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1.
Chest ; 160(1): 175-186, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525725

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 aerosolization during noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation may endanger health care professionals. Various circuit setups have been described to reduce virus aerosolization. However, these setups may alter ventilator performance. RESEARCH QUESTION: What are the consequences of the various suggested circuit setups on ventilator efficacy during CPAP and noninvasive ventilation (NIV)? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Eight circuit setups were evaluated on a bench test model that consisted of a three-dimensional printed head and an artificial lung. Setups included a dual-limb circuit with an oronasal mask, a dual-limb circuit with a helmet interface, a single-limb circuit with a passive exhalation valve, three single-limb circuits with custom-made additional leaks, and two single-limb circuits with active exhalation valves. All setups were evaluated during NIV and CPAP. The following variables were recorded: the inspiratory flow preceding triggering of the ventilator, the inspiratory effort required to trigger the ventilator, the triggering delay, the maximal inspiratory pressure delivered by the ventilator, the tidal volume generated to the artificial lung, the total work of breathing, and the pressure-time product needed to trigger the ventilator. RESULTS: With NIV, the type of circuit setup had a significant impact on inspiratory flow preceding triggering of the ventilator (P < .0001), the inspiratory effort required to trigger the ventilator (P < .0001), the triggering delay (P < .0001), the maximal inspiratory pressure (P < .0001), the tidal volume (P = .0008), the work of breathing (P < .0001), and the pressure-time product needed to trigger the ventilator (P < .0001). Similar differences and consequences were seen with CPAP as well as with the addition of bacterial filters. Best performance was achieved with a dual-limb circuit with an oronasal mask. Worst performance was achieved with a dual-limb circuit with a helmet interface. INTERPRETATION: Ventilator performance is significantly impacted by the circuit setup. A dual-limb circuit with oronasal mask should be used preferentially.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Noninvasive Ventilation , Air Filters , Benchmarking/methods , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/transmission , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure/adverse effects , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure/instrumentation , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure/methods , Critical Pathways/standards , Critical Pathways/trends , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Noninvasive Ventilation/adverse effects , Noninvasive Ventilation/instrumentation , Noninvasive Ventilation/methods , Research Design , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Ventilators, Mechanical
2.
BMJ Open ; 11(11): e054900, 2021 11 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523045

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 has necessitated greater adoption of virtual care (eg, telephone (audio), videoconference) delivery models. Virtual care provides opportunities for innovative practice in care planning with older persons and meaningful family engagement by synchronously involving multiple care providers. Nevertheless, there remains a paucity of summarising evidence regarding virtual team-based care planning for older persons. The purpose of this scoping review is to summarise evidence on the utilisation of virtual team-based care planning for older persons in formal care settings. Specifically, (1) what has been reported in the literature on the impact or outcomes of virtual team-based care planning? (2) What are the facilitators and barriers to implementation? METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This scoping review will follow a rigorous and well-established methodology by the Joanna Briggs Institute, supplemented by the Arksey & O'Malley and Levac, Colquhoun, & O'Brien frameworks. A three-step search strategy will be used to conduct a search on virtual team-based care planning for older persons in formal care settings. Keywords and index terms will be identified from an initial search in PubMed and AgeLine, and used to conduct the full search in the databases PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, AgeLine, PsycInfo and Scopus. Reference lists of included articles and grey literature retrieved through Google and Google Scholar will also be reviewed. Three researchers will screen titles and abstracts, and will conduct full-text review for inclusion. Extracted data will be mapped in a table. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Research ethics approval is not required for data collection from publicly accessible information. Findings will be presented at conferences, submitted for open-access publication in a peer-reviewed journal and made accessible to multiple stakeholders. The scoping review will summarise the literature on virtual team-based care planning for the purpose of informing the implementation of a virtual PIECES™ intervention (Physical/Intellectual/Emotional health, Capabilities, Environment, and Social).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Research Design , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Peer Review , Review Literature as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
3.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 22(Suppl 5): 147, 2021 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505775

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To classify chest computed tomography (CT) images as positive or negative for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) quickly and accurately, researchers attempted to develop effective models by using medical images. RESULTS: A convolutional neural network (CNN) ensemble model was developed for classifying chest CT images as positive or negative for COVID-19. To classify chest CT images acquired from COVID-19 patients, the proposed COVID19-CNN ensemble model combines the use of multiple trained CNN models with a majority voting strategy. The CNN models were trained to classify chest CT images by transfer learning from well-known pre-trained CNN models and by applying their algorithm hyperparameters as appropriate. The combination of algorithm hyperparameters for a pre-trained CNN model was determined by uniform experimental design. The chest CT images (405 from COVID-19 patients and 397 from healthy patients) used for training and performance testing of the COVID19-CNN ensemble model were obtained from an earlier study by Hu in 2020. Experiments showed that, the COVID19-CNN ensemble model achieved 96.7% accuracy in classifying CT images as COVID-19 positive or negative, which was superior to the accuracies obtained by the individual trained CNN models. Other performance measures (i.e., precision, recall, specificity, and F1-score) obtained bythe COVID19-CNN ensemble model were higher than those obtained by individual trained CNN models. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID19-CNN ensemble model had superior accuracy and excellent capability in classifying chest CT images as COVID-19 positive or negative.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Deep Learning , Humans , Neural Networks, Computer , Research Design , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
4.
BMJ Open ; 11(11): e056106, 2021 11 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504289

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 has spread with high morbidity and mortality worldwide. Many inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are being tested at various clinical trial stages for the control and prevention of COVID-19. We aim to comprehensively and objectively evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in healthy individuals through a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs). METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will search electronic databases of PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science and EMBASE for RCTs from inception to 31 December 2021. We will also search conference abstracts, reference lists, and grey literature of all available records. Two reviewers will independently screen and extract information from the literature. Bias and the quality of included studies will be evaluated with the risk-bias assessment tool provided by the Cochrane Collaboration. Statistical analysis will be performed using Cochrane's Review Manager (RevMan), V.5.3. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval and patient informed consent are not required because we will be including published literature only. The findings of this research will be disseminated in a peer-reviewed journal and likely through other scientific events such as conferences, seminars and symposia. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42021266285.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Research Design , Systematic Reviews as Topic
5.
BMJ Open ; 11(11): e053959, 2021 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501721

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has brought tremendous changes in healthcare delivery and exacerbated a wide range of inequities. Social workers across a broad range of healthcare settings bring an expertise in social, behavioural and mental healthcare needed to help address these health inequities. In addition, social workers integrate policy-directed interventions and solutions in clinical practice, which is a needed perspective for recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic. It remains unclear, however, what the most pressing policy issues are that have emerged during the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, many social workers in health settings tend to underuse policy in their direct practice. The objectives of this scoping review are to: (1) systematically scope the literature on social work, COVID-19 pandemic and policy; and (2) describe the competencies required by social workers and the social work profession to address the policy issues emerging during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The scoping review follows Arksey and O'Malley's five-stage framework. Identification of literature published between 1 December 2019 and the search date, 31 March 2021, will take place in two stages: (1) title and abstract review, and (2) full-text review. In partnership with a health science librarian, the research team listed keywords related to social work and policy to search databases including Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Social Services Abstract and Social Work Abstracts. Two graduate-level research assistants will conduct screening and full-text review. Data will then be extracted, charted, analysed and summarised to report on our results and implications on practice, policy and future research. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Results will help develop a policy practice competence framework to inform how social workers can influence policy. We will share our findings through peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations. This study does not require Research Ethics Board approval as it uses publicly available sources of data.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Workers , Capacity Building , Health Policy , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Research Design , Review Literature as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
8.
BMJ Open ; 11(10): e053962, 2021 10 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1495474

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Infectious diseases pose a risk to public health, requiring efficient strategies for disease prevention. Digital health surveillance technologies provide new opportunities to enhance disease prevention, detection, tracking, reporting and analysis. However, in addition to concerns regarding the effectiveness of these technologies in meeting public health goals, there are also concerns regarding the ethics, legality, safety and sustainability of digital surveillance technologies. This scoping review examines the literature on digital surveillance for public health purposes during the COVID-19 pandemic to identify health-related applications of digital surveillance technologies, and to highlight discussions of the implications of these technologies. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The scoping review will be guided by the framework proposed by Arksey and O'Malley and the guidelines outlined by Colquhoun et al and Levac et al. We will search Medline (Ovid), PsycInfo, PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL (EBSCOhost), ACM Digital Library, Google Scholar and IEEE Explore for relevant studies published between December 2019 and December 2020. The review will also include grey literature. Data will be managed and analysed through an extraction table and thematic analysis. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Findings will be disseminated through traditional academic channels, as well as social media channels and research briefs and infographics. We will target our dissemination to provincial and federal public health organisations, as well as technology companies and community-based organisations managing the public response to the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Delivery of Health Care , Digital Technology , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Research Design , Review Literature as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
9.
BMJ Open ; 11(10): e053124, 2021 10 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1495470

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Communicable disease epidemics and pandemics magnify the health inequities experienced by marginalised populations. People who use substances suffer from high rates of morbidity and mortality and should be a priority to receive palliative care, yet they encounter many barriers to palliative care access. Given the pre-existing inequities to palliative care access for people with life-limiting illnesses who use substances, it is important to understand the impact of communicable disease epidemics and pandemics such as COVID-19 on this population. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will conduct a scoping review and report according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews reporting guidelines. We conducted a comprehensive literature search in seven bibliographical databases from the inception of each database to August 2020. We also performed a grey literature search to identify the publications not indexed in the bibliographical databases. All the searches will be rerun in April 2021 to retrieve recently published information because the COVID-19 pandemic is ongoing at the time of this writing. We will extract the quantitative data using a standardised data extraction form and summarise it using descriptive statistics. Additionally, we will conduct thematic qualitative analyses and present our findings as narrative summaries. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval is not required for a scoping review. We will disseminate our findings to healthcare providers and policymakers through professional networks, digital communications through social media platforms, conference presentations and publication in a scientific journal.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Humans , Palliative Care , Pandemics , Research Design , Review Literature as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Systematic Reviews as Topic
10.
Am J Ther ; 28(5): e576-e579, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1494105
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(43): e27586, 2021 Oct 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1494091

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is spreading fast and it brings great pressure to the social economy. Many reports revealed that ginseng can develop immunity for respiratory disease, but there is no evidence to prove its effects on COVID-19. This protocol of systematic review and meta-analysis will clarify the safety and effectiveness of ginseng adjuvant therapy on COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Different databases (Web of Science, Cochrane Library, PubMed, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, Chinese Scientific Journal Database, Wan fang Database, ClinicalTrials, World Health Organization Trials, and Chinese Clinical Trial Registry) will be retrieved to search related articles according to pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Clinical recovery time and effective rates will be assessed as the primary outcomes and any changes of patient's condition will be considered as the secondary outcomes. Subgroup analysis and sensitivity analysis will be conducted to explore sources of heterogeneity. Endnote X9.3 will be used to manage data screening. The statistical analysis will be completed by RevMan5.3 and Stata/SE 15.1 software. RESULTS: This study will assess the effects and safety for ginseng adjuvant therapy on COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSION: The discussion will be considered to determine whether sufficient evidence exists to prove the effects of ginseng adjuvant therapy for COVID-19 patients. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO (ID: CRD42021277843).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant/methods , Panax , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Research Design , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 10 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488603

ABSTRACT

During COVID-19, the working world has changed inevitably, and many managers experience extreme strain and stress. This study determines how managers cope with the changes during COVID-19 from a positive psychology and salutogenic perspective. It employs a hermeneutical research design and an interpretivist paradigm by using a mixed-method research approach in which managers' sense of coherence (SOC) is investigated quantitatively through the 29-item Life-Orientation scale and qualitatively through semi-structured interviews. Purposeful and snowball sampling techniques are used. The sample consists of 17 managers. Data were collected in different organizations within South Africa and analysed through content analysis, linking quantitative and qualitative data in a holistic, integrated and complex way. In terms of the quantitative findings, the managers scored at the medium and higher end of the SOC-scale in comprehensibility, followed by manageability and finally meaningfulness. Male managers in the age group 47-57 scored highest. Female and younger managers scored lower on average. Lowest scores in comprehensibility and manageability were scored by a young female manager, while in meaningfulness the oldest male participant scored lowest. The qualitative findings show that high scoring SOC managers apply complex thoughts to the present and future workplace scenario. Individuals with lower SOC scores do not present as much knowledge, complex thinking and argumentation structures during the interview in comprehensibility scores as high scoring SOC managers, yet still acquire resources to manage the workplace (manageability). High meaningfulness scores are associated with creating meaningful workplace interaction (human-human and machine-human), knowledge distribution through technology, impactfulness, experiencing the job as meaningful, including helping others, and achievements. Managers have a complex view of the world and findings show the complex connections of a high/low SOC scores and the managers' explorations and systemic understanding regarding their managerial world. Conclusions and recommendations for theory and practice are given.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sense of Coherence , Adaptation, Psychological , Female , Humans , Male , Research Design , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
15.
PLoS Med ; 18(10): e1003793, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477510

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The importance of infectious disease epidemic forecasting and prediction research is underscored by decades of communicable disease outbreaks, including COVID-19. Unlike other fields of medical research, such as clinical trials and systematic reviews, no reporting guidelines exist for reporting epidemic forecasting and prediction research despite their utility. We therefore developed the EPIFORGE checklist, a guideline for standardized reporting of epidemic forecasting research. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We developed this checklist using a best-practice process for development of reporting guidelines, involving a Delphi process and broad consultation with an international panel of infectious disease modelers and model end users. The objectives of these guidelines are to improve the consistency, reproducibility, comparability, and quality of epidemic forecasting reporting. The guidelines are not designed to advise scientists on how to perform epidemic forecasting and prediction research, but rather to serve as a standard for reporting critical methodological details of such studies. CONCLUSIONS: These guidelines have been submitted to the EQUATOR network, in addition to hosting by other dedicated webpages to facilitate feedback and journal endorsement.


Subject(s)
Biomedical Research/standards , COVID-19/epidemiology , Checklist/standards , Epidemics , Guidelines as Topic/standards , Research Design , Biomedical Research/methods , Checklist/methods , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Epidemics/statistics & numerical data , Forecasting/methods , Humans , Reproducibility of Results
16.
BMJ Open ; 11(10): e048299, 2021 10 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1476599

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Older adults (age ≥65 years) are pursuing increasingly complex, elective surgeries; and, are at higher risk for intraoperative and postoperative complications. Patients and their caregivers frequently struggle with the postoperative recovery process at home, which may contribute to complications. We aim to identify opportunities to intervene during the preoperative period to improve postoperative outcomes by understanding the preparatory behaviours of older adults and their caregivers before a complex, elective surgery. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, we will conduct this study via telephone and videoconferencing. Using a multiphase mixed-methods research design, we will collect data on 10-15 patient-caregiver dyads from a pool of older adults (across a spectrum of cognitive abilities) scheduled for an elective colorectal surgery between 1 July 2020 and 30 May 2021. We will collect quantitative and qualitative data before (T1, T2) and after (T3, T4) surgery. Preoperatively, participants will each complete a cognitive assessment and a semi-structured qualitative interview that focuses on their preparatory behaviours (T1). They will then answer questionnaires about mood, self-efficacy and home environment (T2). Three weeks following hospital discharge, participants will complete another qualitative interview focusing on a comparison of preoperative and postoperative preparedness (T3). Researchers will also collect information about the patient's medical conditions, the postoperative complications and healthcare utilisation from the patient's chart 30 days following discharge (T4). We will code and conduct thematic analysis of the qualitative data to identify salient themes. Quantitative data will be analysed using basic descriptive statistics to characterise the participants. We will integrate the qualitative and quantitative findings using results from the quantitative scales to group participants and with use of joint display analysis. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval was obtained from the University of Michigan IRB. Study findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals and presentations at conferences.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Caregivers , Aged , Humans , Pandemics , Research Design , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
17.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 5122962, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1467752

ABSTRACT

In recent years, almost every country in the world has struggled against the spread of Coronavirus Disease 2019. If governments and public health systems do not take action against the spread of the disease, it will have a severe impact on human life. A noteworthy technique to stop this pandemic is diagnosing COVID-19 infected patients and isolating them instantly. The present study proposes a method for the diagnosis of COVID-19 from CT images. The method is a hybrid method based on convolutional neural network which is optimized by a newly introduced metaheuristic, called marine predator optimization algorithm. This optimization method is performed to improve the system accuracy. The method is then implemented on the chest CT scans with the COVID-19-related findings (MosMedData) dataset, and the results are compared with three other methods from the literature to indicate the method's performance. The final results indicate that the proposed method with 98.11% accuracy, 98.13% precision, 98.66% sensitivity, and 97.26% F1 score has the highest performance in all indicators than the compared methods which shows its higher accuracy and reliability.


Subject(s)
Algorithms , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Neural Networks, Computer , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Data Accuracy , Databases, Factual , Deep Learning , Humans , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted/methods , Models, Theoretical , Reproducibility of Results , Research Design , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity
18.
BMJ Open ; 11(10): e052993, 2021 10 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462971

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Sharps injuries, including needlestick injuries and splash exposures, constitute serious occupational health problems for healthcare workers, carrying the risk of bloodborne infections. However, data on such occupational incidents and their risk factors in healthcare settings are scarce and not systematically summarised in the Arab countries.The aim of this study is to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to review published literature about sharps injuries and splash exposures of healthcare workers in Arab countries, with the objectives to determine the incidence and/or prevalence of these events, their identified risk factors and the applied preventive and postexposure prophylactic measures. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The protocol is developed in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Protocol guidelines. A comprehensive presearch developed in January to March 2021 in the database PubMed will be followed by a systematic search of six, core medical and health science databases: PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, CINAHL, Web of Science and Africa-Wide Information in May 2021. The search will be performed without any filters or restrictions for publication years. Covidence systematic review tool will be used for document management, blinded screening and study selection. Two reviewers will independently screen the records, extract data and conduct risk of bias assessment. Results will be synthesised narratively in summary tables, and, if findings allow, meta-analysis will be conducted on the incidence and/or prevalence of sharps injuries and splash exposures, and on the effect size of risk factors. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The systematic review methodology does not require ethics approval due to the nature of the study design based only on published studies. The results of the systematic review will be published in a peer-reviewed journal, disseminated to stakeholders and made publicly available. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42021242416.


Subject(s)
Needlestick Injuries , Arabs , Delivery of Health Care , Health Personnel , Humans , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Needlestick Injuries/epidemiology , Research Design , Systematic Reviews as Topic
19.
BMJ Open ; 11(10): e047314, 2021 10 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462953

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the single greatest contributor to global mortality. The successful introduction and scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) delivered a reduction in HIV mortality. Consequently, an association was found between the scale-up of ART and an increased prevalence of comorbidities among people living with HIV (PLWH) such as hypertension and dyslipidaemia. A higher quality diet can delay the onset of comorbidities related to HIV infection. Diet quality and its methods of assessment are not fully established among PLWH. This review will identify the diet quality and food insecurity indices that have been used among PLWH and how these constructs are associated with risk of developing CVD. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The frameworks recommended by Arksey and O'Malley and the Joanna Briggs Institute's manual for conducting scoping reviews will be adopted. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews guidelines will be used for reporting. A search strategy was developed using keywords related to the topic. A preliminary MEDLINE (via PubMed) search was conducted on 11 November 2020 to develop a comprehensive search strategy. The final search will be conducted on PubMed, EbscoHost, Scopus, Web of Science and Cochrane Library databases. Titles and abstracts of retrieved records will be screened independently by two reviewers. Data will be extracted from records that meet the inclusion criteria using a predesigned charting tool. Discrepancies in decisions made by reviewers will be resolved by consensus or the decision of a third reviewer. Extracted data will be presented in tables or charts. A descriptive summary of the charts or tables will follow. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval is not required for a scoping review. Findings will inform other studies currently underway and will be presented at conferences and published in peer-reviewed journals. REGISTRATION NUMBER: https://osf.io/7k3ja.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , HIV Infections , Adult , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Diet , Food Insecurity , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Research Design , Review Literature as Topic , Systematic Reviews as Topic
20.
Clin Orthop Relat Res ; 479(8): 1665-1668, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462532
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