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Travel Med Infect Dis ; 53: 102589, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237550


BACKGROUND: Major cardiovascular events (MACEs) have been described with dengue infection. Among these MACEs, heart failure (HF) is the most common but has not been thoroughly assessed. This study aimed to evaluate the association between dengue and HF. METHODS: Under the self-controlled case-series study design, we used the Notifiable Infectious Disease dataset linkage with the National Health Insurance claims data to obtain the study subjects. All laboratory-confirmed dengue cases who were hospitalized for HF after dengue infection within one year between 2009 and 2015 in Taiwan were included. We identified the first 7 and 14 days after dengue infection as the risk intervals. The incidence rate ratio (IRR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for HF were estimated by conditional Poisson regression. RESULTS: Among the 65,906 dengue patients, 230 had admission for HF after dengue infection within one year. The IRR of HF admission within the first week after dengue infection was 56.50 (95% C.I. 43.88-72.75). This risk was highest in >60 years (IRR = 59.32, 95% C.I. 45.43-77.43) and lower in 0-40 years (IRR = 25.82, 95% C.I. 2.89-231.02). The risk was nearly nine times higher among admission (for dengue infection) than among nonadmission cases (IRR 75.35 vs. 8.61, p < 0.0001). The risks increased slightly in the second week 8.55 and became less obvious after the third and fourth week. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with dengue infection have a risk of developing acute heart failure within one week, especially in >60 years, men, and dengue admission subjects. The findings emphasize the awareness of diagnosis and further appropriate treatment of HF.

Dengue , Heart Failure , Male , Humans , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Heart Failure/etiology , Hospitalization , Research , Incidence , Dengue/complications , Dengue/epidemiology
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 8729, 2023 05 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235068


No study has yet investigated if a severe SARS-CoV-2 infection represents a marker of an undiagnosed cancer. This population-based study, using the SNDS database, identified from 02/15/2020 to 08/31/2021, 41,302 individuals hospitalized in intensive care unit due to SARS-CoV-2 (ICU-gr) and 713,670 control individuals not hospitalized for SARS-CoV-2 (C-gr). Individuals were matched according to year of birth, sex and French department. The cancer incidence was compared in the two groups during the follow-up period (index date-12/31/2021), using Cox proportional hazards models adjusted on matching variables, socioeconomic characteristics and comorbidities. In the ICU-gr, 2.2% (n = 897) was diagnosed with a cancer in the following months, compared to 1.5% (n = 10,944) in the C-gr. The ICU-gr had a 1.31 higher risk of being diagnosed with a cancer following hospital discharge compared to the C-gr (aHR 1.31, 95% CI 1.22-1.41). A global similar trend was found when competing risk of death was taken into account (aHR 1.25, 95% CI 1.16-1.34). A significant higher risk was found concerning renal (aHR 3.16, 95% CI 2.33-4.27), hematological (aHR 2.54, 95% CI 2.07-3.12), colon (aHR 1.72, 95% CI 1.34-2.21), and lung (aHR 1.70, 95% CI 1.39-2.08) cancers. This suggests that a severe SARS-CoV-2 infection may represent a marker of an undiagnosed cancer.

COVID-19 , Coleoptera , Neoplasms , Humans , Animals , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Neoplasms/diagnosis , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Research
Bull World Health Organ ; 101(5): 326-330, 2023 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233985


Research and development leading to new and improved health products is essential for achieving healthier lives for populations worldwide. However, new products in development do not always match the global need for products for neglected diseases and populations. To promote research, provide an incentive for investment and align products with the needs of end-users, research needs to be better coordinated and prioritized. The World Health Organization (WHO) has developed target product profiles that define the characteristics required in new health products to address the greatest public health needs. A WHO target product profile document presents a need and provides guidance on what to include to consider access and equity as part of the research and development plan from the outset. WHO has also set up the Target Product Profile Directory, a free-to-use online database of characteristics used to describe desired health products, including medicines, vaccines, diagnostic tools and medical equipment. Here we describe the process of developing a WHO target product profile, and the benefits of this type of guidance. We urge product developers to share product profiles addressing unmet needs in public health, to help in progress towards global targets for better health and well-being.

Promouvoir la santé des populations à travers le monde va de pair avec la recherche-développement responsable de la conception et de l'optimisation de produits sanitaires. Pourtant, les nouveaux produits à l'étude ne répondent pas toujours aux exigences mondiales des populations et maladies négligées. En vue de promouvoir la recherche, de favoriser les investissements et d'aligner les produits sur les besoins des utilisateurs finaux, les travaux doivent être mieux coordonnés et leurs priorités, mieux définies. L'Organisation mondiale de la Santé (OMS) a donc élaboré des profils de produits cibles qui déterminent les caractéristiques requises pour les nouveaux produits sanitaires, afin qu'ils correspondent davantage aux besoins les plus criants en matière de santé publique. Un profil de produit cible établi par l'OMS est un document qui met en évidence un besoin et fournit des indications sur les aspects à prendre en compte pour garantir l'accès et l'équité dès le départ dans le plan de recherche-développement. L'OMS a également publié un Répertoire des profils de produits cibles, une base de données en ligne consultable gratuitement qui reprend les caractéristiques employées pour décrire les produits sanitaires souhaités (médicaments, vaccins, outils diagnostiques et équipements médicaux). Dans le présent document, nous détaillons le processus de développement d'un profil de produit cible par l'OMS, mais aussi les avantages que comportent de telles indications. Nous encourageons vivement les laboratoires à partager les profils de produits qui répondent à des besoins non satisfaits en matière de santé publique, afin de contribuer à avancer vers les objectifs mondiaux de santé et de bien-être.

La investigación y el desarrollo de productos sanitarios nuevos y mejorados son esenciales para que las poblaciones de todo el mundo vivan más sanas. Sin embargo, los productos nuevos en desarrollo no siempre se ajustan a las necesidades mundiales de productos para enfermedades y poblaciones desatendidas. Para promover la investigación, incentivar la inversión y adaptar los productos a las necesidades de los usuarios finales, es necesario coordinar mejor la investigación y establecer prioridades. La Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) ha elaborado perfiles de productos específicos que definen las características que deben reunir los productos sanitarios nuevos para satisfacer las principales necesidades de salud pública. Un documento de perfil de producto específico de la OMS presenta una necesidad y ofrece orientación sobre lo que debe incluirse para tener en cuenta el acceso y la equidad como parte del plan de investigación y desarrollo desde el principio. La OMS también ha creado el Directorio de Perfiles de Productos Específicos, una base de datos en línea de uso gratuito con las características utilizadas para describir los productos sanitarios deseados, incluidos medicamentos, vacunas, herramientas de diagnóstico y equipos médicos. En el presente documento, describimos el proceso de elaboración de un perfil de producto específico de la OMS y las ventajas de este tipo de orientación. Instamos a los desarrolladores de productos a compartir perfiles de productos que aborden necesidades no cubiertas en salud pública para contribuir al avance hacia los objetivos mundiales de mejora de la salud y el bienestar.

Vaccines , Humans , World Health Organization , Research , Health Status
Implement Sci ; 18(1): 12, 2023 05 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2319063


BACKGROUND: While prior work has revealed conditions that foster policymakers' use of research evidence, few studies have rigorously investigated the effectiveness of theory-based practices. Specifically, policymakers are most apt to use research evidence when it is timely, relevant, brief, and messaged appropriately, as well as when it facilitates interactive engagement. This study sought to experimentally evaluate an enhanced research dissemination intervention, known as the SciComm Optimizer for Policy Engagement (SCOPE), implemented during the COVID-19 pandemic among US state legislators. METHODS: State legislators assigned to health committees and their staff were randomized to receive the SCOPE intervention. This involved providing academic researchers with a pathway for translating and disseminating research relevant to current legislative priorities via fact sheets emailed directly to officials. The intervention occurred April 2020-March 2021. Research language was measured in state legislators' social media posts. RESULTS: Legislators randomized to receive the intervention, relative to the control group, produced 24% more social media posts containing research language related to COVID-19. Secondary analyses revealed that these findings were driven by two different types of research language. Intervention officials produced 67% more COVID-related social media posts referencing technical language (e.g., statistical methods), as well as 28% more posts that referenced research-based concepts. However, they produced 31% fewer posts that referenced creating or disseminating new knowledge. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that strategic, targeted science communication efforts may have the potential to change state legislators' public discourse and use of evidence. Strategic science communication efforts are particularly needed in light of the role government officials have played in communicating about the pandemic to the general public.

COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , Communication , Policy , Research
Br J Gen Pract ; 73(730): e374-e383, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2309427


BACKGROUND: The value of continuity in primary care has been demonstrated for multiple positive outcomes. However, little is known about how the expansion of remote and digital care models in primary care have impacted continuity. AIM: To explore the impact of the expansion of remote and digital care models on continuity in primary care. DESIGN AND SETTING: A systematic review of continuity in primary care. METHOD: A keyword search of Embase, MEDLINE, and CINAHL databases was used along with snowball sampling to identify relevant English-language qualitative and quantitative studies from any country between 2000 and 2022, which explored remote or digital approaches in primary care and continuity. Relevant data were extracted, analysed using GRADE-CERQual, and narratively synthesised. RESULTS: Fifteen studies were included in the review. The specific impact of remote approaches on continuity was rarely overtly addressed. Some patients expressed a preference for relational continuity depending on circumstance, problem, and context; others prioritised access. Clinicians valued continuity, with some viewing remote consultations more suitable where there was high episodic or relational continuity. With lower continuity, patients and clinicians considered remote consultations harder, higher risk, and poorer quality. Some evidence suggested that remote approaches and/or their implementation risked worsening inequalities and causing harm by reducing continuity where it was valuable. However, if deployed strategically and flexibly, remote approaches could improve continuity. CONCLUSION: While the value of continuity in primary care has previously been well demonstrated, the dearth of evidence around continuity in a remote and digital context is troubling. Further research is, therefore, needed to explore the links between the shift to remote care, continuity and equity, using real-world evaluation frameworks to ascertain when and for whom continuity adds most value, and how this can be enabled or maintained.

Remote Consultation , Humans , Research , Primary Health Care
Chemosphere ; 331: 138775, 2023 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2305489


The COVID-19 pandemic has severely impacted public health and the worldwide economy. The overstretched operation of health systems around the world is accompanied by potential and ongoing environmental threats. At present, comprehensive scientific assessments of research on temporal changes in medical/pharmaceutical wastewater (MPWW), as well as estimations of researcher networks and scientific productivity are lacking. Therefore, we conducted a thorough literature study, using bibliometrics to reproduce research on medical wastewater over nearly half a century. Our primary goal is systematically to map the evolution of keyword clusters over time, and to obtain the structure and credibility of clusters. Our secondary objective was to measure research network performance (country, institution, and author) using CiteSpace and VOSviewer. We extracted 2306 papers published between 1981 and 2022. The co-cited reference network identified 16 clusters with well-structured networks (Q = 0.7716, S = 0.896). The main trends were as follows: 1) Early MPWW research prioritized sources of wastewater, and this cluster was considered to be the mainstream research frontier and direction, representing an important source and priority research area. 2) Mid-term research focused on characteristic contaminants and detection technologies. Particularly during 2000-2010, a period of rapid developments in global medical systems, pharmaceutical compounds (PhCs) in MPWW were recognized as a major threat to human health and the environment. 3) Recent research has focused on novel degradation technologies for PhC-containing MPWW, with high scores for research on biological methods. Wastewater-based epidemiology has emerged as being consistent with or predictive of the number of confirmed COVID-19 cases. Therefore, the application of MPWW in COVID-19 tracing will be of great interest to environmentalists. These results could guide the future direction of funding agencies and research groups.

COVID-19 , Wastewater , Humans , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Research , Pharmaceutical Preparations
Pediatr Dermatol ; 40 Suppl 1: 4-7, 2023 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2294539


The 10th Pediatric Dermatology Research Alliance (PeDRA) Annual Conference occurred November 3-5, 2022 in Bethesda, Maryland. This conference was the first in-person PeDRA conference after 2 years of a virtual format due to COVID-19. Fittingly, given the effects of the pandemic, the conference theme was "Reimagining Community." The conference included presentations and panel sessions on finding individual and collective purpose, leveraging community in pursuit of a shared goal, and creating a community of resources in collaboration with NIH. The goal of this meeting was to connect clinicians, basic scientists, patients, patient advocates, and industry partners. The reimagined community of pediatric dermatology research is a synergistic space for all members to better understand, prevent, treat, and cure dermatologic diseases and conditions in children. This two-and-a-half-day conference with over 300 attendees featured educational seminars including a keynote address, didactic lecture and panel sessions, skill-building workshops, 13 topic-specific breakout sessions, and an interactive poster session where 108 active and finished research projects could be discussed.

COVID-19 , Dermatology , Physicians , Child , Humans , Patients , Research
Cell Rep Med ; 2(4): 100259, 2021 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2261996
Nat Rev Microbiol ; 21(3): 125-126, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2276223
BMJ ; 380: 535, 2023 03 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2283561
Front Public Health ; 11: 1143790, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2262225


The ability to support a comprehensive vaccine research and development (R&D) portfolio from a health security perspective has taken on enhanced significance over the past 3 years whereby countries that had existing vaccine R&D infrastructure (G7, Russia and China) have been at the forefront of global efforts to combat COVID-19. Few countries outside of these key players have the infrastructure necessary to develop national vaccine programs, though this is beginning to change with investment across many low- and middle-income countries. These same opportunities exist for countries in Central and West Asia, and in this perspective, we highlight the existing infrastructure and expertise across seven countries (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan) and propose opportunities for enhanced collaboration along with a bold proposal for establishing a new-build, regional vaccine translational research institute to facilitate the development of a robust, regional vaccine R&D environment to combat existing and future health challenges.

COVID-19 , Vaccines , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , Russia , Kazakhstan , Research
Vaccine ; 41(13): 2101-2112, 2023 03 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2272791


Broadly protective coronavirus vaccines are an important tool for protecting against future SARS-CoV-2 variants and could play a critical role in mitigating the impact of future outbreaks or pandemics caused by novel coronaviruses. The Coronavirus Vaccines Research and Development (R&D) Roadmap (CVR) is aimed at promoting the development of such vaccines. The CVR, funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and The Rockefeller Foundation, was generated through a collaborative and iterative process, which was led by the Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy (CIDRAP) at the University of Minnesota and involved 50 international subject matter experts and recognized leaders in the field. This report summarizes the major issues and areas of research outlined in the CVR and identifies high-priority milestones. The CVR covers a 6-year timeframe and is organized into five topic areas: virology, immunology, vaccinology, animal and human infection models, and policy and finance. Included in each topic area are key barriers, gaps, strategic goals, milestones, and additional R&D priorities. The roadmap includes 20 goals and 86 R&D milestones, 26 of which are ranked as high priority. By identifying key issues, and milestones for addressing them, the CVR provides a framework to guide funding and research campaigns that promote the development of broadly protective coronavirus vaccines.

COVID-19 , Vaccines , Animals , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Pandemics/prevention & control , Research