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1.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264711, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793510

ABSTRACT

Reports detailing the clinical characteristics, viral load, and outcomes of patients with normal initial chest CT findings are lacking. We sought to compare the differences in clinical findings, viral loads, and outcomes between patients with confirmed COVID-19 who initially tested negative on chest CT (CT negative) with patients who tested initially positive on chest CT (CT positive). The clinical data, viral loads, and outcomes of initial CT-positive and CT-negative patients examined between January 2020 and April 2020 were retrospectively compared. The efficacy of viral load (cyclic threshold value [Ct value]) in predicting pneumonia was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and area under the curve (AUC). In total, 128 patients underwent initial chest CT (mean age, 54.3 ± 19.0 years, 50% male). Of those, 36 were initially CT negative, and 92 were CT positive. The CT-positive patients were significantly older (P < .001) than the CT-negative patients. Only age was significantly associated with the initial presence of pneumonia (odds ratio, 1.060; confidence interval (CI), 1.020-1-102; P = .003). In addition, age (OR, 1.062; CI, 1.014-1.112; P = .011), fever at diagnosis (OR, 6.689; CI, 1.715-26.096; P = .006), and CRP level (OR, 1.393; CI, 1.150-1.687; P = .001) were significantly associated with the need for O2 therapy. Viral load was significantly higher in the CT-positive group than in the CT-negative group (P = .017). The cutoff Ct value for predicting the presence of pneumonia was 27.71. Outcomes including the mean hospital stay, intensive care unit admission, and O2 therapy were significantly worse in the CT-positive group than in the CT-negative group (all P < .05). In conclusion, initially CT-negative patients showed better outcomes than initially CT-positive patients. Age was significantly associated with the initial presence of pneumonia, and viral load may help in predicting the initial presence of pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Thorax/diagnostic imaging , Viral Load , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sputum/virology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Viral Load/physiology , Young Adult
2.
Front Immunol ; 13: 827306, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1789384

ABSTRACT

Background: Effective vaccines against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are available worldwide; however, the longevity of vaccine effectiveness is not known. Objective: We performed a prospective observational study to assess the antibody response of healthcare workers against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) after BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccination. Methods: SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody (nAb) and spike (S) protein-IgG (S-IgG) antibody titers were examined in participants who received two doses of the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine in a single center between March 1, 2021, and October 11, 2021. Antibody levels were analyzed at four times: before vaccination (visit 1), 4 weeks after the first vaccination (visit 2), 3 months after the second vaccination (visit 3), and 6 months after the second vaccination (visit 4). Results: A total of 249 healthcare workers at Jeju National University Hospital were enrolled in this study, and 982 blood samples were analyzed. The mean age was 38.1 ± 9.5 years, and 145 (58.2%) participants were females. Positive nAbs (inhibition rates ≥ 20%) were measured in 166/249 (66.7%) subjects at visit 2, 237/243 (97.5%) subjects at visit 3, and 150/237 (63.3%) subjects at visit 4. A S-IgG (≥50 AU/mL) positivity was detected in 246/249 (98.8%) subjects at visit 1, and all participants had positive S-IgG antibody levels at visits 3 and 4 after being fully vaccinated. Further analysis of S-IgG levels revealed a median quantitative antibody level of 1275.1 AU/mL (interquartile range [IQR] 755.5-2119.0) at visit 2, 2765.9 AU/mL (IQR 1809.8-4138.4) at visit 3, and 970.1 AU/mL (IQR 606.0-1495.9) at visit 4. Patient characteristics, such as age, body mass index, and comorbidity, had no relationship with nAb or S-IgG levels at any of the visits. Considering the change in antibody levels over time, both nAb and S-IgG levels at visit 4 decreased compared with the corresponding levels at visit 3. No evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection was found among any of the participants throughout the study. Conclusions: The BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine was effective in protecting healthcare personnel working in COVID-19-related departments. While the level of S-IgG antibodies was maintained for 6 months after the second vaccination, nAb levels waned over this 6-month period, indicating the need for a booster vaccination in some healthcare workers 6 months after full vaccination. Herein, we suggest that further studies are needed to evaluate the need for an interval of booster vaccination after full vaccination.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , /statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Antibody Formation/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunologic Tests , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Republic of Korea , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Young Adult
3.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 731, 2022 Apr 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1789109

ABSTRACT

Public health nurses are performing various roles during the COVID-19 pandemic: counseling, surveillance, specimen collection, epidemiological investigation, education, and vaccination. This study investigated their disaster competencies in the context of emerging infectious diseases, and identified their influencing factors based on Deci and Ryan's self-determination theory. A convenience sample of 242 was selected from public health nurses working in a metropolitan city of South Korea. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire and analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test, one-way ANOVA, Pearson's correlation, and multiple regression analysis using the SPSS Statistics ver. 23.0. Results showed that the significant factors influencing disaster competencies included "willingness to respond to a disaster," "preventive behavior," "experience of receiving education on emerging infectious diseases response," "public health center experience," "job satisfaction," and "education." This regression model explained 33.2% of the variance in disaster competencies. "Willingness to respond to a disaster" was the strongest factor affecting disaster competencies. Based on these results, it is concluded that interventions to improve disaster competencies and psychological well-being of public health nurses are needed. Additionally, strategies such as creating a supportive work environment, deploying experienced nurses primarily on the front line, and reducing the tasks of permanent public health nurses should be implemented.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Disaster Planning , Nurses, Public Health , Nurses , COVID-19/epidemiology , Clinical Competence , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(7)2022 Mar 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785626

ABSTRACT

This study identified the acceptance of disability's impact on self-esteem among adults with disabilities in South Korea. This is a four-year follow-up study that obtained data from the Panel Survey of Employment for Persons with Disabilities from 2017 to 2020. In total, 3329 individuals participated. Logistic regression examined the acceptance of disability's effect on self-esteem. These variables were categorized based on the acceptance of disability (high→high, low→high, high→low, and low→low) and self-esteem (low and not low). Compared to the participants with a consistently high acceptance of disability, those with constantly low acceptance were 2.35 times (95% CI 1.81-3.04) more likely to have low self-esteem. When the acceptance of disability was low→high and high→low, the low self-esteem probability was 1.23 and 1.66 times, respectively. Low self-esteem was prominent for the following: men, 50-64-year olds, married, urban, economic activists, the mid-low household income category, and those with sensory disability. Acceptance of disability can adversely affect self-esteem when it is consistently low or changes from high to low. Among socio-economic factors, there were several risk factors that could make individuals more vulnerable to low self-esteem. Therefore, it is necessary to help people accept their disabilities to maintain healthy self-esteem levels.


Subject(s)
Disabled Persons , Adult , Employment , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Republic of Korea , Self Concept
5.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0266426, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785195

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic substantially undermined medical education and healthcare systems. Owing to the pandemic in South Korea, most medical schools needed to be flexible when conducting online and offline classes, but the guidelines did not reflect the specificity of medical schools. This study described the impact of modified anatomy education schedules at the Seoul National University College of Medicine (SNUCM) on students' academic performance and satisfaction. METHODS: Anatomy education in SNUCM is divided into three regional units (the upper and lower limbs, trunk, and head and neck). Owing to the COVID-19 pandemic, the schedule was mixed with simultaneous and rotating schedules. The authors conducted exceptions for online lectures, cadaver dissections, and written and practical examinations in three classes of approximately 50 students each. Furthermore, the authors assessed students' performance using three sets of written and practical examinations, and students completed a questionnaire regarding modified anatomy laboratory schedules. RESULTS: Despite the pandemic events in Seoul and South Korea during the laboratory sessions, all sessions were completed without any confirmed COVID-19 cases among the students, faculty, and staff. Most of the scores on the written and practical examinations significantly decreased in 2020 compared to those in 2019. However, in the trunk session that used the virtual anatomy application, the score on the practical examination in 2020 was significantly higher than that in 2019. Over 70% (79 and 77 out of 105 respondents on the upper and lower limbs and trunk, respectively) and 53% (55/105) students reported that there were no significant difficulties in studying anatomy in a face-to-face laboratory. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, an adequate education program for cadaver dissection should be developed and provided to overcome the pandemic restrictions. The study findings could serve as a reference for anatomy education during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Anatomy , COVID-19 , Education, Distance , Students, Medical , Anatomy/education , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cadaver , Humans , Pandemics , Republic of Korea/epidemiology
6.
Front Public Health ; 10: 828318, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776028

ABSTRACT

While many studies have explored the financial barriers to healthcare, there is little evidence regarding the non-financial barriers to healthcare. This study identified characteristics associated with financial and non-financial barriers to healthcare and quantified the effects of these characteristics in South Korea, using a nationally representative longitudinal survey dataset. Overall, 68,930 observations of 16,535 individuals aged 19 years and above were sampled from Korea Health Panel survey data (2014-2018). From self-reported information about respondents' experiences of unmet healthcare needs, a trichotomous dependent variable-no barrier, non-financial barrier, and financial barrier-was derived. Sociodemographics, physical and health conditions were included as explanatory variables. The average adjusted probability (AAP) of experiencing each barrier was predicted using multivariable and panel multinomial logistic regression analyses. According to the results, the percentage of people experiencing non-financial barriers was much higher than that of people experiencing financial barriers in 2018 (9.6 vs. 2.5%). Women showed higher AAPs of experiencing both non-financial (9.9 vs. 8.3%) and financial barriers (3.6 vs. 2.5%) than men. Men living in the Seoul metropolitan area showed higher AAPs of experiencing non-financial (8.7 vs. 8.0%) and financial barriers (3.4 vs. 2.1%) than those living outside it. Household income showed no significant associations in the AAP of experiencing a non-financial barrier. People with a functional limitation exhibited a higher AAP of experiencing a non-financial barrier, for both men (17.8 vs. 7.8%) and women (17.4 vs. 9.0%), than those without it. In conclusion, people in South Korea, like those in most European countries, fail to meet their healthcare needs more often due to non-financial barriers than financial barriers. In addition, the characteristics associated with non-financial barriers to healthcare differed from those associated with financial barriers. This finding suggests that although financial barriers may be minimised through various policies, a considerable degree of unmet healthcare needs and disparity among individuals is very likely to persist due to non-financial barriers. Therefore, current universal health insurance systems need targeted policy instruments to minimise non-financial barriers to healthcare to ensure effective universal health coverage.


Subject(s)
Health Services Accessibility , Universal Health Insurance , Adult , Female , Health Surveys , Humans , Male , Republic of Korea , Universal Health Insurance/economics , Young Adult
7.
Front Public Health ; 10: 822741, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776019

ABSTRACT

This study aims to examine the relationship between intrapersonal factors, interpersonal factors, smartphone screen time, and the moderating roles of interpersonal factors, on the basis of the ecological model. This study is a cross-sectional and descriptive study. A total of 428 participants from four public middle schools were selected through convenience sampling (55.1% female; Mean age 13.0 ± 0.78). Data were collected through self-report questionnaires that contained questions about sociodemographic characteristics, intrapersonal factors (types of smartphone use, Fear of missing out-FoMO), interpersonal factors (support from parents, teachers, and peers), and smartphone screen time. The collected data were analysed using descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA, Pearson's correlation coefficients, and hierarchical regression. The daily smartphone screen time was 4.05 ± 2.16 h. Results showed that social media (ß = 0.155), games (ß = 0.140), and FoMO (ß = 0.227) were positively associated with smartphone screen time, while educational videos (ß = -0.130) and parental support (ß = -0.212) were negatively associated with smartphone screen time. Peers support moderated the association between games and smartphone screen time. Parental support moderated the association between educational videos, videos/movies/TV, and smartphone screen time. The findings highlight the direct and interactive roles of intrapersonal and interpersonal factors in predicting adolescents' smartphone screen time. Based on this study, the intrapersonal and interpersonal factors of adolescents should be comprehensively considered to intervene in their proper smartphone use.


Subject(s)
Screen Time , Smartphone , Social Support , Adolescent , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fear , Female , Humans , Male , Republic of Korea
8.
Front Public Health ; 10: 820643, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776015

ABSTRACT

Background: Cancer is one of the leading chronic diseases, which causes premature mortality in Korea. Early detection has been reported to be associated with reduced mortality and morbidity. Consistent evidence reports that lower screening rates are associated with socioeconomic-based disparities. This study aimed to examine income-related disparities in cancer screening services and to analyze the association between utilization of cancer screening and individual characteristics, including income levels. Methods: This study utilized the data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), a population-based survey from 2013 to 2019. The study population included individuals aged 40 years or over. The variables were socioeconomic characteristics and perceived health status. Household income was categorized into quartiles from Q1 (the lowest income group) to Q4 (the highest income group). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to analyze the association between cancer screening and individual characteristics and household income levels. Results: There were 20,347 individuals included in this study. Among these, 14,741 (72.4%) had undergone cancer screening. There existed a gap in the utilization of cancer screening between the lowest (Q1) and highest (Q4) income quintiles owing to evident income disparities; Q4 thus had a significantly higher likelihood of undergoing cancer screening than other quintiles. Female sex, university and over education, number of chronic diseases, and private insurance coverage were positively associated with cancer screening (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Our findings suggest that policymakers should develop and design strategies to increase awareness and efforts to improve the education and promotion of cancer screening among lower-income target groups.


Subject(s)
Early Detection of Cancer , Healthcare Disparities , Income , Neoplasms , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Neoplasms/diagnosis , Nutrition Surveys , Republic of Korea/epidemiology
9.
Front Public Health ; 10: 811168, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776009

ABSTRACT

The aim of the study was to determine the influence of different exercise types on health-related quality of life (QOL) in men with depressive disorder (DD) in South (S) Korea. The data of 385 men aged 19 with DD were collected in S. Korea. The Euro Quality of Life 5 Dimensions (EQ-5D) index and Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) questionnaires were used to establish the purpose of this study. Furthermore, the complex sampling model was applied to investigate the influence of different exercise types on health-related QOL in participants. When reviewing the outcomes, the strength exercise and walking had significant influences on health-related QOL in men with DD in S. Korea. However, the flexibility exercise did not have a significant influence on them. Based on the results, strength exercise and walking were effective exercise types to increase levels of health-related QOL in men with DD in S. Korea.


Subject(s)
Depressive Disorder , Exercise , Quality of Life , Adult , Depressive Disorder/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Nutrition Surveys , Republic of Korea , Young Adult
10.
BMC Prim Care ; 23(1): 67, 2022 Apr 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775311

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Health systems have become financially fragile owing to the economic recession caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. However, small primary care businesses have received less policy attention than public health and secondary care. We aimed to estimate the impact of COVID-19 on the number of active small primary care businesses in South Korea. METHODS: We selected clinics, dental clinics, oriental clinics, and pharmacies as primary care businesses. Our estimation took advantage of regional variations in COVID-19 cases in South Korea. We determined the number of active primary care businesses from 2019 1Q to 2021 1Q on a quarterly basis, and conducted interrupted time series analysis to estimate the effects of COVID-19 on this sector. RESULTS: This study found no significant increase or decrease in the number of clinics, dental clinics, and oriental clinics immediately after the pandemic began or in the time trends after the pandemic. However, there was a significant increase in the number of pharmacies immediately after the pandemic. The most affected area presented different trends in the number of pharmacies, dental clinics, and oriental clinics. CONCLUSIONS: Impact of the pandemic on the number of active small primary care business were low in South Korea. However, the impact varied according to the type of primary care setting and severity of the pandemic. The additional public health role of primary care could be associated with the sustenance of primary care businesses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Primary Health Care , Republic of Korea/epidemiology
11.
Front Public Health ; 9: 658220, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1771095

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The patient-doctor relationship has evolved from early paternalism to a consumerism and partnership model that emphasizes cooperation. Patient-doctor relationships might vary with the socio-cultural environment, because the medical environment affects such relationships. Method: We investigated the patient-doctor relationship among medical students through concept mapping analysis. Twenty-six fourth-grade Korean medical students wrote a reflection journal and participated in the concept classification and the importance evaluation of the derived concept. ALSCAL multidimensional scaling and Ward hierarchical cluster analysis were performed. Also, the 5-point Likert scale was used to evaluate the importance of the concept. Results: Sixty-six statements about the patient-doctor relationship were extracted and grouped into six clusters. The x-axis is the dimension of "Information-Respect," and the y-axis is "Changeability-Persistence." Six patient-doctor concepts were derived and students evaluated "Patient-centered" as the most important. Conclusions: Medical students express various concepts of the patient-doctor relationship. Considering that they may encounter various medical conditions and patients, it is necessary that they understand deeply the complex patient-doctor relationship.


Subject(s)
Physician-Patient Relations , Students, Medical , Humans , Republic of Korea
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(7)2022 Mar 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1771197

ABSTRACT

The characteristics of COVID-19 have evolved at an accelerated rate over the last two years since the first SARS-CoV-2 case was discovered in December 2019. This evolution is due to the complex interplay among virus, humans, vaccines, and environments, which makes the elucidation of the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of COVID-19 essential to assess ongoing policy responses. In this study, we carry out an extensive retrospective analysis on infection clusters of COVID-19 in South Korea from January 2020 to September 2021 and uncover important clinical and social factors associated with age and regional patterns through the sophisticated large-scale epidemiological investigation using the data provided by the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency (KDCA). Epidemiological data of COVID-19 include daily confirmed cases, gender, age, city of residence, date of symptom onset, date of diagnosis, and route of infection. We divide the time span into six major periods based on the characteristics of COVID-19 according to various events such as the rise of new variants, vaccine rollout, change of social distancing levels, and other intervention measures. We explore key features of COVID-19 such as the relationship among unlinked, asymptomatic, and confirmed cases, serial intervals, infector-infectee interactions, and age/region-specific variations. Our results highlight the significant impact of temporal evolution of interventions implemented in South Korea on the characteristics of COVID-19 transmission, in particular, that of a high level of vaccination coverage in the senior-aged group on the dramatic reduction of confirmed cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Policy , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
13.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(10): e50, 2022 Mar 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1771025

ABSTRACT

As coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread worldwide, the rate of COVID-19 vaccination uptake is encouraging. Neurological complications associated with COVID-19 vaccines such as stroke, Guillain-Barré syndrome, and Bell's palsy have been reported. Recently, late-onset myasthenia gravis (MG) following COVID-19 vaccination has been reported. To date, however, there has been no evidence of increased risk of early-onset MG following COVID-19. Here, we report a case of a patient with new-onset MG that arose after receiving a COVID-19 vaccine. A 33-year-old woman suddenly experienced generalized weakness and diplopia on the evening she had received the second dose of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine. The temporal relationship suggests that this new-onset MG is related to the vaccination. It also implies that COVID-19 vaccination could trigger early-onset MG symptoms in patients at risk of MG.


Subject(s)
/adverse effects , Myasthenia Gravis/etiology , Adult , Electromyography , Female , Humans , Myasthenia Gravis/diagnosis , Myasthenia Gravis/physiopathology , Neostigmine/pharmacology , Republic of Korea , Time Factors
14.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0266264, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1770766

ABSTRACT

Most studies on COVID-19 preventive behaviors have focused on single-level factors such as national policy, community social capital, or individuals' sociodemographic characteristics. Through a social-ecological model, this study attempts to comprehensively examine the multilevel factors associated with COVID-19 preventive practices in South Korea. Accordingly, a web survey involving 1,500 participants was conducted in December 2020. An ordinary least squares (OLS) regression was used to examine the multilevel factors (individual, interpersonal, community, and policy levels) related to COVID-19 preventive measures, which are based on wearing a mask, washing hands, covering the mouth when coughing or sneezing, and social distancing. When factors at each level were investigated, higher scores of COVID-19 fear and correct knowledge at the individual level, COVID-19 information share at the interpersonal level, and better evaluation of the national government policies in regard to COVID-19 at the policy level were positively associated with COVID-19 preventive behaviors. Community-level factors-neighborhood perception and community participation-were negatively significantly related to COVID-19 preventive behaviors. Additionally, older age, being female, and having a graduate-level education were positively related to better preventive behaviors. The findings of the current study suggest that multilevel efforts are needed to promote preventive behaviors. Specifically, more effort to alleviate COVID-19-related fear and disseminate correct knowledge among Korean citizens is needed as the individual-level characteristics explained the preventive behaviors more than the factors at upper levels.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(6)2022 03 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760606

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the correlations among Stress and Anxiety to Viral Epidemics (SAVE), job stress (JS), and burnout among Korean dental hygienists during the COVID-19 pandemic and to identify the moderating effect of JS. As a cross-sectional study, a self-reporting questionnaire was used to survey 204 clinical dental hygienists to measure the levels of SAVE, JS, and burnout, along with their demographic characteristics as the control variables. Pearson correlation analysis and hierarchical multiple regression analysis were performed to analyse the correlations among burnout, SAVE, and JS, including the moderating effect of JS. With education level and subjective health controlled, JS (ß = 1.05, p < 0.001), SAVE (ß = 0.69, p = 0.020) and the interaction between SAVE and JS (ß = -0.93, p = 0.050) were identified as significant influencing factors of burnout. The adjusted explanatory power of the model was found to be 52.4%. In summary, both SAVE and JS were significant influencing factors of burnout among dental hygienists, while a moderating effect of JS was also identified. Therefore, it is necessary to create a work environment that can relieve SAVE and JS to reduce burnout among dental hygienists.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , COVID-19 , Anxiety/epidemiology , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dental Hygienists , Humans , Pandemics , Republic of Korea/epidemiology
16.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(4): 901-903, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760187

ABSTRACT

To determine optimal quarantine duration, we evaluated time from exposure to diagnosis for 107 close contacts of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 Omicron variant case-patients. Average time from exposure to diagnosis was 3.7 days; 70% of diagnoses were made on day 5 and 99.1% by day 10, suggesting 10-day quarantine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Quarantine , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
17.
Epidemiol Infect ; 150: e40, 2022 02 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1747291

ABSTRACT

Nosocomial transmission of COVID-19 among immunocompromised hosts can have a serious impact on COVID-19 severity, underlying disease progression and SARS-CoV-2 transmission to other patients and healthcare workers within hospitals. We experienced a nosocomial outbreak of COVID-19 in the setting of a daycare unit for paediatric and young adult cancer patients. Between 9 and 18 November 2020, 473 individuals (181 patients, 247 caregivers/siblings and 45 staff members) were exposed to the index case, who was a nursing staff. Among them, three patients and four caregivers were infected. Two 5-year-old cancer patients with COVID-19 were not severely ill, but a 25-year-old cancer patient showed prolonged shedding of SARS-CoV-2 RNA for at least 12 weeks, which probably infected his mother at home approximately 7-8 weeks after the initial diagnosis. Except for this case, no secondary transmission was observed from the confirmed cases in either the hospital or the community. To conclude, in the day care setting of immunocompromised children and young adults, the rate of in-hospital transmission of SARS-CoV-2 was 1.6% when applying the stringent policy of infection prevention and control, including universal mask application and rapid and extensive contact investigation. Severely immunocompromised children/young adults with COVID-19 would have to be carefully managed after the mandatory isolation period while keeping the possibility of prolonged shedding of live virus in mind.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cancer Care Facilities , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Day Care, Medical , Infectious Disease Transmission, Professional-to-Patient , Neoplasms/therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/transmission , Caregivers , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross Infection/immunology , Cross Infection/transmission , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/immunology , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
18.
Tohoku J Exp Med ; 256(3): 209-214, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745246

ABSTRACT

Insufficient data are available on comprehensive evaluation of demographics, symptoms or signs, laboratory findings, and disease course in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We aimed to evaluate whether COPD patients are more prone to severe COVID-19 compared with those without COPD. We also investigate the clinical characteristics and disease course of COVID-19 in patients with COPD versus those without COPD. Patients were selected from a Korean nationwide cohort of 5,628 patients with confirmed COVID-19 and who had completed treatment or quarantine by April 30, 2020; 3,673 patients aged 40 years or older were included in this study. COPD was diagnosed using patient reports of physician-diagnosed COPD. During the study period, all patients with COVID-19 in Korea were hospitalized following the national health policy. Of the study participants, 38 (1.0%) had COPD. Regarding initial symptoms, COPD patients with COVID-19 showed greater sputum production (50.0% vs. 29.8%, p < 0.01) and dyspnea (36.8% vs. 14.9%, p < 0.01) than those without COPD. In addition, patients with COPD were more likely to receive oxygen therapy or non-invasive ventilation (29.0% vs. 13.7%, p = 0.01) and had a higher mortality (21.1% vs. 6.4%, p < 0.01) than those without COPD. After adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, and comorbidities, COPD patients showed increased risk of severe COVID-19 compared with those without COPD. Our nationwide study showed that COVID-19 patients with COPD have higher symptomatic burden and more severe disease course than those without COPD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Disease Progression , Humans , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Republic of Korea/epidemiology
19.
J Korean Acad Nurs ; 52(1): 66-79, 2022 Feb.
Article in Korean | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742796

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to understand and describe the experiences of nurses in charge of COVID-19 screening at general hospitals in South Korea. METHODS: Data were collected through individual in-depth interviews with 14 nurses who had been working for more than a month at a screening clinic operated by two general hospitals from May 11 to July 20, 2021. Verbatim transcripts were analyzed using Colaizzi's phenomenological analysis. RESULTS: As a result of analysis, four theme clusters were extracted from nurses' experiences, as follow: the role of the hospital gatekeeper entrusted with managing the COVID-19 pandemic, struggling to maintain the protective barrier, boundlessness like a Mobius strip, and driving force to endure as a nurse in charge of COVID-19 screening. CONCLUSION: The results of this study provide a deeper understanding of the lives of screening clinic nurses who are struggling with the COVID-19 situation. The results are expected to be useful in providing basic data for improving the infection control system and response strategies that can be applied to nursing practice in other pandemic situations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospitals, General , Humans , Pandemics , Qualitative Research , Republic of Korea , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(6)2022 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742465

ABSTRACT

This study explored the association between Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and depression by comparing Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) results pre-pandemic (2019) and after the start of the pandemic (2020). Data of 444,051 participants (200,206 male (45.1%); 243,845 female (54.9%)) were obtained from the Korean Community Health Survey conducted from 2019 to 2020. The independent variable of interest in this study was the year, divided into binary categories, 2019 and 2020. The dependent variable was depression, measured by the PHQ-9 scale. This dependent variable was also binary, dividing those who are considered depressed or not by a cut-off score of 10. A logistic regression model was employed to examine the association. Our results reveal that compared to participants in 2019, patients from the study sample of 2020 were marginally more likely to be depressed, especially female patients (male OR: 1.092, 95% CI [0.998 to 1.195], female OR: 1.066, 95% CI [1.002 to 1.134]). Moreover, using the participants from the year 2019 as a reference group, those who appeared anxious in response to the COVID-19-related questions in the survey showed more tendency to have a PHQ-9 score of 10 or more. Compared to participants from the 2019 group, those from 2020 more likely to be depressed were those with no-one to contact in case of emergency due to COVID-19 (male OR: 1.45, 95% CI [1.26 to 1.66], female OR: 1.46, 95% CI [1.33 to 1.60]), and individuals with concerns regarding economic loss (male OR: 1.18, 95% CI [1.07 to 1.30], female OR: 1.11, 95% CI [1.04 to 1.18]) and infection of a vulnerable family member at home due to COVID-19 (male OR: 1.16, 95% CI [1.05 to 1.28], female OR: 1.09, 95% CI [ 1.02 to 1.16]).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Gender Identity , Humans , Male , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
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