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1.
PLoS One ; 18(5): e0286077, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2325348

ABSTRACT

Samgyeopsal has become a widely popular cuisine in the Philippines since 2014. The rise of Samgyeopsal is evident worldwide as it is available in countries such as the United States, Northern, and Southern Asia. This study aimed to explore the intention to eat Samgyeopsal during the COVID-19 pandemic utilizing structural equation modeling and random forest classifier. With a total of 1014 responses collected online, the result showed that utilitarian and hedonic motivation, Korean influence, and attitude led to very high actual behavior in east Samgyeopsal in the Philippines. Moreover, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and intention led to significant results influencing intention to actual behavior. Lastly, the COVID-19 safety protocol showed the least significant result. This study is the first study that evaluated the intention of consumers to eat Samgyeopsal in the Philippines during the COVID-19 pandemic. The results of this study would be beneficial to Korean BBQ restaurateurs and the further development of their marketing strategies even in other countries. Finally, the model construct of this study can be extended and applied in evaluating the consumers' eating intention toward other varieties of food or cuisines worldwide.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intention , Humans , Philippines , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Surveys and Questionnaires , Republic of Korea
3.
Nutrients ; 15(4)2023 Feb 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2323015

ABSTRACT

Despite the enormous global market of dietary supplements, the impact of dietary supplements on kidney disease is still unclear. Based on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2015 to 2017, this study evaluated the association between dietary supplement and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in 13,271 Korean adults. Among the dietary supplements, vitamin and mineral intake was the highest at 61.41%, followed by omega-3 fatty acids at 11.85%, and ginseng at 7.99%. The prevalence of CKD was significantly higher in those who consumed amino acids and proteins, ginseng and red ginseng, and herbal medicine (plant extract)-berries than in those who did not. Conversely, patients who consumed probiotic supplements had a significantly lower prevalence of CKD than those who did not. In the population without CKD risk factors or history of CKD, the prevalence of CKD was high in the group consuming ginseng and red ginseng. After adjusting for covariates, the herbal medicine (plant extract)-berry group showed an independent association with CKD incidence. In conclusion, it is suggested that dietary supplements may affect kidney function. Further large-scale cohort studies are required to elucidate the exact effects of each dietary supplement on CKD.


Subject(s)
Dietary Supplements , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Adult , Humans , Nutrition Surveys , Dietary Supplements/adverse effects , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Plant Extracts , Republic of Korea/epidemiology
4.
J Korean Acad Nurs ; 53(2): 208-221, 2023 Apr.
Article in Korean | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2322441

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate COVID-19 vaccination intentions in Korean parents for their children aged 5 to 11 years and the factors influencing them. METHODS: A cross-sectional online survey of 363 parents of children aged 5 to 11 years was conducted in Korea in April 2022. Data were analyzed using independent t-test, χ²-test, Fisher's exact test, and hierarchical logistic regression analysis using SPSS/WIN 26.0 and MedCalc software version 20.113. RESULTS: Of 363 Korean parents with children aged 5 to 11, 42.4% intended to vaccinate their children. Significant factors influencing vaccination intention were the second or third birth order of children (OR = 3.45, 95% CI = 1.45~8.21), vaccine hesitancy-confidence (OR = 2.00, 95% CI = 1.51~2.65), vaccine hesitancy-collective responsibility (OR = 1.57, 95% CI: 1.10~2.25), and COVID-19 anxiety-avoidance (OR = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.13~2.11). CONCLUSION: Findings suggest that COVID-19 vaccine campaigns based on reliable information and evidence from health authorities are needed to increase COVID-19 vaccination. Well-designed health communications for the target population may help to increase parental vaccine acceptance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intention , Humans , Child , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Vaccination , Parents , Republic of Korea
5.
J Korean Med Sci ; 38(19): e143, 2023 May 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2318011

ABSTRACT

We conducted a cohort study to assess vaccine effectiveness (VE) of coronavirus disease 2019 vaccine combinations on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 critical infection and death among elderly population in Korea. From January to August 2022, VE against death for 4 doses mRNA recipients was 96.1%, whereas 1-dose viral vector + 3-dose mRNA recipients had VE of 90.8%.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cohort Studies , RNA, Messenger , Republic of Korea
6.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 853, 2023 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2318005

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has affected innumerable aspects of life, including education, economy, and religion. Economic problems and inequality are associated with poor mental health in adolescents. This study aimed to identify the relationship between economic damage to families due to COVID-19 and various mental health problems in Korean adolescents and to evaluate the risk factors of mental health. METHODS: In total, 54,948 Korean adolescent students from 398 middle and 395 high schools were surveyed between August and November 2020. Complex sample logistic regression was performed to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for depression and suicidal ideation, respectively. A generalized linear model analysis was used to examine the association between mental health (unhappiness, loneliness, and stress) and the economic impact of COVID-19. Analyses were adjusted for age, gender, school grade, perceived academic achievement, perceived family economic status, and economic support. RESULTS: The ORs of depression (OR = 1.77, 95% CI:1.57-2.00), suicidal ideation (OR = 2.14, 95% CI:1.84-2.50), unhappiness (OR = 1.51 95% CI 1.42-1.60) and lonely (OR = 1.38 95% CI 1.27-1.49) for the low level of perceived family economic status was higher compared to middle level. Adolescents who experienced economic deterioration in their households as COVID-19 showed a higher risk of depression (OR = 1.42, 95% CI:1.35-1.49), suicide ideation (OR = 1.36, 95% CI:1.28-1.44), unhappiness (OR = 2.23 95% CI 2.19-2.27), lonely (OR = 1.20 95% CI 1.17-1.22), and stress (OR = 1.14 95% CI 1.12-1.16) than those who did not. CONCLUSIONS: The findings revealed an association between the decline in household economic status due to COVID-19 and mental health problems, such as stress, loneliness, suicidal ideation, depression, and unhappiness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health , Humans , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Suicidal Ideation , Risk Factors , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology
7.
Epidemiol Health ; 45: e2023015, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2317800

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study was to examine the changes in dietary habits and food and nutrient intakes between before (2019) and during (2020) the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). METHODS: A total of 54,995 participants aged ≥19 years who participated in the 2011-2020 KNHANES were included. The 10-year trend (2011-2020) and differences between 2019 and 2020 for dietary habits and food and nutrient intakes were estimated using SAS. RESULTS: In the past 10 years (2011-2020), the dietary habits (increase in skipping meals and eating out), food intake (increase in meats and decrease in fruits and vegetables), and nutrient intake (increase in fat and decrease in sodium) in adults have changed. When comparing between 2019 and 2020, there were 4.6%p decrease in the eating out more than once a day. On the other hand, there were no significant differences in the intakes of food, energy and most of nutrients between 2019 and 2020, except for the proportion of energy intake from fat (1.0%p increase) and carbohydrate (1.0%p decrease). CONCLUSIONS: Although a change in dietary habits from before to during the COVID-19 pandemic was observed, food and nutrient intakes have not deteriorated markedly and appear similar to the trends in the past 10 years. Throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, it is necessary to monitor the effects of changes in dietary habits on health as well as food and nutrient intakes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Eating , Feeding Behavior , Pandemics , Adult , Humans , Diet , Nutrition Surveys , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Food
8.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1139110, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316444

ABSTRACT

Objectives: We investigated recent trends in health behaviors and mental health conditions among Korean adolescents from 2017 to 2021 and compared the changes before and during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Methods: Data analysis was conducted on 289,415 adolescents participating in the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey, an annual cross-sectional study from 2017 to 2021. All analysis was conducted using sex stratification, and the annual percentage change (APC) was calculated. Results: Alcohol consumption and smoking decreased in the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic compared with before, except for girls from the low-income level. The prevalence of inadequate physical activity for both boys and girls increased in 2020 compared with the pre-COVID-19 period and decreased again by 2021. The prevalence of obesity in both sexes increased regardless of the period (boys, APC = 8.2%, 95% confidence intervals (CI), 6.4-10.1; girls, APC = 3.3%, 95% CI, 1.8-4.8). The prevalence of stress, depression, and suicidal ideation, plans, and attempts for both sexes decreased in 2020 compared to the pre-COVID-19 period. By 2021, this prevalence had returned to a level similar to before the pandemic. No significant APC changes were observed in the prevalence of mental health. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate the trends and APCs in health behaviors and mental health conditions among Korean adolescents over the last 5 years. We must pay attention to the heterogeneous and multifaceted features of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health , Female , Male , Humans , Adolescent , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Behavior , Republic of Korea/epidemiology
9.
Epidemiol Health ; 45: e2023006, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316325

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: In Korea, a national coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination program was implemented, including 4 vaccines against COVID-19. A text messaging-based survey, in addition to a passive adverse event reporting system, was launched to quickly report unusual symptoms post-vaccination. This study compared the frequency of adverse events after COVID-19 vaccination based on the vaccine type and the type of 2-dose regimen (homologous or heterologous). METHODS: Self-reported adverse events were collected through a text-message survey for 7 days after each vaccination. This study included 50,950 vaccine recipients who responded to the survey at least once. Informed consent to receive surveys via text was obtained from the vaccine recipients on the date of first vaccination. RESULTS: The recipients of mRNA vaccines reported local and systemic reactions 1.6 times to 2.8 times more frequently after dose 2 than after dose 1 (p<0.001), whereas ChAdOx1-S recipients reported significantly fewer local and systemic reactions after dose 2 than after dose 1 (p<0.001). Local and systemic reactions were approximately 2 times and 4 times more frequent for heterologous vaccination than for BNT162b2/BNT162b2 and ChAdOx1-S/ChAdOx1-S regimens, respectively. Young individuals, female, and those receiving heterologous vaccine regimens including ChAdOx1-S/BNT162b2 vaccines reported more adverse events than older participants, male, and those with homologous vaccine regimens. CONCLUSIONS: Although a heterologous regimen, youth, and female sex were associated with a higher risk of adverse reactions after COVID-19 vaccination, no critical issues were noted. Active consideration of heterologous schedules based on the evidence of efficacy and safety appears desirable.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Female , Male , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Self Report , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , Republic of Korea/epidemiology
10.
J Korean Med Sci ; 38(18): e137, 2023 May 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315681

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate the change in the incidence rate, length of hospital stay (LOS), in-hospital mortality rate, and surgical method of hip fractures during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in South Korea where lockdown restrictions were not implemented. METHODS: We calculated the expected values of the incidence of hip fractures, in-hospital mortality and LOS of hip fracture patients in 2020 (COVID period) based hip fracture database of the Korean National Health Insurance Review and Assessment (HIRA) during a 9-year period from 2011 to 2019 (pre-COVID period). A generalized estimating equation model with Poisson distribution and logarithmic link function was used to estimate adjusted annual percent change (PC) of incidence rate and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Then, we compared the annual incidence, in-hospital mortality rate and LOS in 2020 with the expected values. RESULTS: The overall incidence rate of hip fracture in 2020 was not significantly different from the expected value (PC, -5%; 95% CI, -13 to 4; P = 0.280). In women, the incidence rate of hip fracture in age groups over 70 years was smaller than the predicted value (P < 0.001). The in-hospital mortality rate was not significantly different from the expected value (PC, 5%; 95% CI, -8 to 19; P = 0.461). The mean LOS was larger than the expected value by 2% (PC, 2%; 95% CI, 1 to 3; P < 0.001). In intertrochanteric fracture, the proportion of internal fixation was smaller than the predicted value by 2% (PC, -2%; 95% CI, -3 to -1; P < 0.001), and that of hemiarthroplasty was larger than the predicted value by 8% (PC, 8%; 95% CI, 4 to 14; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In 2020, the incidence rate of hip fracture did not significantly decrease, and in-hospital mortality rate did not significantly increase compared to the expected rates, which were projected based on the HIRA hip fracture data from 2011 to 2019. Only LOS increased slightly.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hip Fractures , Humans , Female , Aged , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Hip Fractures/epidemiology , Republic of Korea/epidemiology
11.
Epidemiol Health ; 44: e2022053, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2310301

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected the utilization of healthcare services, including participation in cancer screening programs. We compared cancer screening participation rates for colorectal, gastric, breast, and cervical cancers among participants in the National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP) in 2019 and 2020 to address the potential distraction effect of COVID-19 on cancer screening. METHODS: Data from the NCSP for 4 cancer types (stomach, colorectal, breast, and cervical) in 2019 and 2020 were used to calculate cancer screening participation rates by calendar month, gender, age group, and geographical region. Monthly participation rates were analyzed per 1,000 eligible individuals. RESULTS: The screening participation rate decreased in 2020 compared to 2019 for all 4 cancers: colorectal (40.5 vs. 35.3%), gastric (61.9 vs. 54.6%), breast (63.8 vs. 55.8%), and cervical (57.8 vs. 52.2%) cancers. Following 2 major COVID-19 waves in March and December 2020, the participation rates in the 4 types of cancer screening dropped compared with those in 2019. The highest decline was observed in the elderly population aged 80 years and older (percentage change: -21% for colorectal cancer; -20% for gastric cancer; -26% for breast cancer; -20% for cervical cancer). CONCLUSIONS: After the 2 major COVID-19 waves, the screening participation rate for 4 types of cancer declined compared with 2019. Further studies are needed to identify the indirect effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on cancer patients, such as delayed diagnoses of cancer or excess cancer deaths.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Colorectal Neoplasms , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Aged , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , Breast Neoplasms/prevention & control , COVID-19/diagnosis , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Early Detection of Cancer , Female , Humans , Mass Screening , Pandemics , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Stomach , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control
12.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 5831, 2023 04 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2306192

ABSTRACT

Little is known about the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. We aimed to investigate the long-term trends in CKD prevalence from South Korea including the early pandemic. We used data from 108,152 Korean adults from 2007 to 2020 obtained from a representative longitudinal serial study. We defined CKD as a condition when the participant's estimated glomerular filtration rate was < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2, or one-time spot proteinuria was ≥ 1 +, and then examined the overall trends in the prevalence of CKD. Among the included adults (n = 80,010), the overall national prevalence of CKD was 6.2%. The trend slope gradually increased from 2007 to 2019, however, there was a sudden decrease in 2020 (2007-2010, 5.1% [95% confidence interval (CI) 4.7-5.5]; 2017-2019, 7.1% [95% CI 6.6-7.6]; pandemic period, 6.5% [95% CI 5.7-7.3]; and ßdiff, - 0.19; 95% CI - 0.24 to - 0.13). The prevalence of CKD among younger adults and those with poor medical utilization significantly decreased during the early pandemic. This study was the first large-scale study to investigate the longitudinal prevalence of CKD from 2007 to 2020. Further research is needed to fully understand the exact causes for this decline and to identify healthcare policy strategies for preventing and managing CKD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Adult , Humans , Prevalence , COVID-19/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Risk Factors
13.
J Korean Med Sci ; 38(14): e106, 2023 Apr 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2306186

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recent reports have suggested that pneumonitis is a rare complication following vaccination against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). However, its clinical features and outcomes are not well known. The aim of this study was to identify the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with vaccine-associated pneumonitis following vaccination against SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: In this nationwide multicenter survey study, questionnaires were distributed to pulmonary physicians in referral hospitals. They were asked to report cases of development or exacerbation of interstitial lung disease (ILD) associated with the coronavirus disease 2019 vaccine. Vaccine-associated pneumonitis was defined as new pulmonary infiltrates documented on chest computed tomography within 4 weeks of vaccination and exclusion of other possible etiologies. RESULTS: From the survey, 49 cases of vaccine-associated pneumonitis were identified between February 27 and October 30, 2021. After multidisciplinary discussion, 46 cases were analyzed. The median age was 66 years and 28 (61%) were male. The median interval between vaccination and respiratory symptoms was 5 days. There were 20 (43%), 17 (37%), and nine (19%) patients with newly identified pneumonitis, exacerbation of pre-diagnosed ILD, and undetermined pre-existing ILD, respectively. The administered vaccines were BNT162b2 and ChAdOx1 nCov-19/AZD1222 each in 21 patients followed by mRNA-1273 in three, and Ad26.COV2.S in one patient. Except for five patients with mild disease, 41 (89%) patients were treated with corticosteroid. Significant improvement was observed in 26 (57%) patients including four patients who did not receive treatment. However, ILD aggravated in 9 (20%) patients despite treatment. Mortality was observed in eight (17%) patients. CONCLUSION: These results suggest pneumonitis as a potentially significant safety concern for vaccines against SARS-CoV-2. Clinical awareness and patient education are necessary for early recognition and prompt management. Additional research is warranted to identify the epidemiology and characterize the pathophysiology of vaccine-associated pneumonitis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Ad26COVS1 , BNT162 Vaccine , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
14.
J Korean Med Sci ; 38(16): e127, 2023 Apr 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2304027

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has contributed to the change in the epidemiology of many infectious diseases. This study aimed to establish the pre-pandemic epidemiology of pediatric invasive bacterial infection (IBI). METHODS: A retrospective multicenter-based surveillance for pediatric IBIs has been maintained from 1996 to 2020 in Korea. IBIs caused by eight bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella species) in immunocompetent children > 3 months of age were collected at 29 centers. The annual trend in the proportion of IBIs by each pathogen was analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 2,195 episodes were identified during the 25-year period between 1996 and 2020. S. pneumoniae (42.4%), S. aureus (22.1%), and Salmonella species (21.0%) were common in children 3 to 59 months of age. In children ≥ 5 years of age, S. aureus (58.1%), followed by Salmonella species (14.8%) and S. pneumoniae (12.2%) were common. Excluding the year 2020, there was a trend toward a decrease in the relative proportions of S. pneumoniae (rs = -0.430, P = 0.036), H. influenzae (rs = -0.922, P < 0.001), while trend toward an increase in the relative proportion of S. aureus (rs = 0.850, P < 0.001), S. agalactiae (rs = 0.615, P = 0.001), and S. pyogenes (rs = 0.554, P = 0.005). CONCLUSION: In the proportion of IBIs over a 24-year period between 1996 and 2019, we observed a decreasing trend for S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae and an increasing trend for S. aureus, S. agalactiae, and S. pyogenes in children > 3 months of age. These findings can be used as the baseline data to navigate the trend in the epidemiology of pediatric IBI in the post COVID-19 era.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections , COVID-19 , Meningitis, Bacterial , Child , Humans , Infant , Meningitis, Bacterial/epidemiology , Meningitis, Bacterial/microbiology , Staphylococcus aureus , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Bacteria , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Haemophilus influenzae , Republic of Korea
15.
Yonsei Med J ; 64(5): 344-348, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2301505

ABSTRACT

The role that children play in the transmission of the omicron variant is unclear. Here we report an outbreak that started in young children attending various pediatric facilities, leading to extensive household transmission that affected 75 families with 88 confirmed case-patients in 3 weeks. Tailored social and public health measures directed towards children and pediatric facilities are warranted with the emergence of highly transmissible omicron variant to mitigate the impact of coronavirus diseases 2019 (COVID-19).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Child , Child, Preschool , Disease Outbreaks , Republic of Korea/epidemiology
16.
PLoS One ; 18(4): e0283596, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2300347

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were 1) to investigate the prevalence and co-existence of frailty and malnutrition and 2) to identify factors related to frailty (including malnutrition) according to the level of frailty. METHODS: Data collection was conducted from July 11, 2021, to January 23, 2022, in 558 older adults residing in 16 long-term care facilities (LTCFs) in Korea. The FRAIL-NH and Mini-Nutritional Assessment short form were used to measure frailty and nutrition, respectively. The data analysis included descriptive statistics and a multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: The mean age of the participants was 83.68 (± 7.39) years. Among 558 participants, 37 (6.6%), 274 (49.1%), and 247 (44.3%) were robust, prefrail, and frail, respectively. At the same time, 75.8% were categorized as having malnutrition status (malnourished: 18.1%; risk of malnutrition: 57.7%), and 40.9% had co-existing malnutrition and frailty. In the multivariate analysis, malnutrition was identified as the major frailty-related factor. Compared with a normal nutritional status, the incidence of frailty in the malnutrition group was 10.35 times (95% CI: 3.78-28.36) higher than the incidence of robustness and 4.80 times (95% CI: 2.69-8.59) higher than the incidence of prefrail. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of frailty and malnutrition, and their co-existence, among older adults residing in LTCFs was high. Malnutrition is a major factor that increases the incidence of frailty. Therefore, active interventions are needed to improve the nutritional status of this population.


Subject(s)
Frailty , Malnutrition , Humans , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Frailty/complications , Frailty/epidemiology , Long-Term Care , Geriatric Assessment , Malnutrition/complications , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Nutritional Status , Nutrition Assessment , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Frail Elderly
17.
JAMA Netw Open ; 6(4): e239840, 2023 04 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2298867

ABSTRACT

Importance: The association of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) with COVID-19 outcomes is unclear and needs to be investigated. Objective: To identify the association of longitudinal changes in MVPA with SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe COVID-19 outcomes. Design, Setting, and Participants: This nested case-control study used data from 6 396 500 adult patients in South Korean who participated in National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) biennial health screenings from period 1 (2017-2018) to period 2 (2019-2020). Patients were followed from October 8, 2020, until the diagnosis of COVID-19 or December 31, 2021. Exposure: Moderate to vigorous physical activity was measured by self-report on questionnaires during both NHIS health screenings and calculated by adding the frequency (times per week) of each moderate (≥30 minutes per day) and vigorous (≥20 minutes per day) physical activity. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcomes were a positive diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe COVID-19 clinical events. Adjusted odds ratio (aORs) and 99% CIs were calculated using multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results: A total of 183 350 patients with COVID-19 (mean [SD] age, 51.9 [13.8] years; female, 89 369 [48.7%]; male, 93 981 [51.3%]) among 2 110 268 participants were identified. For participants with vs without COVID-19, the proportion of MVPA frequency at period 2 was 35.8% vs 35.9% for physically inactive, 18.9% vs 18.9% for 1 to 2 times per week, 17.7% vs 17.7% for 3 to 4 times per week, and 27.5% vs 27.4% for 5 or more times per week. Among unvaccinated, physically inactive patients at period 1, the odds for infection increased when engaged in MVPA 1 to 2 times per week (aOR, 1.08; 99% CI, 1.01-1.15), 3 to 4 times per week (aOR, 1.09; 99% CI, 1.03-1.16), or 5 or more times per week (aOR, 1.10; 99% CI, 1.04-1.17) at period 2. Conversely, among unvaccinated patients with MVPA of 5 or more times per week at period 1, the odds for infection decreased when engaged 1 to 2 times per week (aOR, 0.90; 99% CI, 0.81-0.98) or physically inactive (aOR, 0.80; 99% CI, 0.73-0.87) at period 2. The trend of MVPA and incident infection was mitigated when participants were fully vaccinated. Furthermore, the odds for severe COVID-19 showed significant but limited associations with MVPA. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this nested case-control study show a direct association of MVPA with risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, which was mitigated after completion of the COVID-19 vaccination primary series. In addition, higher levels of MVPA were associated with a lower risk of severe COVID-19 outcomes to limited proportions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , Female , Male , Middle Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Case-Control Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Exercise
18.
Health Educ Res ; 38(1): 95-105, 2023 01 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2298575

ABSTRACT

Misinformation related to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has the potential to suppress preventive behaviors that mitigate the spread of COVID-19. Early research on the behavioral consequences of COVID-19 misinformation is mixed, and most rely on cross-sectional data. We examined whether believing in COVID-19 misinformation at one time point influences engaging in preventive behaviors later. In addition, we investigated the role of trust in institutions. We conducted a two-wave survey in South Korea and examined the association between belief in COVID-19 misinformation at Wave 1 and preventive behaviors at Wave 2 controlling for preventive behaviors at Wave 1. We also analyzed whether there is an interaction between belief in COVID-19 misinformation and trust in institutions. Belief in COVID-19 misinformation at Wave 1 significantly increased avoidance of preventive behaviors at Wave 2, but after accounting for trust in institutions, this effect disappeared. Rather, trust in institutions significantly decreased avoidance of preventive behaviors. In addition, misinformation increased avoidance of preventive behaviors among those who trusted institutions the most. Results suggest that building trust in institutions is essential in promoting COVID-19 preventive behaviors. Belief in COVID-19 misinformation may have harmful effects, but these effects were pronounced for those who highly trust institutions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Trust , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/prevention & control , Republic of Korea , Communication
19.
PLoS One ; 18(4): e0283873, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2297850

ABSTRACT

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract infections and hospitalization in infants and young children. Here, we analyzed the genetic diversity of RSV using partial G gene sequences in 84 RSV-A and 78 RSV- B positive samples collected in Seoul, South Korea, for 10 consecutive years, from 2010 to 2019. Our phylogenetic analysis revealed that RSV-A strains were classified into either the ON1 (80.9%) or NA1 (19.0%) genotypes. On the other hand, RSV-B strains demonstrated diversified clusters within the BA genotype. Notably, some sequences designated as BA-SE, BA-SE1, and BA-DIS did not cluster with previously identified BA genotypes in the phylogenetic trees. Despite this, they did not meet the criteria for the assignment of a new genotype based on recent classification methods. Selection pressure analysis identified three positive selection sites (amino acid positions 273, 274, and 298) in RSV-A, and one possible positive selection site (amino acid position 296) in RSV-B, respectively. The mean evolutionary rates of Korean RSV-A from 1999 to 2019 and RSV-B strains from 1991 and 2019 were estimated at 3.51 × 10-3 nucleotides (nt) substitutions/site/year and 3.32 × 10-3 nt substitutions/site/year, respectively. The population dynamics in the Bayesian skyline plot revealed fluctuations corresponding to the emergence of dominant strains, including a switch of the dominant genotype from NA1 to ON1. Our study on time-scaled cumulative evolutionary analysis contributes to a better understanding of RSV epidemiology at the local level in South Korea.


Subject(s)
Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Infant , Child , Humans , Child, Preschool , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/genetics , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Phylogeny , Seoul , Bayes Theorem , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Genotype , Molecular Epidemiology
20.
Inquiry ; 60: 469580231162818, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2297845

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has transformed undergraduate education into non-face-to-face classes, and a novel methodology is required to aid students in career preparation behavior (CPB). This study aimed to assess the effects of self-rated abilities for health practices (SRAHP) as a psychological attribute and health-promoting lifestyle profile (HPLP) as a behavioral attribute in the dynamics between positive psychological capital (PPC) and CPB among undergraduate students taking non-face-to-face classes. A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 639 undergraduate students taking non-face-to-face classes; data were obtained via online survey in January 2022. A significant positive effect on CPB was observed for PPC (b = 0.261, p < .001) and HPLP (b = 0.674, p < .001). The effect of SRAHP on CPB was not significant; however, it mitigated the PPC-CPB dynamics (b = -.081, p < .05) and strengthened the relationship between HPLP and CPB (b = .250, p < .001). Lastly, the mediating effects after moderation for HPLP and SRAHP were positive, with statistical significance. To aid the students with career preparation in the current undergraduate education environment moving toward a non-face-to-face model, there is a need for resources to increase students' psychological confidence regarding health management and to promote their health practices.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , Students/psychology , Health Promotion , Republic of Korea
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