Introduction: Mental health problems have increased internationally during the COVID-19 pandemic. Adolescents and their caregivers form a vulnerable group for the development of mental health problems. However, most data stems from high-income countries, and there is a clear lack of prevalence rates and potential risk factors from Balkan countries. No data is available on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health in adolescents and their caregivers in North Macedonia. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on adolescents and their caregivers in a school setting in rural and urban areas of North Macedonia. Survey items assessed symptoms of depression, anxiety, and respondents' fear of COVID-19, as well as a number of risk factors, such as gender and living environment. Results: 506 adolescents and 492 caregivers completed the survey. Symptoms of depression and anxiety were mild to moderate in adolescents and their caregivers. Women and girls generally scored higher than men and boys, and adolescents in high school scored higher than those in elementary school. Prevalence rates for depression were 29.2% for adolescents and 10.4% for caregivers, while rates of anxiety were 23.7% for adolescents and 6.1% for caregivers. Conclusion: This study provides a first insight into the mental health of adolescents and their caregivers after the COVID-19 pandemic in North Macedonia. Further research is required to investigate the relatively low rates of caregivers' mental health problems compared to data from other countries.
Subject(s)COVID-19 , Depression , Male , Humans , Female , Adolescent , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Caregivers/psychology , Pandemics , Republic of North Macedonia/epidemiology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology
Subjective quality of life could be considered one of the indicators of health behavior and wellbeing of women in the perinatal period. Accordingly, the aim of this paper was to examine how women in perinatal period perceive quality of life in various domains. Its relationship to age, number of pregnancies, course of pregnancies, and method of delivery and experience with Covid-19 pandemic was investigated, as well. Our sample consisted of 366 pregnant women in any period of pregnancy who came in for regular outpatient examinations and control, those who were hospitalized due to pathological pregnancy or due to the need for intensive care, as well as women in their postnatal period, one year after delivery, who were seeking professional advice from a gynecologist. The majority were aged 20 to 30 years (53.8%). The findings showed that assessed domains of subjective quality of life were related to a variety of experiences with the Covid-19 pandemic. The results are presented and discussed in detail. Implications and limitations are given, as well.
Subject(s)COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Pregnancy , Humans , Female , Quality of Life , Pandemics , Republic of North Macedonia/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology
Since the pandemic of the novel coronavirus - SARS-CoV-2 - has been declared and strict social measures have been introduced in the middle of March, including curfew, the dentistry had to adjust and find ways to better adapt itself to the new situation. This article provides a brief overview of the situation with COVID-19 in our country since the beginning of the pandemic, gives a reminder of what COVID-19 is, and which its modes of transmission are, and considers the ways of protection in dental offices considering that dentistry is one of the riskiest activities given the patient-dentist proximity and the use of specific high-speed handpieces. This review also provides an overview of the dental preventive measures taken worldwide, including in the field of Pediatric Dentistry, as well as an overview of dental patients' management, and gives possible best ways to care for healthy, sick or patients suspected for COVID-19. Finally, an extensive presentation of the way of work at the University Dental Clinical Center and the Faculty of Dental Medicine in Skopje, North Macedonia, over the last year is given, including protocols for admission of patients.
Subject(s)COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Dentistry , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Republic of North Macedonia/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2, the virus that caused the global COVID-19 pandemic, has severely impacted Central Asia; in spring 2020, high numbers of cases and deaths were reported in this region. The second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic is currently breaching the borders of Central Asia. Public health surveillance is necessary to inform policy and guide leaders; however, existing surveillance explains past transmissions while obscuring shifts in the pandemic, increases in infection rates, and the persistence of the transmission of COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study is to provide enhanced surveillance metrics for SARS-CoV-2 transmission that account for weekly shifts in the pandemic, including speed, acceleration, jerk, and persistence, to better understand the risk of explosive growth in each country and which countries are managing the pandemic successfully. METHODS: Using a longitudinal trend analysis study design, we extracted 60 days of COVID-19-related data from public health registries. We used an empirical difference equation to measure the daily number of cases in the Central Asia region as a function of the prior number of cases, level of testing, and weekly shift variables based on a dynamic panel model that was estimated using the generalized method of moments approach by implementing the Arellano-Bond estimator in R. RESULTS: COVID-19 transmission rates were tracked for the weeks of September 30 to October 6 and October 7-13, 2020, in Central Asia. The region averaged 11,730 new cases per day for the first week and 14,514 for the second week. Infection rates increased across the region from 4.74 per 100,000 persons to 5.66. Russia and Turkey had the highest 7-day moving averages in the region, with 9836 and 1469, respectively, for the week of October 6 and 12,501 and 1603, respectively, for the week of October 13. Russia has the fourth highest speed in the region and continues to have positive acceleration, driving the negative trend for the entire region as the largest country by population. Armenia is experiencing explosive growth of COVID-19; its infection rate of 13.73 for the week of October 6 quickly jumped to 25.19, the highest in the region, the following week. The region overall is experiencing increases in its 7-day moving average of new cases, infection, rate, and speed, with continued positive acceleration and no sign of a reversal in sight. CONCLUSIONS: The rapidly evolving COVID-19 pandemic requires novel dynamic surveillance metrics in addition to static metrics to effectively analyze the pandemic trajectory and control spread. Policy makers need to know the magnitude of transmission rates, how quickly they are accelerating, and how previous cases are impacting current caseload due to a lag effect. These metrics applied to Central Asia suggest that the region is trending negatively, primarily due to minimal restrictions in Russia.
Subject(s)COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Administrative Personnel , Armenia/epidemiology , Asia, Central/epidemiology , Azerbaijan/epidemiology , Benchmarking , Cyprus/epidemiology , Denmark/epidemiology , Food Insecurity , Georgia (Republic)/epidemiology , Gibraltar/epidemiology , Humans , Kosovo/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Pandemics/prevention & control , Public Health , Public Health Surveillance/methods , Registries , Republic of North Macedonia/epidemiology , Russia/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Turkey/epidemiology , Water Insecurity
COVID-19 pandemic has provoked a huge change in daily functioning in millions of people worldwide. The epidemiological measures in prevention of possible infection have increased the possible risks on the mental and physical health. We have conducted a survey in order to investigate the needs and challenges of families with children with chronic respiratory diseases. In this order, we have created a questionnaire with general information about the family, general information about the child with chronic respiratory disease, overall physical and mental health before and during the pandemic, needs and mental health condition of the parents/caregivers. This survey showed that this group of families of children with respiratory disorders have suffered financially in significant way and has changed the way they perform professional and educational patterns due to the pandemic. Most of the children were stable in their physical health, but their mental health has deteriorated. This is probably due to the regular contact with the medical staff, but not with the mental health professionals. This group of children has a significant reduction in their physical activity and increase the hours in front of TV screens. The further effect on the physical and mental health is to be investigated.