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1.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256871, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1379843

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Clinical research has been central to the global response to COVID-19, and the United Kingdom (UK), with its research system embedded within the National Health Service (NHS), has been singled out globally for the scale and speed of its COVID-19 research response. This paper explores the impacts of COVID-19 on clinical research in an NHS Trust and how the embedded research system was adapted and repurposed to support the COVID-19 response. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using a multi-method qualitative case study of a research-intensive NHS Trust in London UK, we collected data through a questionnaire (n = 170) and semi-structured interviews (n = 24) with research staff working in four areas: research governance; research leadership; research delivery; and patient and public involvement. We also observed key NHS Trust research prioritisation meetings (40 hours) and PPI activity (4.5 hours) and analysed documents produced by the Trust and national organisation relating to COVID-19 research. Data were analysed for a descriptive account of the Trust's COVID-19 research response and research staff's experiences. Data were then analysed thematically. Our analysis identifies three core themes: centralisation; pace of work; and new (temporary) work practices. By centralising research prioritisation at both national and Trust levels, halting non-COVID-19 research and redeploying research staff, an increased pace in the setup and delivery of COVID-19-related research was possible. National and Trust-level responses also led to widescale changes in working practices by adapting protocols and developing local processes to maintain and deliver research. These were effective practical solutions borne out of necessity and point to how the research system was able to adapt to the requirements of the pandemic. CONCLUSION: The Trust and national COVID-19 response entailed a rapid large-scale reorganisation of research staff, research infrastructures and research priorities. The Trust's local processes that enabled them to enact national policy prioritising COVID-19 research worked well, especially in managing finite resources, and also demonstrate the importance and adaptability of the research workforce. Such findings are useful as we consider how to adapt our healthcare delivery and research practices both at the national and global level for the future. However, as the pandemic continues, research leaders and policymakers must also take into account the short and long term impact of COVID-19 prioritisation on non-COVID-19 health research and the toll of the emergency response on research staff.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Research/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/virology , Decision Making , Humans , Interviews as Topic , Research Personnel/psychology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , United Kingdom/epidemiology
2.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 59, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1357662

ABSTRACT

Introduction: the rising rate of SARS-CoV-2 infections has caused perceptible strain on the global health system. Indeed, this disease is also a litmus test for the resilience of the structures in the African health system including surgery. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on surgical practice, training and research in Nigeria. Methods: it was a cross-sectional study conducted over three weeks in Nigeria among doctors in 12 surgery-related specialties. Consenting participants filled a pre-tested online form consisting of 35 questions in 5 sections which assessed demographics, infection control measures, clinical practice, academic training, research program, and future trends. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences Version 20. Results: a total of 384 respondents completed the form. Their mean age was 38.3 years. Lockdown measures were imposed in the state of practice of 89.0% of respondents. Most participants reported a decrease in patient volume in outpatient clinics (95.5%) and elective operations (95.8%) compared to reports for emergency operations (50.2%). They also noted a decrease in academic training [Bedside teaching (92.1%), seminar presentation (91.1%) and journal presentation (91.8%)] and research (80.5%). Except in bedside teaching, those who had other virtual academic programmes were thrice the number of those who used in-person mode for the events. Conclusion: COVID-19 pandemic has caused a significant change in pattern and a decrease in the volume of patients seen by surgeons in their practice as well as a decrease in the frequency of academic programs and research activities in Nigeria.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Physicians/statistics & numerical data , Surgical Procedures, Operative/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nigeria , Prospective Studies , Research/statistics & numerical data , Surgeons/statistics & numerical data , Surgical Procedures, Operative/education , Surveys and Questionnaires
3.
Immunity ; 54(8): 1636-1651, 2021 08 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1336544

ABSTRACT

The development of effective vaccines to combat infectious diseases is a complex multi-year and multi-stakeholder process. To accelerate the development of vaccines for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a novel pathogen emerging in late 2019 and spreading globally by early 2020, the United States government (USG) mounted an operation bridging public and private sector expertise and infrastructure. The success of the endeavor can be seen in the rapid advanced development of multiple vaccine candidates, with several demonstrating efficacy and now being administered around the globe. Here, we review the milestones enabling the USG-led effort, the methods utilized, and ensuing outcomes. We discuss the current status of COVID-19 vaccine development and provide a perspective for how partnership and preparedness can be better utilized in response to future public-health pandemic emergencies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Research , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Bioengineering , Biotechnology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Humans , Models, Molecular , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Public Health Surveillance , Research/statistics & numerical data , Research/trends , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Vaccinology
4.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(6): e26956, 2021 06 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278291

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the importance of rapid dissemination of scientific and medical discoveries. Current platforms available for the distribution of scientific and clinical research data and information include preprint repositories and traditional peer-reviewed journals. In recent times, social media has emerged as a helpful platform to share scientific and medical discoveries. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to comparatively analyze activity on social media (specifically, Twitter) and that related to publications in the form of preprint and peer-reviewed journal articles in the context of COVID-19 and gastroenterology during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: COVID-19-related data from Twitter (tweets and user data) and articles published in preprint servers (bioRxiv and medRxiv) as well as in the PubMed database were collected and analyzed during the first 6 months of the pandemic, from December 2019 through May 2020. Global and regional geographic and gastrointestinal organ-specific social media trends were compared to preprint and publication activity. Any relationship between Twitter activity and preprint articles published and that between Twitter activity and PubMed articles published overall, by organ system, and by geographic location were identified using Spearman's rank-order correlation. RESULTS: Over the 6-month period, 73,079 tweets from 44,609 users, 7164 journal publications, and 4702 preprint publications were retrieved. Twitter activity (ie, number of tweets) peaked in March 2020, whereas preprint and publication activity (ie, number of articles published) peaked in April 2020. Overall, strong correlations were identified between trends in Twitter activity and preprint and publication activity (P<.001 for both). COVID-19 data across the three platforms mainly concentrated on pulmonology or critical care, but when analyzing the field of gastroenterology specifically, most tweets pertained to pancreatology, most publications focused on hepatology, and most preprints covered hepatology and luminal gastroenterology. Furthermore, there were significant positive associations between trends in Twitter and publication activity for all gastroenterology topics (luminal gastroenterology: P=.009; hepatology and inflammatory bowel disease: P=.006; gastrointestinal endoscopy: P=.007), except pancreatology (P=.20), suggesting that Twitter activity did not correlate with publication activity for this topic. Finally, Twitter activity was the highest in the United States (7331 tweets), whereas PubMed activity was the highest in China (1768 publications). CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the potential of social media as a vehicle for disseminating scientific information during a public health crisis. Sharing and spreading information on COVID-19 in a timely manner during the pandemic has been paramount; this was achieved at a much faster pace on social media, particularly on Twitter. Future investigation could demonstrate how social media can be used to augment and promote scholarly activity, especially as the world begins to increasingly rely on digital or virtual platforms. Scientists and clinicians should consider the use of social media in augmenting public awareness regarding their scholarly pursuits.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Information Dissemination , Pandemics , Research/statistics & numerical data , Research/trends , Social Media/statistics & numerical data , Social Media/trends , China/epidemiology , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Critical Care/trends , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , PubMed/statistics & numerical data , Public Health , Pulmonary Medicine/statistics & numerical data , Pulmonary Medicine/trends , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors , United States/epidemiology
6.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 49(D1): D1-D9, 2021 01 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1007396

ABSTRACT

The 2021 Nucleic Acids Research database Issue contains 189 papers spanning a wide range of biological fields and investigation. It includes 89 papers reporting on new databases and 90 covering recent changes to resources previously published in the Issue. A further ten are updates on databases most recently published elsewhere. Seven new databases focus on COVID-19 and SARS-CoV-2 and many others offer resources for studying the virus. Major returning nucleic acid databases include NONCODE, Rfam and RNAcentral. Protein family and domain databases include COG, Pfam, SMART and Panther. Protein structures are covered by RCSB PDB and dispersed proteins by PED and MobiDB. In metabolism and signalling, STRING, KEGG and WikiPathways are featured, along with returning KLIFS and new DKK and KinaseMD, all focused on kinases. IMG/M and IMG/VR update in the microbial and viral genome resources section, while human and model organism genomics resources include Flybase, Ensembl and UCSC Genome Browser. Cancer studies are covered by updates from canSAR and PINA, as well as newcomers CNCdatabase and Oncovar for cancer drivers. Plant comparative genomics is catered for by updates from Gramene and GreenPhylDB. The entire Database Issue is freely available online on the Nucleic Acids Research website (https://academic.oup.com/nar). The NAR online Molecular Biology Database Collection has been substantially updated, revisiting nearly 1000 entries, adding 90 new resources and eliminating 86 obsolete databases, bringing the current total to 1641 databases. It is available at https://www.oxfordjournals.org/nar/database/c/.


Subject(s)
Databases, Nucleic Acid , Molecular Biology/statistics & numerical data , Nucleic Acids , Periodicals as Topic/statistics & numerical data , Research/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Computational Biology/methods , Epidemics , Genomics/methods , Humans , Internet , Molecular Biology/methods , Molecular Biology/standards , Periodicals as Topic/standards , Research/standards , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
7.
J Neurointerv Surg ; 12(11): 1049-1052, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-809207

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Academic physicians aim to provide clinical and surgical care to their patients while actively contributing to a growing body of scientific literature. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in procedural-based specialties across the United States witnessing a sharp decline in their clinical volume and surgical cases. OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of COVID-19 on neurosurgical, stroke neurology, and neurointerventional academic productivity. METHODS: The study compared the neurosurgical, stroke neurology, and neurointerventional academic output during the pandemic lockdown with the same time period in previous years. Editors from a sample of neurosurgical, stroke neurology, and neurointerventional journals provided the total number of original manuscript submissions, broken down by months, from the year 2016 to 2020. Manuscript submission was used as a surrogate metric for academic productivity. RESULTS: 8 journals were represented. The aggregated data from all eight journals as a whole showed that a combined average increase of 42.3% was observed on original submissions for 2020. As the average yearly percent increase using the 2016-2019 data for each journal exhibited a combined average increase of 11.2%, the rise in the yearly increase for 2020 in comparison was nearly fourfold. For the same journals in the same time period, the average percent of COVID-19 related publications from January to June of 2020 was 6.87%. CONCLUSION: There was a momentous increase in the number of original submissions for the year 2020, and its effects were uniformly experienced across all of our represented journals.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Efficiency , Neurology/statistics & numerical data , Neurosurgery/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Research/statistics & numerical data , Stroke/physiopathology , Stroke/surgery , Universities/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 , Humans , Neurosurgery/trends , Periodicals as Topic , Publishing , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Research/trends , Universities/trends
8.
World Neurosurg ; 144: e164-e177, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-800041

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Neurosurgery departments worldwide have been forced to restructure their training programs because of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. In this study, we describe the impact of COVID-19 on neurosurgical training in Southeast Asia. METHODS: We conducted an online survey among neurosurgery residents in Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand from May 22 to 31, 2020 using Google Forms. The 33-item questionnaire collected data on elective and emergency neurosurgical operations, ongoing learning activities, and health worker safety. RESULTS: A total of 298 of 470 neurosurgery residents completed the survey, equivalent to a 63% response rate. The decrease in elective neurosurgical operations in Indonesia and in the Philippines (median, 100% for both) was significantly greater compared with other countries (P < 0.001). For emergency operations, trainees in Indonesia and Malaysia had a significantly greater reduction in their caseload (median, 80% and 70%, respectively) compared with trainees in Singapore and Thailand (median, 20% and 50%, respectively; P < 0.001). Neurosurgery residents were most concerned about the decrease in their hands-on surgical experience, uncertainty in their career advancement, and occupational safety in the workplace. Most of the residents (n = 221, 74%) believed that the COVID-19 crisis will have a negative impact on their neurosurgical training overall. CONCLUSIONS: An effective national strategy to control COVID-19 is crucial to sustain neurosurgical training and to provide essential neurosurgical services. Training programs in Southeast Asia should consider developing online learning modules and setting up simulation laboratories to allow trainees to systematically acquire knowledge and develop practical skills during these challenging times.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Education, Distance/statistics & numerical data , Education, Medical, Graduate/statistics & numerical data , Elective Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Neurosurgery/education , Neurosurgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Occupational Health , Asia, Southeastern/epidemiology , Attitude of Health Personnel , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , Emergencies , Humans , Indonesia/epidemiology , Internship and Residency , Malaysia/epidemiology , Neurosurgical Procedures/education , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , Philippines/epidemiology , Research/statistics & numerical data , Singapore/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Telemedicine/statistics & numerical data , Thailand/epidemiology
10.
Health Educ Behav ; 47(6): 861-869, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-744938

ABSTRACT

When a pandemic outbreak occurs, it seems logical that related scientific production should increase substantially; however, it is important to recognize its interdisciplinary usefulness to find a solution to the problem. The main aim of this research is to analyse the main keywords of the scientific research about COVID-19, by subject area. To discover the influence of certain terms and their transferability, synergies, and future trends, a cluster analysis of the keywords was performed. The results show that Health Sciences dominate the publications with 88.23% of the total volume. As expected, the largest volume of research was dedicated to medical aspects of the disease, like experimental treatments, its physiopathology, or its respiratory syndrome. However, other fields, like Social Sciences (6.07%), Technology (2.68%), Physical Sciences (1.95%), and Arts and Humanities (1.08%), also played an important role in research on COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Bibliometrics , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Periodicals as Topic/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Research/statistics & numerical data , Betacoronavirus , Biomedical Research/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Sciences/statistics & numerical data
11.
Curr Biol ; 30(14): R799, 2020 07 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-597701

ABSTRACT

At the beginning of the pandemic, as universities were shutting, a meme did the rounds on social media. Some academics suggested that they were looking forward to increased productivity in grant and paper writing under lockdown. They cited the fact that Isaac Newton came up with his theory of gravity whilst quarantined during the bubonic plague. Globally, the reaction from many was to inwardly - or publicly - scream.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Research/statistics & numerical data , Research/trends , Social Media , Universities , Academic Success , Efficiency , Female , Humans , Male
13.
In Vivo ; 34(3 Suppl): 1613-1617, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-528713

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIM: To evaluate the research trends in coronavirus disease (COVID-19). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A bibliometric analysis was performed using a machine learning bibliometric methodology. Information regarding publication outputs, countries, institutions, journals, keywords, funding and citation counts was retrieved from Scopus database. RESULTS: A total of 1883 eligible papers were returned. An exponential increase in the COVID-19 publications occurred in the last months. As expected, China produced the majority of articles, followed by the United States of America, the United Kingdom and Italy. There is greater collaboration between highly contributing authors and institutions. The "BMJ" published the highest number of papers (n=129) and "The Lancet" had the most citations (n=1439). The most ubiquitous topic was COVID-19 clinical features. CONCLUSION: This bibliometric analysis presents the most influential references related to COVID-19 during this time and could be useful to improve understanding and management of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Bibliometrics , Coronavirus Infections , Machine Learning , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , COVID-19 , China , Databases, Bibliographic , Humans , Information Dissemination , National Institutes of Health (U.S.) , Publishing/statistics & numerical data , Research/statistics & numerical data , Research Support as Topic , United States
14.
Trends Genet ; 36(8): 543-544, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-401366

ABSTRACT

Within the ivory tower of academia, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic stands to disproportionately impact the invisible workforce of postdoctoral researchers (postdocs). Faced with university closures, hiring freezes, and a general lack of support and benefits, an entire generation of postdocs and their knowledge and skills may be lost to academia without intervention.


Subject(s)
Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Research/education , Universities/statistics & numerical data , Workforce/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Research/statistics & numerical data , Universities/trends , Workforce/trends
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