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2.
PLoS One ; 18(6): e0286859, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234179

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Regulatory changes made during the COVID-19 public health emergency (PHE) that relaxed criteria for take-home dosing (THD) of methadone offer an opportunity to improve quality of care with a lifesaving treatment. There is a pressing need for research to study the long-term effects of the new PHE THD rules and to test data-driven interventions to promote more effective adoption by opioid treatment programs (OTPs). We propose a two-phase project to develop and test a multidimensional intervention for OTPs that leverages information from large State administrative data. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We propose a two-phased project to develop then test a multidimensional OTP intervention to address clinical decision making, regulatory confusion, legal liability concerns, capacity for clinical practice change, and financial barriers to THD. The intervention will include OTP THD specific dashboards drawn from multiple State databases. The approach will be informed by the Health Equity Implementation Framework (HEIF). In phase 1, we will employ an explanatory sequential mixed methods design to combine analysis of large state administrative databases-Medicaid, treatment registry, THD reporting-with qualitative interviews to develop and refine the intervention. In phase 2, we will conduct a stepped-wedge trial over three years with 36 OTPs randomized to 6 cohorts of a six-month clinic-level intervention. The trial will test intervention effects on OTP-level implementation outcomes and patient outcomes (1) THD use; 2) retention in care; and 3) adverse healthcare events). We will specifically examine intervention effects for Black and Latinx clients. A concurrent triangulation mixed methods design will be used: quantitative and qualitative data collection will occur concurrently and results will be integrated after analysis of each. We will employ generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) in the analysis of stepped-wedge trials. The primary outcome will be weekly or greater THD. The semi-structured interviews will be transcribed and analyzed with Dedoose to identify key facilitators, barriers, and experiences according to HEIF constructs using directed content analysis. DISCUSSION: This multi-phase, embedded mixed methods project addresses a critical need to support long-term practice changes in methadone treatment for opioid use disorder following systemic changes emerging from the PHE-particularly for Black and Latinx individuals with opioid use disorder. By combining findings from analyses of large administrative data with lessons gleaned from qualitative interviews of OTPs that were flexible with THD and those that were not, we will build and test the intervention to coach clinics to increase flexibility with THD. The findings will inform policy at the local and national level.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Opioid-Related Disorders , Humans , Methadone/therapeutic use , Opioid-Related Disorders/drug therapy , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Research Design , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
3.
Ther Innov Regul Sci ; 57(3): 529-537, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20231761

ABSTRACT

Clinical trial quality depends on ensuring participant safety and data integrity, which require careful management throughout the trial lifecycle, from protocol development to final data analysis and submission. Recent developments-including new regulatory requirements, emerging technologies, and trial decentralization-have increased adoption of risk-based monitoring (RBM) and its parent framework, risk-based quality management (RBQM) in clinical trials. The Association of Clinical Research Organizations (ACRO), recognizing the growing importance of these approaches, initiated an ongoing RBM/RBQM landscape survey project in 2019 to track adoption of the eight functional components of RBQM. Here we present results from the third annual survey, which included data from 4889 clinical trials ongoing in 2021. At least one RBQM component was implemented in 88% of trials in the 2021 survey, compared with 77% in 2020 and 53% in 2019. The most frequently implemented components in 2021 were initial and ongoing risk assessments (80 and 78% of trials, respectively). Only 7% of RBQM trials were Phase IV, while the proportions of Phase I-III trials ranged 27-36%. Small trials (< 300 participants) accounted for 60% of those implementing RBQM. The therapeutic areas with the largest number of RBQM trials were oncology (38%), neurology (10%), and infectious diseases (9%). The 2021 survey confirmed a pattern of increasing RBM/RBQM adoption seen in earlier surveys, with risk assessments, which have broad regulatory support, driving RBQM growth; however, one area requiring further development is implementation of centralized monitoring combined with reductions in source data verification (SDV) and source data review (SDR).


Subject(s)
Research Design , Humans , Risk Assessment , Surveys and Questionnaires
4.
BMJ Open ; 13(5): e069843, 2023 05 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237037

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has negatively impacted the psychological health and well-being of healthcare providers. An amplification in chronic stressors, workload and fatalities may have increased the risk of compassion fatigue and disrupted the quality of patient care. Although current studies have explored the general psychological status of healthcare providers during the COVID-19 pandemic, few have focused on compassion fatigue. The purpose of this review is to explore the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on compassion fatigue in healthcare providers and the repercussions of compassion fatigue on patient care. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This scoping review will follow Joanna Briggs Institute and Arksey and O'Malley scoping review methodology. Comprehensive searches will be conducted in the following relevant databases: MEDLINE (Ovid), PsycINFO (Ovid), Embase (Ovid), CINAHL, Scopus, Web of Science. To expand the search, reference lists of included studies will be handsearched for additional relevant studies. Included studies must report on the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on compassion fatigue in healthcare providers and have been published in English since January 2020. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This review does not require research ethics board approval. By examining the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on compassion fatigue in healthcare providers, this scoping review can offer important insight into the possible risks, protective factors and strategies to support healthcare providers' psychological health and patient care amidst persisting stressful conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Compassion Fatigue , Humans , Compassion Fatigue/epidemiology , Pandemics , Health Personnel/psychology , Mental Health , Research Design , Review Literature as Topic
6.
Stat Med ; 42(12): 1869-1887, 2023 05 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236518

ABSTRACT

The ICH E9 (R1) addendum proposes five strategies to define estimands by addressing intercurrent events. However, mathematical forms of these targeted quantities are lacking, which might lead to discordance between statisticians who estimate these quantities and clinicians, drug sponsors, and regulators who interpret them. To improve the concordance, we provide a unified four-step procedure for constructing the mathematical estimands. We apply the procedure for each strategy to derive the mathematical estimands and compare the five strategies in practical interpretations, data collection, and analytical methods. Finally, we show that the procedure can help ease tasks of defining estimands in settings with multiple types of intercurrent events using two real clinical trials.


Subject(s)
Models, Statistical , Research Design , Humans , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Data Collection
7.
BMJ Open ; 13(5): e068762, 2023 05 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235511

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: With technological advancement and the COVID-19 pandemic, paper-based media are giving way to screen-based media to promote healthy ageing. However, there is no review available covering paper and screen media use by older people, so the objective of this review is to map the current use of paper-based and/or screen-based media for health education aimed at older people. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The literature will be searched in Scopus, Web of Science, Medline, Embase, Cinahl, The ACM Guide to Computing Literature and Psyinfo databases. Studies in English, Portuguese, Italian or Spanish published from 2012 to the date of the search will be examined. In addition, an additional strategy will be carried out, which will be a Google Scholar search, in which the first 300 studies according to Google's relevance algorithm will be verified. The terms used in the search strategy will be focused on older adults, health education, paper-based and screen-based media, preferences, intervention and other related terms. This review will include studies where the average age of the participants was 60 years or older and were users of health education strategies through paper-based or screen-based media. Two reviewers will carry out the selection of studies in five steps: identification of studies and removal of duplicates, pilot test, selection by reading titles and abstracts, full-text inclusion and search for additional sources. A third reviewer will resolve disagreements. To record information from the included studies, a data extraction form will be used. The quantitative data will be presented in a descriptive way and the qualitative data through Bardin's content analysis. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval is not applicable to the scoping review. The results will be disseminated through presentations at significant scientific events and published in journals in the area. PROTOCOL REGISTRATION NUMBER: Open science framework (DOI: DOI 10.17605/OSF.IO/GKEAH).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Aged , Middle Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Algorithms , Data Accuracy , Health Education , Research Design , Review Literature as Topic
8.
Sensors (Basel) ; 23(11)2023 May 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20245026

ABSTRACT

The Internet of Things (IoT) plays a fundamental role in monitoring applications; however, existing approaches relying on cloud and edge-based IoT data analysis encounter issues such as network delays and high costs, which can adversely impact time-sensitive applications. To address these challenges, this paper proposes an IoT framework called Sazgar IoT. Unlike existing solutions, Sazgar IoT leverages only IoT devices and IoT data analysis approximation techniques to meet the time-bounds of time-sensitive IoT applications. In this framework, the computing resources onboard the IoT devices are utilised to process the data analysis tasks of each time-sensitive IoT application. This eliminates the network delays associated with transferring large volumes of high-velocity IoT data to cloud or edge computers. To ensure that each task meets its application-specific time-bound and accuracy requirements, we employ approximation techniques for the data analysis tasks of time-sensitive IoT applications. These techniques take into account the available computing resources and optimise the processing accordingly. To evaluate the effectiveness of Sazgar IoT, experimental validation has been conducted. The results demonstrate that the framework successfully meets the time-bound and accuracy requirements of the COVID-19 citizen compliance monitoring application by effectively utilising the available IoT devices. The experimental validation further confirms that Sazgar IoT is an efficient and scalable solution for IoT data processing, addressing existing network delay issues for time-sensitive applications and significantly reducing the cost related to cloud and edge computing devices procurement, deployment, and maintenance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Internet of Things , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , Data Analysis , Research Design
9.
BMJ Open ; 13(5): e068564, 2023 05 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243805

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Remdesivir is an antiviral medication that is used in the treatment of severe COVID-19. Research has highlighted the potential cardiac side effects of remdesivir, including the occurrence of remdesivir-associated bradycardia (RAB), but these findings have not been consistent. In addition, very little is known about the clinical implications and outcomes of RAB. The aim of this rapid systematic review is to determine the event rate of developing bradycardia while receiving remdesivir treatment compared with not receiving remdesivir in patients diagnosed with COVID-19. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This study follows the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocol guidelines and will include original papers related to COVID-19, remdesivir and bradycardia. Only English language papers published from 1 December 2019 to 31 December 2022 will be included. The following databases will be searched using keywords and controlled vocabulary: Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE, Scopus, Cochrane, PubMed and Web of Science. Two reviewers will independently perform screening and data abstraction. Data will be synthesised qualitatively as well as quantitatively. A random-effects model will be used to calculate the pooled estimates. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This review will systematically analyse the clinical studies available to help better characterise RAB. The results will support a retrospective study investigating RAB that is currently being conducted at the University Medical Center of Southern Nevada in Las Vegas, Nevada. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: This protocol has been submitted to and approved by PROSPERO (Protocol ID: CRD42022331614).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Bradycardia/chemically induced , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Research Design , Review Literature as Topic , Meta-Analysis as Topic
10.
BMJ Open ; 13(5): e072588, 2023 05 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242438

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: People with complex health and social needs often require care from different providers and services. Identifying their existing sources of support could assist with addressing potential gaps and opportunities for enhanced service delivery. Eco-mapping is an approach used to visually capture people's social relationships and their linkages to the larger social systems. As it is an emerging and promising approach in the health services field, a scoping review on eco-mapping is warranted. This scoping review aims to synthesise the empirical literature that has focused on the application of eco-mapping by describing characteristics, populations, methodological approaches and other features of eco-mapping in health services research. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This scoping review will follow the Joanna Briggs Institute methodology. From the date of database construction to 16 January 2023, the following databases in English will be searched: Ovid Medline, Ovid Embase, CINAHL Ultimate (EBSCOhost), Emcare (Ovid), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Ovid) and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (Ovid) Study/Source of Evidence selection. The inclusion criteria consist of empirical literature that uses eco-mapping or a related tool in the context of health services research. Two researchers will independently screen references against inclusion and exclusion criteria using Covidence software. Once screened, the data will be extracted and organised according to the following research questions: (1) What research questions and phenomena of interest do researchers address when using eco-mapping? (2) What are the characteristics of studies that use eco-mapping in health services research? (3) What are the methodological considerations for eco-mapping in health services research? ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This scoping review does not require ethical approval. The findings will be disseminated through publications, conference presentations and stakeholder meetings. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: https://doi.org/10.17605/OSF.IO/GAWYN.


Subject(s)
Academies and Institutes , Health Services Research , Humans , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Databases, Factual , Interpersonal Relations , Research Design , Review Literature as Topic
11.
J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) ; 24(Suppl 2): e106-e115, 2023 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234238

ABSTRACT

Prevention and effective treatment of cardiovascular disease are progressive issues that grow in tandem with the average age of the world population. Over recent decades, the potential role of artificial intelligence in cardiovascular medicine has been increasingly recognized because of the incredible amount of real-world data (RWD) regarding patient health status and healthcare delivery that can be collated from a variety of sources wherein patient information is routinely collected, including patient registries, clinical case reports, reimbursement claims and billing reports, medical devices, and electronic health records. Like any other (health) data, RWD can be analysed in accordance with high-quality research methods, and its analysis can deliver valuable patient-centric insights complementing the information obtained from conventional clinical trials. Artificial intelligence application on RWD has the potential to detect a patient's health trajectory leading to personalized medicine and tailored treatment. This article reviews the benefits of artificial intelligence in cardiovascular prevention and management, focusing on diagnostic and therapeutic improvements without neglecting the limitations of this new scientific approach.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Agents , Cardiovascular Diseases , Humans , Artificial Intelligence , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Research Design , Precision Medicine
12.
East. Mediterr. health j ; 27(11): 1045-1051, 2021-11.
Article in English | WHOIRIS | ID: gwh-369362

ABSTRACT

Background:Research ethics committees (RECs) globally have adapted their responses to provide timely reviews of research proposals in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic. The REC of the National Bioethics Committee (NBC) of Pakistan has followed suit.Aims:To explore perceptions of NBC-REC reviewers who reviewed COVID-19 research proposals while describing the newly instituted Rapid Turnaround Review (RTR) system.Methods:This cross-sectional study used 3 methods of data collection: a demographic questionnaire filled in by permanent members and co-opted reviewers; qualitative in-depth interviews conducted with both groups; and document review related to COVID-19 research proposals.Results:Eight permanent members and 3 co-opted members participated. Under the RTR system, the time for review was established as 72 hours after receipt of the proposal. The Committee reviewed 55 projects over 10 months. Participants described numerous strengths of the new system, including introduction of online discussions via Zoom as well as presence of co-opted members leading to learning opportunities, particularly for junior members. The RTR system also allowed NBC-REC to gain recognition it had not enjoyed previously. Challenges identified by respondents included initial difficulty in initiating the system and tighter deadlines that may have compromised review quality. Poor scientific quality of proposals, compounded by external pressures to provide rapid approval, added to reviewers’ frustrations. While fruitful, the RTR system was considered unsustainable beyond a public health emergency.Conclusion:Adaptation of ethical review processes is essential in emergencies; however, existing guidelines have to be modified to suit contextual needs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Research Design , Emergencies , Public Health , Bioethics , Surveys and Questionnaires , Demography
14.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1141983, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2328204

ABSTRACT

Background: The safety of COVID-19 vaccines has been clarified in clinical trials; however, some immunocompromised patients, such as myasthenia gravis (MG) patients, are still hesitant to receive vaccines. Whether COVID-19 vaccination increases the risk of disease worsening in these patients remains unknown. This study aims to evaluate the risk of disease exacerbation in COVID-19-vaccinated MG patients. Methods: The data in this study were collected from the MG database at Tangdu Hospital, the Fourth Military Medical University, and the Tertiary Referral Diagnostic Center at Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, from 1 April 2022 to 31 October 2022. A self-controlled case series method was applied, and the incidence rate ratios were calculated in the prespecified risk period using conditional Poisson regression. Results: Inactivated COVID-19 vaccines did not increase the risk of disease exacerbation in MG patients with stable disease status. A few patients experienced transient disease worsening, but the symptoms were mild. It is noted that more attention should be paid to thymoma-related MG, especially within 1 week after COVID-19 vaccination. Conclusion: COVID-19 vaccination has no long-term impact on MG relapse.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Myasthenia Gravis , Thymus Neoplasms , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Research Design , Tertiary Care Centers
15.
BMJ Open ; 13(5): e068759, 2023 05 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2327387

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Parental presence in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) has been demonstrated to enhance infant growth and development, reduce parental anxiety and stress and strengthen parent-infant bonding. Since eHealth technology emerged, research on its utilisation in NICUs has risen substantially. There is some evidence that incorporating such technologies in the NICU can reduce parental stress and enhance parent confidence in caring for their infant.Several countries, including China, restrict parental attendance in NICUs, citing infection control challenges, issues of privacy and confidentiality and perceived additional workload for healthcare professionals. Due to COVID-19 pandemic-related shortages of personal protective equipment and uncertain mode of transmission, many NICUs around the world closed to parental visiting and engagement in neonatal care.There is anecdotal evidence that, given pandemic-related restrictions, eHealth technologies, have increasingly been used in NICUs as a potential substitute for in-person parental presence.However, the constraints and enablers of technologies in these situations have not been exhaustively examined. This scoping review aims to update the literature on eHealth technology utilisation in the NICU and to explore the literature on the challenges and facilitators of eHealth technology implementation to inform future research. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The five-stage Arksey and O'Malley methodological framework and the Joanna Briggs Institute scoping review methodology will serve as the foundation for this scoping review. Eight databases will be searched for the relevant literature published between January 2000 and August 2022 in either English or Chinese. Grey literature will be manually searched. Data extraction and eligibility screening will be carried out by two impartial reviewers. There will be periods of both quantitative and qualitative analysis. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Since all data and information will be taken from publicly accessible literature, ethical approval would not be necessary. A peer-reviewed publication will be published with the results of this scoping review. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: This scoping review protocol was registered in Open Science Framework and can be found here: https://osf.io/AQV5P/.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Infant, Newborn , Humans , Infant , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Parents , Research Design , Review Literature as Topic
16.
Thromb Res ; 222: 102-108, 2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2326956

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An association between thrombotic events and SARS-CoV-2 infection and the adenovirus-based COVID-19 vaccines has been established, leading to concern over the risk of thrombosis after BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccination. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the risk of arterial thrombosis, cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT), splanchnic thrombosis, and venous thromboembolism (VTE) following BNT162b2 vaccination in New Zealand. METHODS: This was a self-controlled case series using national hospitalisation and immunisation records to calculate incidence rate ratios (IRR). The study population included individuals aged ≥12 years, unvaccinated, or vaccinated with BNT162b2, who were hospitalised with one of the thrombotic events of interest from 19 February 2021 through 19 February 2022. The risk period was 0-21 days after receiving a primary or booster dose of BNT162b2. RESULTS: 6039 individuals were hospitalised with one of the thrombotic events examined, including 5127 with VTE, 605 with arterial thrombosis, 272 with splanchnic thrombosis, and 35 with CVT. The proportion of individuals vaccinated with at least one dose of BNT162b2 ranged from 82.7 % to 91.4 %. Compared with the control unexposed period, the IRR (95 % CI) of VTE, arterial thrombosis, splanchnic thrombosis, and CVT were 0.87 (0.76-1.00), 0.73 (0.56-0.95), 0.71 (0.43-1.16), and 0.87 (0.31-2.50) in the 21 days after BNT162b2 vaccination, respectively. There was no statistically significant increased risk of thrombosis following BNT162b2 in different ethnic groups in New Zealand. CONCLUSION: The BNT162b2 vaccine was not found to be associated with thrombosis in the general population or different ethnic groups in New Zealand, providing reassurance for the safety of the BNT162b2 vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Intracranial Thrombosis , Thrombosis , Venous Thromboembolism , Humans , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , New Zealand/epidemiology , Research Design , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/etiology , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology
17.
BMJ Open ; 13(5): e066649, 2023 05 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2326745

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: To reduce the transmission of COVID-19, regulations included the use of cloth masks, sanitising regularly, maintaining social distance and having minimal personal contact. COVID-19 affected many different groups of people including service providers and users of correctional centres. In this protocol, we aim to establish evidence on the challenges and coping strategies adopted by the incarcerated and service providers of the incarcerated during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: In this scoping review, we will use the Arksey and O'Malley framework. We will consult PubMed, PsycInfo, SAGE, JSTOR, African Journals and Google Scholar as our databases to search for evidence, and run a continuous search of articles from June 2022 until we conduct an analysis to ensure that our search results are updated. Two reviewers will independently screen the titles, abstracts and full texts for inclusion. All results will be compiled, and duplicates will be removed. Discrepancies and conflicts will be discussed with the third reviewer. All articles that meet the full-text criteria will be included for data extraction. Results will be reported in line with the review objectives and the Donabedian conceptual framework. DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval of the study will not be applicable in this scoping review. Our findings will be disseminated in different ways, such as publishing in peer-reviewed journals and to other key correctional system stakeholders, as well as submitting a policy brief for prison decision makers and policy makers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Prisoners , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Adaptation, Psychological , Prisons , Research Design , Review Literature as Topic
18.
Soc Sci Med ; 328: 115979, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2324360

ABSTRACT

This study examines the proliferation of COVID-19 misinformation through Plandemic-a pseudo-documentary of COVID-19 conspiracy theories-on social media and examines how factors such as (a) themes of misinformation, (b) types of misinformation, (c) sources of misinformation, (d) emotions of misinformation, and (e) fact-checking labels amplify or attenuate online misinformation during the early days of the pandemic. Using CrowdTangle, a Facebook API, we collected a total of 5732 publicly available Facebook pages posts containing Plandemic-related keywords from January 1 to December 19, 2020. A random sample of 600 posts was subsequently coded, and the data were analyzed using negative binomial regression to examine factors associated with amplification and attenuation. Overall, the extended an extended Social Amplification of Risk Framework (SARF) provided a theoretical lens to understand why certain misinformation was amplified, while others were attenuated. As for posts with misinformation, results showed that themes related to private firms, treatment and prevention of virus transmission, diagnosis and health impacts, virus origins, and social impact were more likely to be amplified. While the different types of misinformation (manipulated, fabricated, or satire) and emotions were not associated with amplification, the type of fact-check labels did influence the virality of misinformation. Specifically, posts that were flagged as false by Facebook were more likely to be amplified, while the virality of posts flagged as containing partially false information was attenuated. Theoretical and practical implications were discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Media , Humans , Pandemics , Emotions , Research Design , Communication
19.
Am J Public Health ; 113(7): 768-777, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2324040

ABSTRACT

Objectives. To evaluate community-wide prevalence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection using stratified simple random sampling. Methods. We obtained data for the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in Jefferson County, Kentucky, from adult random (n = 7296) and volunteer (n = 7919) sampling over 8 waves from June 2020 through August 2021. We compared results with administratively reported rates of COVID-19. Results. Randomized and volunteer samples produced equivalent prevalence estimates (P < .001), which exceeded the administratively reported rates of prevalence. Differences between them decreased as time passed, likely because of seroprevalence temporal detection limitations. Conclusions. Structured targeted sampling for seropositivity against SARS-CoV-2, randomized or voluntary, provided better estimates of prevalence than administrative estimates based on incident disease. A low response rate to stratified simple random sampling may produce quantified disease prevalence estimates similar to a volunteer sample. Public Health Implications. Randomized targeted and invited sampling approaches provided better estimates of disease prevalence than administratively reported data. Cost and time permitting, targeted sampling is a superior modality for estimating community-wide prevalence of infectious disease, especially among Black individuals and those living in disadvantaged neighborhoods. (Am J Public Health. 2023;113(7):768-777. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2023.307303).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Prevalence , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Research Design
20.
JAMA Intern Med ; 183(5): 415-416, 2023 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2323114
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