women. Considering the interconnection between infections and male infertility, investigation of the potential impact of COVID-19 on men's reproductive health is now a particularly relevant topic. Published data indicate decreased sperm quality and orchitis development in patients with COVID-19, including reduced sperm count, decreased sperm motility, and elevated DNA fragmentation index. Although mass vaccination against COVID-19 is currently being carried out worldwide using available authorized vaccines, the effect of these vaccines on men's reproductive health has not yet been investigated. There is currently no evidence that SARS-CoV-2 can be transmitted in semen, but available data suggest that it can infect spermatogonia, spermatids, Leydig cells, and Sertoli cells. Therefore, SARS-CoV-2 orchitis and reduced male fertility may be long-term complications of COVID-19, which requires further investigation. Currently, there is also no evidence that vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 have any pathological effects on spermatogenesis or male reproductive health. Thus, further studies are needed to determine the effects of COVID-19 and COVID-19 vaccines on men's reproductive health, which will help to optimize the management and rehabilitation of these patients. This review aims to discuss recent studies on the impact of the COVID-19 and COVID-19 vaccines on men's reproductive health. The article addresses various issues such as the effect of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) on testosterone biosynthesis, semen parameters, testicular tissue, and epididymis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/immunology , Sperm Motility/drug effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Humans , Male , Reproductive Health/trends , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sperm Motility/physiology , Viral Vaccines/immunology
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(6)2022 03 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742455

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic and resultant lockdowns have brought unprecedented challenges for Maternal, Sexual and Reproductive Health (MSRH) services. Components of MSRH services adversely affected include antenatal, postnatal, and newborn care; provision of family planning and post-abortion care services; sexual and gender-based violence care and prevention; and care and treatment for sexually transmitted infections including HIV. Resuscitating, remodeling or inventing interventions to restore or maintain these essential services at the community level, as a gateway to higher care, is critical to mitigating short and long-term effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on essential MSRH. We propose a possible framework for community involvement and propose integrating key information, education, and communication of MSRH messages within COVID-19 messages.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Community Participation , Female , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pregnancy , Reproductive Health
4.
BMJ Open ; 12(3): e051216, 2022 03 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1741624

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights (SRHR) of young people continue to present a high burden and remain underinvested. This is more so in low and middle-income countries (LMICs), where empirical evidence reveals disruption of SRHR maintenance, need for enhancement of programmes, resources and services during pandemics. Despite the importance of the subject, there is no published review yet combining recent disease outbreaks such as (H1N1/09, Zika, Ebola and SARS-COV-2) to assess their impact on adolescents and youth SRHR in LMICs. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will adopt a four-step search to reach the maximum possible number of studies. In the first step, we will carry out a limitedpreliminary search in databases for getting relevant keywords (appendix 1). Second, we will search in four databases: Pubmed, Cochrane Library, Embase and PsycINFO. The search would begin from the inception of the first major outbreak in 2009 (H1N1/09) up to the date of publication of the protocol in early 2022. We will search databases using related keywords, screen title & abstract and review full texts of the selected titles to arrive at the list of eligible studies. In the third stage, we will check their eligibility to the included article's reference list. In the fourth stage, we will check the citations of included papers in phase 2 to complete our study selection. We will include all types of original studies and without any language restriction in our final synthesis. Our review results will be charted for each pandemic separately and include details pertaining to authors, year, country, region of the study, study design, participants (disaggregated by age and gender), purpose and report associated SRHR outcomes. The review will adhere to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews guideline (PRISMA-ScR). PATIENT AND PUBLIC INVOLVEMENT: Patients or public were not involved in this study. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical assessment is not required for this study. The results of the study will be presented in peer-reviewed publications and conferences on adolescent SRHR.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Developing Countries , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Reproductive Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology
5.
Fertil Steril ; 117(4): 708-712, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1734396

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the experience of the ASRM COVID-19 Task Force over the past 2 years and to discuss lessons learned during the pandemic that can be applied to future public health crises. DESIGN: Descriptive narrative. SUBJECTS: None. INTERVENTION: Creation of the ASRM COVID-19 Task Force in March 2020. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: None. RESULTS: Effective pandemic management requires a joint effort on the part of physicians, scientists, government agencies, subject area experts and funders. CONCLUSION: Reproduction is a fundamental human right that should be protected at all times. Advanced preparation for future pandemics should include appointment of a standing group of experts so that a response is both informed and immediate when a public health crisis arises. This approach will help ensure that the ultimate objective - preserving the safety and well-being of patients and health care workers - is fulfilled. The recommendations put forth in this paper from the ASRM's Center for Policy and Leadership can be used as a template to prepare for future public health threats.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Reproductive Medicine , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Leadership , Pandemics/prevention & control , Public Health , Public Policy , Reproduction , Reproductive Health , United States/epidemiology
6.
Nurs Outlook ; 70(2): 238-246, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1712897

ABSTRACT

Challenges to women's health in the context of COVID-19 is based on their unique experience shaped by sex/gender. This paper provides clinical practice-, research-, and policy-related commentary on key COVID-19 pandemic factors impinging on women's sexual/reproductive health (SRH) and care access, particularly in the context of pregnancy, childbirth, sexual/gender variations, and concurrent chronic conditions. Women tend to have less severe outcomes from COVID-19 than men but certain sub-groups are more vulnerable than others. Yet few United States studies have disaggregated the data accordingly. Forming a basis for well-informed policy generation, needed is more research specific to COVID-19 vulnerability/risk factors and outcomes for groups of women by age, race and socioeconomic and cultural determinants. Access to SRH-related clinical services has been diminished during the pandemic, making a priority for restoring/preserving inclusive SRH care for women, for example, family planning, healthy pregnancies, age-related disease screening and treatment, and health/wellness promotion. Important concerns include severity of the disease, morbidity in pregnant and postpartum women, increased risk to the fetus, virus transmission to fetus or newborn, and impact of lack care access. Uncertainty in current knowledge is heavily related to lack of sex specific data.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Reproductive Health , Sexual Behavior , United States/epidemiology , Women's Health
7.
Sex Reprod Health Matters ; 30(1): 2029338, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1704003

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 threatens hard-won gains in sexual and reproductive health (SRH) through compromising the ability of services to meet needs. Youth are particularly threatened due to existing barriers to their access to services. CHIEDZA is a community-based integrated SRH intervention for youth being trialled in Zimbabwe. CHIEDZA closed in March 2020, in response to national lockdown, and reopened in May 2020, categorised as an essential service. We aimed to understand the impact of CHIEDZA's closure and its reopening, with adaptations to reduce COVID-19 transmission, on provider and youth experiences. Qualitative methods included interviews with service providers (n = 22) and youth (n = 26), and observations of CHIEDZA sites (n = 10) and intervention team meetings (n = 7). Analysis was iterative and inductive. The sudden closure of CHIEDZA impeded youth access to SRH services. The reopening of CHIEDZA was welcomed, but the necessary adaptations impacted the intervention and engagement with it. Adaptations restricted time with healthcare providers, heightening the tension between numbers of youths accessing the service and quality of service provision. The removal of social activities, which had particularly appealed to young men, impacted youth engagement and access to services, particularly for males. This paper demonstrates how a community-based youth-centred SRH intervention has been affected by and adapted to COVID-19. We demonstrate how critical ongoing service provision is, but how adaptations negatively impact service provision and youth engagement. The impact of adaptations additionally emphasises how time with non-judgemental providers, social activities, and integrated services are core components of youth-friendly services, not added extras.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Reproductive Health , Adolescent , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Zimbabwe
8.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 106, 2022 Jan 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1703683

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite the availability of a range of contraceptive methods, young people around the world still face barriers in accessing and using them. The use of digital technology for the delivery of health interventions has expanded rapidly. Intervention delivery by mobile phone can be a useful way to address young people's needs with regard to sexual and reproductive health, because the information can be digested at a time of the recipients' choosing. This study reports the adaptation of an evidence-based contraceptive behavioural intervention for young people in Zimbabwe. METHODS: Focus group discussions and in depth interviews were used to evaluate the 'fit' of the existing intervention among young people in Harare, Zimbabwe. This involved determining how aligned the content of the existing intervention was to the knowledge and beliefs of young Zimbabweans plus identifying the most appropriate intervention deliver mode. The verbatim transcripts were analysed using a thematic analysis. The existing intervention was then adapted, tested and refined in subsequent focus group discussions and interviews with young people in Harare and Bulawayo. RESULTS: Eleven key themes resulted from the discussions evaluating the fit of the intervention. While there were many similarities to the original study population, key differences were that young people in Zimbabwe had lower levels of personal and smart mobile phone ownership and lower literacy levels. Young people were enthusiastic about receiving information about side effects/side benefits of the methods. The iterative testing and refinement resulted in adapted intervention consisting of 97 messages for female recipients (94 for male), delivered over three months and offered in English, Shona and Ndebele. CONCLUSIONS: Young people in Zimbabwe provided essential information for adapting the existing intervention. There was great support for the adapted intervention among the young people who took part in this study. The adapted intervention is now being implemented within an integrated community-based sexual and reproductive health service in Zimbabwe.


Subject(s)
Cell Phone , Contraceptive Agents , Adolescent , Contraception , Female , Humans , Male , Reproductive Health , Zimbabwe
9.
Int J Impot Res ; 34(2): 158-163, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692623

ABSTRACT

We aimed to assess the impact of postponing sexual or reproductive health surgeries on patients' psychosocial distress and personal or occupational life during the COVID-19 pandemic. A total of 77 elective sexual or reproductive health surgeries were postponed. Of them, 38 patients are still on the waiting list for an appointment and, despite our efforts, we managed to operate only 39 patients when operation capacity returned to a normal level. At the time of surgery, all patients were requested to complete a 14-item questionnaire, assessing patients' perception of the COVID-19 pandemic. Patients marked the necessity of operation at the time of initial postponement as urgent and as highly urgent at the time of surgery. Due to the postponement of surgery, they reported experiencing severe restrictions in private life and more concerns and worries for their disease. Interestingly, patients who could not perform sexual intercourse due to the underlying disease wanted to receive surgery more urgently (p = 0.001) and displayed more restrictions in private life (p = 0.007). On the contrary, the duration of surgery postponement was not associated with worse outcomes. Overall, postponement of surgery poses a huge psychological burden that leads to further personal restrictions. Patients that cannot perform sexual intercourse should be prioritized for treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dreams , Elective Surgical Procedures , Humans , Pandemics , Reproductive Health
11.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0261034, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686093

ABSTRACT

Despite billions of dollars invested into Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights (SRHR) efforts, the effect of incorporating sexual pleasure, a key driver of why people have sex, in sexual health interventions is currently unclear. We carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis following PRISMA guidelines across 7 databases for relevant articles published between 1 January 2005-1 June, 2020. We included 33 unique interventions in our systematic review. Eight interventions reporting condom use outcomes were meta-analyzed together with a method random effects model. Quality appraisal was carried out through the Cochrane Collaborations' RoB2 tool. This study was pre-registered on Prospero (ID: CRD42020201822). We identified 33 unique interventions (18886 participants at baseline) that incorporate pleasure. All included interventions targeted HIV/STI risk reduction, none occurred in the context of pregnancy prevention or family planning. We find that the majority of interventions targeted populations that authors classified as high-risk. We were able to meta-analyze 8 studies (6634 participants at baseline) reporting condom use as an outcome and found an overall moderate, positive, and significant effect of Cohen's d = 0·37 (95% CI 0·20-0·54, p < 0·001; I2 = 48%; τ2 = 0·043, p = 0·06). Incorporating sexual pleasure within SRHR interventions can improve sexual health outcomes. Our meta-analysis provides evidence about the positive impact of pleasure-incorporating interventions on condom use which has direct implications for reductions in HIV and STIs. Qualitatively, we find evidence that pleasure can have positive effects across different informational and knowledge-based attitudes as well. Future work is needed to further elucidate the impacts of pleasure within SRHR and across different outcomes and populations. Taking all the available evidence into account, we recommend that agencies responsible for sexual and reproductive health consider incorporating sexual pleasure considerations within their programming.


Subject(s)
Sexual Health , Databases, Factual , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Reproductive Health , Right to Health , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/prevention & control
12.
Aust J Prim Health ; 28(2): 131-136, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1671746

ABSTRACT

Australians were subject to a series of COVID-19 lockdown restrictions throughout 2020. Although accessing medical care was allowable, concerns were raised that people were avoiding healthcare services. We explored young Australians' reasons for delaying seeking sexual and reproductive health (SRH) care during the pandemic, using data from two cross-sectional surveys. The surveys included a question asking whether respondents had delayed accessing care during the pandemic. Free-text responses from young Australians (aged 18-29 years) were analysed using conventional content analysis. In all, 1058 under-30s completed a survey, with 262 (24.8%) reporting they had delayed seeking SRH care. Of these, 228 (87.0%) respondents provided a free-text comment. Participants who commented were predominantly female (86.4%) and had a median age of 23 years (interquartile range 20-26 years). Most commonly, respondents delayed testing for sexually transmissible infections, cervical cancer screening, and contraceptive care. Some delayed accessing care despite experiencing symptoms. Participants avoided seeking care due to concerns about contracting COVID-19, uncertainty about accessing care during restrictions and anxiety relating to accessing SRH care. Although some reported a reduced need for SRH care, others required but did not access care. Young people should be reassured that SRH issues are a valid reason to access services, especially when experiencing symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Reproductive Health Services , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Adolescent , Adult , Australia , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Early Detection of Cancer , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Reproductive Health , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(3)2022 Jan 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1667134

ABSTRACT

The accumulated evidence maps the COVID-19 pandemic's diverse impacts on sexual and reproductive health (SRH); however, the precise changes in sexual behaviours and the underlying causes producing these changes are rarely considered. This study is aimed at assessing the changes in sexual behaviours during the COVID-19 pandemic in Germany, using quantitative methods, and it is also aimed at identifying the underlying reasons, using qualitative methods. It is a part of the broader I-SHARE project, which administered a cross-sectional online survey in 33 countries to describe the effects of the COVID-19 restrictions on different aspects of SRH. In the current study, a total of 611 adults from Germany are included. The findings demonstrate a decline in sexual satisfaction, as well as increases in sexual problems and partnership conflicts. Furthermore, the findings indicate an increase in pornography consumption and masturbation. Psychological stress, due to the pandemic, seemed to be the main reason for the changes in the participants' sexual behaviours, followed by a decrease in social contacts, and an increase in time resources. Thus, it is important to provide accessible clinical and psychosocial (online) interventions and services in order to maintain good sexual health in times of pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sexual Health , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Reproductive Health , SARS-CoV-2
14.
J Womens Health (Larchmt) ; 30(12): 1673-1680, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1665857

ABSTRACT

This report provides historical context and rationale for coordinated, systematic, and evidence-based public health emergency preparedness and response (EPR) activities to address the needs of women of reproductive age. Needs of pregnant and postpartum women, and infants-before, during, and after public health emergencies-are highlighted. Four focus areas and related activities are described: (1) public health science; (2) clinical guidance; (3) partnerships, communication, and outreach; and (4) workforce development. Finally, the report summarizes major activities of the Division of Reproductive Health's EPR Team at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.


Subject(s)
Civil Defense , Disaster Planning , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Communication , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Public Health , Reproductive Health , United States
15.
Arch Sex Behav ; 51(1): 315-329, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1636299

ABSTRACT

People with HIV navigate numerous challenges to access healthcare in India. The lockdown in response to the COVID-19 pandemic presents further challenges in accessing sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services. This research explored the impact of the pandemic on SRH services, and the depth of disruptions faced by people living with HIV (PLHIV) in accessing treatment. Using purposive sampling with maximum variation technique, we recruited and conducted 150 telephonic in-depth interviews with PLHIV and HIV care providers (HCPs) from five states in India (Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, and Telangana). The interviews were recorded, transcribed, coded, and analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Five main themes were identified: the effect of COVID-19 on (1) access to care, (2) quality of care, (3) social determinants of health, (4) system and community resilience, and (5) support required to address population-specific vulnerabilities. Despite the availability of free government treatment services during the pandemic, profound disruptions in the SRH services, particularly antiretroviral therapy and HIV care, were reported by PLHIV and HCPs. This qualitative study revealed how existing inequities in HIV treatment and care are exacerbated by the pandemic. These findings highlight that the pandemic response should be community-centered to prevent extreme disruptions in healthcare which will have a disastrous effect on the lives of PLHIV.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Reproductive Health Services , Communicable Disease Control , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , India , Pandemics , Reproductive Health , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Reprod Health ; 18(1): 252, 2021 Dec 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1635726

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Despite gendered dimensions of COVID-19 becoming increasingly apparent, the impact of COVID-19 and other respiratory epidemics on women and girls' sexual and reproductive health (SRH) have yet to be synthesized. This review uses a reproductive justice framework to systematically review empirical evidence of the indirect impacts of respiratory epidemics on SRH. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE and CINAHL for original, peer-reviewed articles related to respiratory epidemics and women and girls' SRH through May 31, 2021. Studies focusing on various SRH outcomes were included, however those exclusively examining pregnancy, perinatal-related outcomes, and gender-based violence were excluded due to previously published systematic reviews on these topics. The review consisted of title and abstract screening, full-text screening, and data abstraction. RESULTS: Twenty-four studies met all eligibility criteria. These studies emphasized that COVID-19 resulted in service disruptions that effected access to abortion, contraceptives, HIV/STI testing, and changes in sexual behaviors, menstruation, and pregnancy intentions. CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight the need to enact policies that ensure equitable, timely access to quality SRH services for women and girls, despite quarantine and distancing policies. Research gaps include understanding how COVID-19 disruptions in SRH service provision, access and/or utilization have impacted underserved populations and those with intersectional identities, who faced SRH inequities notwithstanding an epidemic. More robust research is also needed to understand the indirect impact of COVID-19 and epidemic control measures on a wider range of SRH outcomes (e.g., menstrual disorders, fertility services, gynecologic oncology) in the long-term.


The impact of respiratory epidemics, like COVID-19 on women and girls' sexual and reproductive health (SRH) is not yet known. This review applies a reproductive justice framework, to systematically review the impact of respiratory epidemics on SRH, in order to examine the impact of COVID-19 on equitable, sustained access to quality SRH services for all populations. This framework highlights the right to reproductive autonomy, including the right to have an abortion, conceive, bear and raise children; and is inclusive of the intersectionality of race, class and gender. This review includes original, peer-reviewed research related to COVID-19 and women and girls' SRH through May 31, 2021, and consisted of title and abstract screening, full-text screening, and data abstraction. Overall, twenty-four studies met eligibility criteria. Results emphasize that the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in service disruptions that effected access to abortion, contraceptives, HIV/STI testing, and changes in changes in sexual behaviors, menstruation, and pregnancy intentions. These findings highlight the urgent need to enact policies that ensure equitable, timely access to quality SRH services for women and girls, despite pandemic response policies. This review also highlights opportunities to better understand how COVID-19 related disruptions in SRH service provision, access and/or utilization have impacted underserved populations and those with intersectional identities, who faced SRH inequities prior to the COVID-19 pandemic. More research is needed to understand the indirect impact of COVID-19 and epidemic control measures on a wider range of SRH outcomes (e.g., menstrual disorders, fertility services, gynecologic oncology) in the long-term.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Reproductive Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/epidemiology , Social Justice
17.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(24)2021 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1635360

ABSTRACT

Adolescents living in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are struggling with accessing sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services, and COVID-19 has escalated the problem. The purpose of this review was to identify and assess the existing literature on the impact of the pandemic on SRH needs and access to services by adolescents in LMICs. A scoping review was conducted to collate findings on the topic. Searches were performed on eight databases. Data were extracted and categorized into various themes. After removing duplicates and performing a full-text reading of all articles, nine articles were included in our review. Our findings generated several themes related to adolescents' sexual and reproductive health during the COVID-19 pandemic. These include (1) limited access to sexual and reproductive health services, (2) school closure and increased rate of early marriages, (3) sexual or intimate partner violence during COVID-19, (4) disruption in maternity care, (5) adolescents' involvement in risky or exploitative work, (6) intervention to improve sexual and reproductive health services during COVID-19, and (7) policy development related to adolescent sexual and reproductive health. Several recommendations were made on policies-for instance, the use of telemedicine and community-based programs as a way to deliver SRH services to adolescents during and after a pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Maternal Health Services , Adolescent , Developing Countries , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Reproductive Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Sexual Behavior
18.
BMJ Open ; 12(1): e053919, 2022 01 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1627475

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify knowledge translation (KT) strategies aimed at improving sexual, reproductive, maternal, newborn, child and adolescent health (SRMNCAH) and well-being. DESIGN: Rapid scoping review. SEARCH STRATEGY: A comprehensive and peer-reviewed search strategy was developed and applied to four electronic databases: MEDLINE ALL, Embase, CINAHL and Web of Science. Additional searches of grey literature were conducted to identify KT strategies aimed at supporting SRMNCAH. KT strategies and policies published in English from January 2000 to May 2020 onwards were eligible for inclusion. RESULTS: Only 4% of included 90 studies were conducted in low-income countries with the majority (52%) conducted in high-income countries. Studies primarily focused on maternal newborn or child health and well-being. Education (81%), including staff workshops and education modules, was the most commonly identified intervention component from the KT interventions. Low-income and middle-income countries were more likely to include civil society organisations, government and policymakers as stakeholders compared with high-income countries. Reported barriers to KT strategies included limited resources and time constraints, while enablers included stakeholder involvement throughout the KT process. CONCLUSION: We identified a number of gaps among KT strategies for SRMNCAH policy and action, including limited focus on adolescent, sexual and reproductive health and rights and SRMNCAH financing strategies. There is a need to support stakeholder engagement in KT interventions across the continuum of SRMNCAH services. Researchers and policymakers should consider enhancing efforts to work with multisectoral stakeholders to implement future KT strategies and policies to address SRMNCAH priorities. REGISTRATION: The rapid scoping review protocol was registered on Open Science Framework on 16 June 2020 (https://osf.io/xpf2k).


Subject(s)
Adolescent Health , Adolescent , Child , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Policy , Reproduction , Reproductive Health
19.
Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care ; 27(2): 102-106, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1624495

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 global pandemic has led to the death of millions around the world and impacted the overall health of many people. In this article we aim to compare reproductive health indicators in the first 6 months of 2020 to the prior year, as well as explore stress and quality of life during this time. METHODS: This retrospective observational study examined the menstrual cycles of 1159 women who were using a fertility tracking device to record their menstrual cycle and BBT data. We utilised a supplemental mobile application to administer a supplemental survey to collect data on stress and quality of life. Descriptive analyses were conducted with t-tests for two-group comparisons. RESULTS: Study participants from 15 countries contributed to a total of 13,194 cycles. 23.1% (268/1159) responded to the survey focussed on assessing psychosocial distress. 44.4% (119/268) of the study participants reported that they had noticed a change in their menstrual cycle, temperature curve, or menstruation in the past 12 months. Cycle analysis found the average cycle length and pre-ovulation phase length was longer in the first 6 months of 2019, while the average days of menstruation was slightly longer in 2020. DISCUSSION: Our findings indicate that menstrual cycle indicators changed only slightly in the first 6 months of 2020 but were still statistically significant. We were also able to understand that these study participants had some level of awareness of changes to their menstrual health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Reproductive Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Menstrual Cycle , Pandemics , Quality of Life
20.
Sex Health ; 18(5): 385-393, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1596308

ABSTRACT

Background The emergence of artificial intelligence (AI) provides opportunities for demand management of sexual and reproductive health services. Conversational agents/chatbots are increasingly common, although little is known about how this technology could aid services. This study aimed to identify barriers and facilitators for engagement with sexual health chatbots to advise service developers and related health professionals. Methods In January-June 2020, we conducted face-to-face, semi-structured and online interviews to explore views on sexual health chatbots. Participants were asked to interact with a chatbot, offering advice on sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and relevant services. Participants were UK-based and recruited via social media. Data were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. Results Forty participants (aged 18-50 years; 64% women, 77% heterosexual, 58% white) took part. Many thought chatbots could aid sex education, providing useful information about STIs and sign-posting to sexual health services in a convenient, anonymous and non-judgemental way. Some compared chatbots to health professionals or Internet search engines and perceived this technology as inferior, offering constrained content and interactivity, limiting disclosure of personal information, trust and perceived accuracy of chatbot responses. Conclusions Despite mixed attitudes towards chatbots, this technology was seen as useful for anonymous sex education but less suitable for matters requiring empathy. Chatbots may increase access to clinical services but their effectiveness and safety need to be established. Future research should identify which chatbots designs and functions lead to optimal engagement with this innovation.


Subject(s)
Reproductive Health Services , Sexual Health , Adolescent , Adult , Artificial Intelligence , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Reproductive Health , Sex Education , Young Adult
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