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1.
BMC Med Inform Decis Mak ; 22(1): 284, 2022 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098335

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The sensitivity of RT-PCR in diagnosing COVID-19 is only 60-70%, and chest CT plays an indispensable role in the auxiliary diagnosis of COVID-19 pneumonia, but the results of CT imaging are highly dependent on professional radiologists. AIMS: This study aimed to develop a deep learning model to assist radiologists in detecting COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS: The total study population was 437. The training dataset contained 26,477, 2468, and 8104 CT images of normal, CAP, and COVID-19, respectively. The validation dataset contained 14,076, 1028, and 3376 CT images of normal, CAP, and COVID-19 patients, respectively. The test set included 51 normal cases, 28 CAP patients, and 51 COVID-19 patients. We designed and trained a deep learning model to recognize normal, CAP, and COVID-19 patients based on U-Net and ResNet-50. Moreover, the diagnoses of the deep learning model were compared with different levels of radiologists. RESULTS: In the test set, the sensitivity of the deep learning model in diagnosing normal cases, CAP, and COVID-19 patients was 98.03%, 89.28%, and 92.15%, respectively. The diagnostic accuracy of the deep learning model was 93.84%. In the validation set, the accuracy was 92.86%, which was better than that of two novice doctors (86.73% and 87.75%) and almost equal to that of two experts (94.90% and 93.88%). The AI model performed significantly better than all four radiologists in terms of time consumption (35 min vs. 75 min, 93 min, 79 min, and 82 min). CONCLUSION: The AI model we obtained had strong decision-making ability, which could potentially assist doctors in detecting COVID-19 pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Deep Learning , Humans , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Research Design
2.
Biomed Res Int ; 2022: 7890821, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2084675

ABSTRACT

In this work, we introduce an improved form of the basic SEIRD model based on Python simulation for the troublesome people who are oblivious about the contemporary pandemics due to diverse social impediments, especially those economically underprivileged. In the extant epidemiological models, some unorthodox issues are yet to be considered, such as poverty, illiteracy, and carelessness towards health issues, significantly influencing the data modeling. Our focus is to overcome these issues by adding two more branches, for instance, uncovered and apathetic people, which significantly influence the practical purposes. For the data simulation, we have used the Python-based algorithm that trains the desired system based on a set of real-time data with the proposed model and provides predicted data with a certain level of accuracy. Comparative discussions, statistical error analysis, and correlation-regression analysis have been introduced to validate the proposed epidemiological model. To show the numerical evidence, the investigation comprised the figurative and tabular modes for both real-time and predicted data. Finally, we discussed some concluding remarks based on our findings.


Subject(s)
Epidemiological Models , Pandemics , Humans , Poverty , Research Design
3.
Arch Prev Riesgos Labor ; 25(3): 300-309, 2022 07 15.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080980

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Construct a numerical index of non-pharmacological preventive measures against Sars-CoV-2 based on the experience of Parc de Salut Mar (PSMar), a healthcare institution in Barcelona. METHOD: The construction of the index was carried out in three phases. The identification and selection of the variables to be included based on semi-structured interviews with key informants and documental revision. The definition of the dimensions (consisting of one or more variables) and, finally, the operationalisation of the index on the basis of these dimensions. The index was estimated in the PSMar, and in its two main centres, the Hospital del Mar and the Hospital de la Esperanza. RESULTS: Twenty-one variables were identified and categorised into six dimensions: personal protective equipment, individual organisational measures, collective organisational measures, epidemiological surveillance measures, training activities and protocol development. During the first wave, the Hospital del Mar index remained above the value obtained at the Hospital de la Esperanza, while in the second wave both indexes showed similar values until week 36, when the Hospital del Mar index began to show higher values. These oscillations were mainly due to the dimensions of personal protective equipment and training activities. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed index shows the difficulties in implementing the various non-pharmacological preventive measures in the first weeks of the pandemic. This tool can be useful for evaluating the activities carried out by the Occupational Risk Prevention Services in the face of the pandemic, with the appropriate adaptations to the reality of each individual company.


Introducción: Construir un índice numérico con las medidas preventivas no farmacológicas frente a Sars-CoV-2 a partir de la experiencia del Parc de Salut Mar (PSMar), una institución sanitaria en Barcelona. Método: La construcción del índice se ha realizado en tres fases. La identificación y selección de las variables incluidas a partir de entrevistas semiestructuradas a informantes clave y la revisión documental. La definición de las dimensiones (con una o más variables) y la operacionalización del índice (a partir de las dimensiones). Se ha estimado el índice en el PSMar, y en sus dos principales centros, el Hospital del Mar y el Hospital de la Esperanza. Resultados: Se identificaron 21 variables, clasificadas en 6 dimensiones: equipos de protección individual, medidas organizativas individuales, medidas organizativas colectivas, medidas de vigilancia epidemiológica, actividades formativas, y elaboración de protocolos. Durante la primera ola, el índice en el Hospital del Mar se mantuvo por encima del valor obtenido en el Hospital de la Esperanza; en la segunda ola ambos índices presentaron valores similares hasta la semana 36, cuando el hospital del Mar comenzó a presentar valores superiores. Estas oscilaciones se debieron principalmente a los equipos de protección individual y actividades formativas. Conclusiones: El índice propuesto muestra las dificultades para aplicar las medidas preventivas no farmacológicas en las primeras semanas de la pandemia. Esta herramienta puede ser útil para evaluar las actividades desarrolladas frente a la pandemia por parte de los Servicios de Prevención de Riesgos Laborales, con las oportunas adaptaciones a la realidad de cada empresa.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Research Design
4.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 44(4): 47, 2022 Oct 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2075759

ABSTRACT

The current strategy of searching for an effective treatment for COVID-19 relies mainly on repurposing existing therapies developed to target other diseases. Conflicting results have emerged in regard to the efficacy of several tested compounds but later results were negative. The number of conducted and ongoing trials and the urgent need for a treatment pose the risk that false-positive results will be incorrectly interpreted as evidence for treatments' efficacy and a ground for drug approval. Our purpose is twofold. First, we show that the number of drug-repurposing trials can explain the false-positive results. Second, we assess the evidence for treatments' efficacy from the perspective of evidential pluralism and argue that considering mechanistic evidence is particularly needed in cases when the evidence from clinical trials is conflicting or of low quality. Our analysis is an application of the program of Evidence Based Medicine Plus (EBM+) to the drug repurposing trials for COVID. Our study shows that if decision-makers applied EBM+, authorizing the use of ineffective treatments would be less likely. We analyze the example of trials assessing the efficacy of hydroxychloroquine as a treatment for COVID-19 and mechanistic evidence in favor of and against its therapeutic power to draw a lesson for decision-makers and drug agencies on how excessive hypothesis testing can lead to spurious findings and how studying negative mechanistic evidence can be helpful in discriminating genuine from spurious results.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Research Design
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Sep 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065913

ABSTRACT

Critical health literacy enables individuals to use cognitive and social resources for informed action on the wider determinants of health. Promoting critical health literacy early in the life-course may contribute to improved health outcomes in the long term, but children's opportunities to develop critical health literacy are limited and tend to be school-based. This study applies a settings-based approach to analyse the potential of public libraries in England to be supportive environments for children's development of critical health literacy. The study adopted institutional ethnography as a framework to explore the public library as an everyday setting for children. A children's advisory group informed the study design. Thirteen children and 19 public library staff and community stakeholders were interviewed. The study results indicated that the public library was not seen by children, staff, or community stakeholders as a setting for health. Its policies and structure purport to develop health literacy, but the political nature of critical health literacy was seen as outside its remit. A supersetting approach in which children's everyday settings work together is proposed and a conceptual model of the public library role is presented.


Subject(s)
Health Literacy , Libraries , Child , England , Humans , Research Design , Schools
6.
Molecules ; 27(19)2022 Sep 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066275

ABSTRACT

Bromelain has potential as an analgesic, an anti-inflammatory, and in cancer treatments. Despite its therapeutic effects, this protein undergoes denaturation when administered orally. Microencapsulation processes have shown potential in protein protection and as controlled release systems. Thus, this paper aimed to develop encapsulating systems using sodium alginate as a carrier material and positively charged amino acids as stabilizing agents for the controlled release of bromelain in in vitro tests. The systems were produced from the experimental design of centroid simplex mixtures. Characterizations were performed by FTIR showing that bromelain was encapsulated in all systems. XRD analyses showed that the systems are semi-crystalline solids and through SEM analysis the morphology of the formed systems followed a pattern of rough microparticles. The application of statistical analysis showed that the systems presented behavior that can be evaluated by quadratic and special cubic models, with a p-value < 0.05. The interaction between amino acids and bromelain/alginate was evaluated, and free bromelain showed a reduction of 74.0% in protein content and 23.6% in enzymatic activity at the end of gastric digestion. Furthermore, a reduction of 91.6% of protein content and 65.9% of enzymatic activity was observed at the end of intestinal digestion. The Lis system showed better interaction due to the increased stability of bromelain in terms of the amount of proteins (above 63% until the end of the intestinal phase) and the enzymatic activity of 89.3%. Thus, this study proposes the development of pH-controlled release systems aiming at increasing the stability and bioavailability of bromelain in intestinal systems.


Subject(s)
Alginates , Bromelains , Alginates/chemistry , Amino Acids , Delayed-Action Preparations , Excipients , Research Design
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Oct 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066082

ABSTRACT

With the COVID-19 pandemic sweeping the world, there is an increased focus on intergenerational relationships, community mental health issues, and well-being in community contexts. This paper assesses the effectiveness of a co-creation approach for intergenerational integration at the theoretical level. The study used a collaborative co-creation design method in the community design process to explore whether the participation of community residents of all ages in addressing community issues promoted communication and alleviated stereotyping between the various generations. This study was conducted in Shanghai's Hongqiao New Village square, where we conducted participatory research and co-creation workshops in response to the demand for the use of the public space as a location for social interactions. The results showed that intervention in community creation through collaborative design is conducive to promoting friendly relations among different age groups, forming a sense of social security and thus enhancing social well-being. Finally, this paper combines practical cases and theoretical models of collaborative co-creative design approaches to promote the intergenerational integration of communities and is summarized from the input and output parts as well as the influencing factors and constraints of the collaborative co-creative. In addition, it provides new ideas on how to improve intergenerational relationships and form a positive and sustainable community mental health environment in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , China , Communication , Humans , Research Design
8.
BMJ Open ; 12(9): e063687, 2022 09 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2064168

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Assessing mental health literacy has implications for the identification and treatment of mental health problems. Adolescents have been identified as a particularly important target group for initiating and improving mental health literacy. However, much of what we know about adolescent mental health literacy comes from high-income countries. This proposed review seeks to synthesise the available published primary evidence from sub-Saharan Africa on the status and measurement of mental health literacy among school-going adolescents. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will perform a systematic review reported in line with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement (PRISMA-2020). We will systematically search selected global databases (EMBASE, PsycINFO, PubMed and MEDLINE) and regional electronic databases (African Index Medicus and African Journals OnLine) up to December 2021 for observational and qualitative studies published in English and French. The standard quality assessment criteria for evaluating primary research papers from a variety of fields (QualSyst criteria) will be used to appraise the methodological quality of the included studies. The Petticrew-Roberts 3-step approach to narrative synthesis will be applied to the included studies. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: We will not seek ethical approval from an institutional review board, as this is a systematic review of available and accessible literature. When completed, the full report of this review will be submitted to a journal for peer-reviewed publication; the key findings will be presented at local and international conferences with-partial or full-focus on (adolescent) mental health (literacy). PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42021229011.


Subject(s)
Health Literacy , Mental Health , Adolescent , Africa South of the Sahara , Humans , Qualitative Research , Research Design , Schools , Systematic Reviews as Topic
9.
BMJ Open ; 12(10): e062775, 2022 10 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2064159

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic is exacerbating a wide range of symptoms of poor mental health among emergency medical service (EMS) ambulance populations. Evidence suggests that using organisational support can improve employee outcomes and in turn, patient outcomes. Understanding why EMS staff do and do not use support services is therefore critical to improving uptake, ensuring equitable access, and potentially influencing workforce well-being, organisational sustainability and patient care delivery. This systematic review aims to identify what support is available and any perceived barriers and facilitators to accessing and utilising organisational support. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Searches performed between 18 February 2022 and 23 February 2022 will be used to identify studies that report barriers and facilitators to EMS employee support among all government/state commissioned EMS ambulance systems. Electronic databases, AMED, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, EMBASE, EMCARE, HMIC, Medline and PsycINFO will be searched. All relevant English-language studies of adult employees of government/state commissioned EMS ambulance organisations published since December 2004 will be screened and relevant data extracted by two independent reviewers. A third reviewer will resolve any disagreements.The primary outcome is the identification of perceived barriers or facilitators to EMS staff using organisational support for mental health. The secondary outcome is the identification of supportive interventions offered through or by ambulance trusts. Study selection will follow Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, and the methodological quality of included studies will be appraised by administering rating checklists. A narrative synthesis will be conducted to report qualitative and quantitative data and will include population characteristics, methodological approach and information about barriers and facilitators. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval is not required because only available published data will be analysed. Findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publication and conference presentation. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42022299650.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health , Adult , Ambulances , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Pandemics , Research Design , Systematic Reviews as Topic
10.
BMJ Glob Health ; 7(10)2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2064138

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In recent years, the concept of living systematic review (LSR) has attracted the attention of many scholars and institutions. A growing number of studies have been conducted based on LSR methodology, but their focus direction is unclear. The objective of this study was to provide a comprehensive review of existing LSR-related studies and to analyse their whole picture and future trends with bibliometrics. METHODS: A comprehensive search strategy was used to construct a representative dataset of LSRs up to October 2021. GraphPad V.8.2.1 and Mindmaster Pro presented the basic information of the included studies and the timeline of LSR development, respectively. The author and country cooperation network, hotspot distribution clustering, historical citation network and future development trend prediction related to LSR were visualised by VOSviewer V.1.6.16 and R-Studio V.1.4. RESULTS: A total of 213 studies were eventually included. The concept of LSR was first proposed in 2014, and the number of studies has proliferated since 2020. There was a closer collaboration between author teams and more frequent LSR research development and collaboration in Europe, North America and Australia. Numerous LSR studies have been published in high-impact journals. COVID-19 is the predominant disease of concern at this stage, and the rehabilitation of its patients and virological studies are possible directions of research in LSR for a long time to come. A review of existing studies found that more than half of the LSR series had not yet been updated and that the method needed to be more standardised in practice. CONCLUSION: Although LSR has a relatively short history, it has received much attention and currently has a high overall acceptance. The LSR methodology was further practised in COVID-19, and we look forward to seeing it applied in more areas.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Bibliometrics , Europe , Humans , North America , Research Design
11.
J Clin Epidemiol ; 147: 11-20, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2061466

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Year-to-year variation in respiratory viruses may result in lower attack rates than expected. We aimed to illustrate the impact of year-to-year variation in attack rates on the likelihood of demonstrating vaccine efficacy (VE). STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We considered an individually randomized maternal vaccine trial against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-associated hospitalizations. For 10 RSV-associated hospitalizations per 1,000 infants, sample size to have 80% power for true VE of 50% and 70% was 9,846 and 4,424 participants. We reported power to show VE for varying attack rates, selected to reflect realistic year-to-year variation using observational studies. Eight scenarios including varying number of countries and seasons were developed to assess the influence of these trial parameters. RESULTS: Including up to three seasons decreased the width of the interquartile range for power. Including more seasons concentrated statistical power closer to 80%. Least powered trials had higher statistical power with more seasons. In all scenarios, at least half of the trials had <80% power. For three-season trials, increasing the sample size by 10% reduced the percentage of underpowered trials to less than one-quarter of trials. CONCLUSION: Year-to-year variation in RSV attack rates should be accounted for during trial design. Mitigation strategies include recruiting over more seasons, or adaptive trial designs.


Subject(s)
Clinical Trials as Topic , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines , Hospitalization , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Research Design , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/prevention & control , Seasons , Vaccine Efficacy
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(18)2022 Sep 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2055232

ABSTRACT

The struggle for information and the hasty search for answers caused by the COVID-19 pandemic threatened the possibility of lowering study quality, as well as ethical committees' review standards during the outbreak. Our investigation aimed to assess the impact of COVID-19 on the quality of clinical research studies submitted to Italian Ethics Committees in the period between April and July 2020. All 91 Italian ethics committees were contacted via email in order to collect anonymized information on the type and quality of COVID-19-related studies submitted to each committee during the study period. The present study summarizes the characteristics of the 184 study applications collected, pointing out, especially, how the quality of the study population and statistical analysis are crucial variables in determining the study approval. Nevertheless, despite the need for high-quality and open scientific information, especially exacerbated by this particular historical period, only a minority of the ethics committees (20.9%) agreed to share their data; such scarce participation, beyond biasing the representativeness of the results obtained by the present study, more importantly, hinders the broader goal of creating trust between researchers and the general public.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ethics Committees, Research , COVID-19/epidemiology , Ethical Review , Humans , Pandemics , Research Design
13.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 8(9): e37887, 2022 Sep 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2054773

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Surveillance data are essential public health resources for guiding policy and allocation of human and capital resources. These data often consist of large collections of information based on nonrandom sample designs. Population estimates based on such data may be impacted by the underlying sample distribution compared to the true population of interest. In this study, we simulate a population of interest and allow response rates to vary in nonrandom ways to illustrate and measure the effect this has on population-based estimates of an important public health policy outcome. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to illustrate the effect of nonrandom missingness on population-based survey sample estimation. METHODS: We simulated a population of respondents answering a survey question about their satisfaction with their community's policy regarding vaccination mandates for government personnel. We allowed response rates to differ between the generally satisfied and dissatisfied and considered the effect of common efforts to control for potential bias such as sampling weights, sample size inflation, and hypothesis tests for determining missingness at random. We compared these conditions via mean squared errors and sampling variability to characterize the bias in estimation arising under these different approaches. RESULTS: Sample estimates present clear and quantifiable bias, even in the most favorable response profile. On a 5-point Likert scale, nonrandom missingness resulted in errors averaging to almost a full point away from the truth. Efforts to mitigate bias through sample size inflation and sampling weights have negligible effects on the overall results. Additionally, hypothesis testing for departures from random missingness rarely detect the nonrandom missingness across the widest range of response profiles considered. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that assuming surveillance data are missing at random during analysis could provide estimates that are widely different from what we might see in the whole population. Policy decisions based on such potentially biased estimates could be devastating in terms of community disengagement and health disparities. Alternative approaches to analysis that move away from broad generalization of a mismeasured population at risk are necessary to identify the marginalized groups, where overall response may be very different from those observed in measured respondents.


Subject(s)
Research Design , Bias , Computer Simulation , Humans , Surveys and Questionnaires
14.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 22(1): 260, 2022 10 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053864

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Missing data may lead to loss of statistical power and introduce bias in clinical trials. The Covid-19 pandemic has had a profound impact on patient health care and on the conduct of cancer clinical trials. Although several endpoints may be affected, progression-free survival (PFS) is of major concern, given its frequent use as primary endpoint in advanced cancer and the fact that missed radiographic assessments are to be expected. The recent introduction of the estimand framework creates an opportunity to define more precisely the target of estimation and ensure alignment between the scientific question and the statistical analysis. METHODS: We used simulations to investigate the impact of two basic approaches for handling missing tumor scans due to the pandemic: a "treatment policy" strategy, which consisted in ascribing events to the time they are observed, and a "hypothetical" approach of censoring patients with events during the shutdown period at the last assessment prior to that period. We computed the power of the logrank test, estimated hazard ratios (HR) using Cox models, and estimated median PFS times without and with a hypothetical 6-month shutdown period with no patient enrollment or tumor scans being performed, varying the shutdown starting times. RESULTS: Compared with the results in the absence of shutdown, the "treatment policy" strategy slightly overestimated median PFS proportionally to the timing of the shutdown period, but power was not affected. Except for one specific scenario, there was no impact on the estimated HR. In general, the pandemic had a greater impact on the analyses using the "hypothetical" strategy, which led to decreased power and overestimated median PFS times to a greater extent than the "treatment policy" strategy. CONCLUSION: As a rule, we suggest that the treatment policy approach, which conforms with the intent-to-treat principle, should be the primary analysis to avoid unnecessary loss of power and minimize bias in median PFS estimates.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Disease-Free Survival , Humans , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Neoplasms/therapy , Pandemics , Progression-Free Survival , Research Design
15.
BMJ Open ; 12(10): e065588, 2022 10 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053224

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to concerns about potential adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with infection, resulting in intensive research. Numerous studies have attempted to examine whether COVID-19 is associated with an increased risk of pregnancy loss. However, studies and reviews to date have drawn differing conclusions. The aim of this systematic review is to provide a summary of all quantitative research on the relationship between pregnancy loss and COVID-19 infection and, if appropriate, to synthesise the evidence into an overall effect estimate. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Three publication databases (Embase, PubMed and Cochrane) and four preprint databases (medRxiv, Lancet Preprint, Gates Open Research and Wellcome Open Research) will be searched. Boolean logic will be used to combine terms associated with pregnancy loss and COVID-19. The population of interest are pregnant women. Retrieved results will be assessed in two phases: (1) abstract screening and (2) full text evaluation. All studies which compare pregnancy loss outcomes in women who had COVID-19 versus those who did not quantitatively will be included. Narrative and non-English studies will be excluded. Two reviewers will screen independently, with results compared and discrepancies resolved by the study team. Study quality and risk of bias will be assessed using a quality appraisal tool. Results will be summarised descriptively and where possible synthesised in a meta-analysis. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This systematic review requires no ethical approval. This review will be published in a peer-reviewed journal and provide an important update in a rapidly evolving field of research. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42022327437.


Subject(s)
Abortion, Spontaneous , COVID-19 , Abortion, Spontaneous/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Research Design , Stillbirth/epidemiology , Systematic Reviews as Topic
16.
BMJ Open ; 12(9): e061361, 2022 09 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053213

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: There is a significant growth in the use of digital technology and methods in health-related research, further driven by the COVID-19 pandemic. This has offered a potential to apply digital health research in hidden, marginalised and excluded populations who are traditionally not easily reached due to economic, societal and legal barriers. To better inform future digital health studies of these vulnerable populations, we proposed a scoping review to comprehensively map published evidence and guidelines on the applications and challenges of digital health research methods to hard-to-reach communities. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This review will follow the Arksey and O' Malley methodological framework for scoping reviews. The framework for the review will employ updated methods developed by the Joanna Briggs Institute including the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analysis Scoping Review checklist. PubMed, the Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, Google Scholar and Greenfile are the identified databases for peer-reviewed quantitative and qualitative studies in-scope of the review. Grey literature focused on guidance and best practice in digital health research, and hard-to-reach populations will also be searched following published protocols. The review will focus on literature published between 1 February 2012 and 1 February 2022. Two reviewers are engaged in the review. After screening the title and abstract to determine the eligibility of each article, a thorough full-text review of eligible articles will be conducted using a data extraction framework. Key extracted information will be mapped in tabular and visualised summaries to categorise the breadth of literature and identify key digital methods, including their limitations and potential, for use in hard-to-reach populations. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This scoping review does not require ethical approval. The results of the scoping review will consist of peer-reviewed publications, presentations and knowledge mobilisation activities including a lay summary posted via social media channels and production of a policy brief.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Media , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Policy , Research Design , Review Literature as Topic , Systematic Reviews as Topic
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(39): e30844, 2022 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2051707

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: From the end of 2019 to now, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has put enormous strain on the world's health systems. As a characteristic sign of COVID-19 patient, olfactory dysfunction (OD) poses considerable problems for patients. In China, acupuncture has been widely used to treat OD caused by COVID-19, but there is still a lack of evidence-based medical evaluation. This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture for the treatment of COVID-19 OD. METHODS: According to the retrieval strategies, randomized controlled trials on the acupuncture for COVID-19 OD were obtained from Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Embase, PubMed, Web of Science, the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, the Chinese Scientific Journal Database and the Wanfang Database, regardless of publication date, or language. Studies were screened based on inclusion and exclusion criteria, and the Cochrane risk bias assessment tool was used to evaluate the quality of the studies. The meta-analysis was performed using Review Manager (RevMan 5.3) and STATA 14.2 software. Ultimately, the evidentiary grade for the results will be evaluated. RESULTS: The results of this meta-analysis will be submitted to a peer-reviewed journal for publication. CONCLUSION: This study will provide up-to-date summary proof for evaluating the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture for COVID-19 OD.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Therapy , COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Acupuncture Therapy/methods , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Disease Progression , Humans , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Research Design , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Treatment Outcome
19.
Public Health ; 197: e27, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2049812

Subject(s)
Research Design , Humans
20.
BMJ Open ; 12(9): e060566, 2022 09 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2042863

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 disease was declared as a pandemic by WHO since March 2020 and can have a myriad of clinical presentations affecting various organ systems. Patients with COVID-19 are known to have an increased risk of thromboembolism, including cardiovascular, pulmonary and cerebral ischaemic events. However, an increasing number of case studies have reported that COVID-19 infection is also associated with gastrointestinal ischaemia. This scoping review aims to collate the current evidence of COVID-19-related gastrointestinal ischaemia and raise awareness among healthcare professionals of this lesser known, but serious, non-pulmonary complication of COVID-19 infection. METHODS: The proposed scoping review will be conducted as per the Arksey and O'Malley methodological framework (2005) the Joanna Briggs Institute methodology for scoping reviews. A systematic search will be undertaken on different databases including EMBASE, PubMed and MEDLINE. Two independent reviewers will screen titles, abstracts and full-text articles according to the inclusion criteria and extract relevant data from the included articles. Results will be presented in a tabular form with a narrative discussion. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval will not be required for this scoping review. This scoping review will provide an extensive overview of the association between COVID-19 infection and bowel ischaemia. Further ethical and methodological challenges will also be discussed in our findings to define a new research agenda. Findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and presentations at both national and international conferences.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Peer Review , Research Design , Review Literature as Topic
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