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1.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 41(1): 105-111, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604345

ABSTRACT

Informal care, or care provided by family and friends, is the most common form of care received by community-dwelling older adults with functional limitations. However, less is known about informal care provision within residential care settings including residential care facilities (for example, assisted living) and nursing homes. Using data from the Health and Retirement Study (2016) and the National Health and Aging Trends Study (2015), we found that informal care was common among older adults with functional limitations, whether they lived in the community, a residential care facility, or a nursing home. The hours of informal care provided were also nontrivial across all settings. This evidence suggests that informal caregiving and some of the associated burdens do not end when a person transitions from the community to residential care or a nursing home setting. It also points to the large role that families play in the care and well-being of these residents, which is especially important considering the recent visitor bans during the COVID-19 epidemic. Family members are an invisible workforce in nursing homes and residential care facilities, providing considerable front-line work for their loved ones. Providers and policy makers could improve the lives of both the residents and their caregivers by acknowledging, incorporating, and supporting this workforce.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Aged , Caregivers , Humans , Nursing Homes , Residential Facilities , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(16)2021 08 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376824

ABSTRACT

Unmarried mothers living in residential facilities (UMLFs) in Korea face complex and challenging physical, psychological, and socioeconomic issues. This study developed a physical and mental health promotion program using urban forests for UMLFs based on the transtheoretical model and evidence. We utilized an intervention mapping approach (IMA) and assessed the needs of UMLFs by analyzing previous quantitative studies. Moreover, we conducted a qualitative hermeneutic phenomenological study involving nine participants. Based on the needs assessment, important and changeable determinants were identified; further, the program performance and change objectives were classified to achieve the program goals and establish the intervention strategy. We found that physical activity using forests, self-reflection using metaphors, five-sense activities, achievement activities using natural objects, building interpersonal relationships in the forest, and designing future plans, are desirable methods for improving the health of UMLFs. The IMA was deemed appropriate for the systematic development of health promotion programs for UMLFs through clear links among change objectives, theoretical methods, and practice strategies. These results should be applied to future intervention studies.


Subject(s)
Illegitimacy , Transtheoretical Model , Forests , Health Promotion , Humans , Residential Facilities
6.
Healthc Q ; 24(2): 38-39, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323454

ABSTRACT

Clinical environments that provide mental health and addictions care have been challenged during the COVID-19 pandemic due to health human resource shortages. This paper provides some insights gleaned from nurse and physician leaders working together during the pandemic in the mental health context to tackle some of these challenges. Key takeaways are provided.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Mental Health Services/organization & administration , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Decision Making, Organizational , Humans , Leadership , Ontario/epidemiology , Residential Facilities/organization & administration , Telemedicine , Vaccination Refusal
9.
Health Technol Assess ; 25(39): 1-74, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278380

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which at the time of writing (January 2021) was responsible for more than 2.25 million deaths worldwide and over 100,000 deaths in the UK. SARS-CoV-2 appears to be highly transmissible and could rapidly spread in residential care homes. OBJECTIVE: The work undertaken aimed to estimate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of viral detection point-of-care tests for detecting SARS-CoV-2 compared with laboratory-based tests in the setting of a hypothetical care home facility for elderly residents. PERSPECTIVE/SETTING: The perspective was that of the NHS in 2020. The setting was a hypothetical care home facility for elderly residents. Care homes with en suite rooms and with shared facilities were modelled separately. METHODS: A discrete event simulation model was constructed to model individual residents and simulate the spread of SARS-CoV-2 once it had entered the residential care facility. The numbers of COVID-19-related deaths and critical cases were recorded in addition to the number of days spent in isolation. Thirteen strategies involving different hypothetical SARS-CoV-2 tests were modelled. Recently published desirable and acceptable target product profiles for SARS-CoV-2 point-of-care tests and for hospital-based SARS-CoV-2 tests were modelled. Scenario analyses modelled early release from isolation based on receipt of a negative SARS-CoV-2 test result and the impact of vaccination. Incremental analyses were undertaken using both incremental cost-effectiveness ratios and net monetary benefits. RESULTS: Cost-effectiveness results depended on the proportion of residential care facilities penetrated by SARS-CoV-2. SARS-CoV-2 point-of-care tests with desirable target product profiles appear to have high net monetary benefit values. In contrast, SARS-CoV-2 point-of-care tests with acceptable target product profiles had low net monetary benefit values because of unnecessary isolations. The benefit of allowing early release from isolation depended on whether or not the facility had en suite rooms. The greater the assumed efficacy of vaccination, the lower the net monetary benefit values associated with SARS-CoV-2 point-of-care tests, when assuming that a vaccine lowers the risk of contracting SARS-CoV-2. LIMITATIONS: There is considerable uncertainty in the values for key parameters within the model, although calibration was undertaken in an attempt to mitigate this. Some degree of Monte Carlo sampling error persists because of the timelines of the project. The example care home simulated will also not match those of decision-makers deciding on the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of introducing SARS-CoV-2 point-of-care tests. Given these limitations, the results should be taken as indicative rather than definitive, particularly the cost-effectiveness results when the relative cost per SARS-CoV-2 point-of-care test is uncertain. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 point-of-care tests have considerable potential for benefit for use in residential care facilities, but whether or not this materialises depends on the diagnostic accuracy and costs of forthcoming SARS-CoV-2 point-of-care tests. FUTURE WORK: More accurate results would be obtained when there is more certainty on the diagnostic accuracy of and the reduction in time to test result associated with SARS-CoV-2 point-of-care tests when used in the context of residential care facilities, the proportion of care home penetrated by SARS-CoV-2 and the levels of immunity once vaccination is administered. These parameters are currently uncertain. FUNDING: This report was commissioned by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Evidence Synthesis programme as project number 132154. This project was funded by the NIHR Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 25, No. 39. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Models, Theoretical , Point-of-Care Testing , Residential Facilities , Aged , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing/standards , Humans , Technology Assessment, Biomedical
10.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 87(13): e0043321, 2021 06 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1276883

ABSTRACT

Wastewater-based monitoring for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) at the individual building level could be an efficient, passive means of early detection of new cases in congregate living settings, but this approach has not been validated. Preliminary samples were collected from a hospital and a local municipal wastewater treatment plant. Molecular diagnostic methods were compared side by side to assess feasibility, performance, and sensitivity. Refined sample collection and processing protocols were then used to monitor two occupied dormitory complexes (n = 105 and 66) over 8 weeks. Wastewater results were validated using known case counts from external clinical testing of building occupants. Results confirm that ultracentrifugation from a 24-h composite collection had a sensitivity of 96.2% and a specificity of 100%. However, the method could not distinguish new infectious cases from persistent convalescent shedding of SARS-CoV-2 RNA. If the detection of convalescent shedding is considered a false positive, then the sensitivity is 100% and specificity drops to 45%. It was determined that the proposed approach constitutes a highly sensitive wastewater surveillance method for detecting SARS-CoV-2, but it could not distinguish new infectious cases from persistent convalescent shedding. Future work must focus on approaches to distinguish new infections from convalescent shedding to fully realize the potential of building wastewater as a surveillance tool for congregate living. IMPORTANCE Some of the most severe outbreaks of COVID-19 have taken place in places where persons live together, such as nursing homes. Wastewater testing from individual buildings could be used for frequent pooled surveillance of virus from all occupants, including those who are contagious, with or without symptoms. This work provides a sensitive practical method for detecting infected individuals, as validated in two building complexes housing occupants who underwent frequent clinical testing performed by external entities. Although this sensitive method could be deployed now for pooled surveillance as an early warning system to limit outbreaks, the study shows that the approach will require further refinement to differentiate contagious, newly infected individuals from persons who have persistent viral fragments shedding in their stool outside the contagious period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Residential Facilities , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Waste Water/virology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Wastewater-Based Epidemiological Monitoring
11.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 81(4): 1375-1379, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270983

ABSTRACT

We assessed depression in 72 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) who live in retirement homes during the COVID-19-related lockdown. We invited caregivers of 72 patients with AD who live in retirement homes to rate depression in the patients both before and during the lockdown. Analysis demonstrated increased depression in the patients during the lockdown. We attribute this increased depression to the restrictive measures on activities, visits, and physical contact between patients with AD and family members during the lockdown.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease/psychology , Behavior Observation Techniques , COVID-19 , Depression , Family Relations/psychology , Infection Control/methods , Social Isolation/psychology , Aged , Alzheimer Disease/epidemiology , Behavior Observation Techniques/methods , Behavior Observation Techniques/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Caregivers , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Leisure Activities/psychology , Male , Physical Distancing , Residential Facilities/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Visitors to Patients/psychology , Visitors to Patients/statistics & numerical data
12.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(6): e2112862, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1260537

ABSTRACT

Importance: Although there is evidence of more severe COVID-19 outcomes, there is no information describing the risk factors for COVID-19 diagnosis and/or mortality among people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) receiving residential support services in the US. Objective: To identify associations between demographic characteristics, residential characteristics, and/or preexisting health conditions and COVID-19 diagnosis and mortality for people with IDD receiving residential support services. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study tracked COVID-19 outcomes for 543 individuals with IDD. Participants were receiving support services from a single organization providing residential services in the 5 boroughs of New York City from March 1 to October 1, 2020. Statistical analysis was performed from December 2020 to February 2021. Exposures: Resident-level characteristics, including age, sex, race/ethnicity, disability status, residential characteristics, and preexisting medical conditions. Main Outcomes and Measures: COVID-19 diagnosis was confirmed by laboratory test. COVID-19 mortality indicated that the individual died from COVID-19 during the course of the study. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate associations between demographic characteristics, residential characteristics, and preexisting health conditions and COVID-19 diagnosis and mortality. Results: Among the 543 individuals with IDD in the study, the median (interquartile range) age was 57.0 (45-65) years; 217 (40.0%) were female, and 274 (50.5%) were Black, Asian/Pacific Islander, American Indian or Alaskan Native, or Hispanic. The case rate was 16 759 (95% CI, 13 853-20 131) per 100 000; the mortality rate was 6446 (95% CI, 4671-8832) per 100 000; and the case-fatality rate was 38.5% (95% CI, 29.1%-48.7%). Increased age (odds ratio [OR], 1.04; 95% CI, 1.02-1.06), Down syndrome (OR, 2.91; 95% CI, 1.49-5.69), an increased number of residents (OR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.00-1.14), and chronic kidney disease (OR, 4.17; 95% CI, 1.90-9.15) were associated with COVID-19 diagnosis. Heart disease (OR, 10.60; 95% CI, 2.68-41.90) was associated with COVID-19 mortality. Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that, similar to the general population, increased age and preexisting health conditions were associated with COVID-19 outcomes for people with IDD receiving residential support services in New York City. As with older adults living in nursing homes, number of residents was also associated with more severe COVID-19 outcomes. Unique to people with IDD was an increased risk of COVID-19 diagnosis for people with Down syndrome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Developmental Disabilities/epidemiology , Intellectual Disability/epidemiology , Pandemics , Residential Facilities , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , Cause of Death , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Down Syndrome , Female , Housing , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , Odds Ratio , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Scand J Public Health ; 49(1): 29-32, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207563

ABSTRACT

The emergence of COVID-19 has changed the world as we know it, arguably none more so than for older people. In Sweden, the majority of COVID-19-related fatalities have been among people aged ⩾70 years, many of whom were receiving health and social care services. The pandemic has illuminated aspects within the care continuum requiring evaluative research, such as decision-making processes, the structure and organisation of care, and interventions within the complex public-health system. This short communication highlights several key areas for future interdisciplinary and multi-sectorial collaboration to improve health and social care services in Sweden. It also underlines that a valid, reliable and experiential evidence base is the sine qua non for evaluative research and effective public-health systems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Interdisciplinary Research/organization & administration , Quality Improvement/organization & administration , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Evidence-Based Practice , Humans , Residential Facilities/organization & administration , Residential Facilities/standards , Social Work/organization & administration , Social Work/standards , Sweden/epidemiology
14.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 87(13): e0043321, 2021 06 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1189815

ABSTRACT

Wastewater-based monitoring for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) at the individual building level could be an efficient, passive means of early detection of new cases in congregate living settings, but this approach has not been validated. Preliminary samples were collected from a hospital and a local municipal wastewater treatment plant. Molecular diagnostic methods were compared side by side to assess feasibility, performance, and sensitivity. Refined sample collection and processing protocols were then used to monitor two occupied dormitory complexes (n = 105 and 66) over 8 weeks. Wastewater results were validated using known case counts from external clinical testing of building occupants. Results confirm that ultracentrifugation from a 24-h composite collection had a sensitivity of 96.2% and a specificity of 100%. However, the method could not distinguish new infectious cases from persistent convalescent shedding of SARS-CoV-2 RNA. If the detection of convalescent shedding is considered a false positive, then the sensitivity is 100% and specificity drops to 45%. It was determined that the proposed approach constitutes a highly sensitive wastewater surveillance method for detecting SARS-CoV-2, but it could not distinguish new infectious cases from persistent convalescent shedding. Future work must focus on approaches to distinguish new infections from convalescent shedding to fully realize the potential of building wastewater as a surveillance tool for congregate living. IMPORTANCE Some of the most severe outbreaks of COVID-19 have taken place in places where persons live together, such as nursing homes. Wastewater testing from individual buildings could be used for frequent pooled surveillance of virus from all occupants, including those who are contagious, with or without symptoms. This work provides a sensitive practical method for detecting infected individuals, as validated in two building complexes housing occupants who underwent frequent clinical testing performed by external entities. Although this sensitive method could be deployed now for pooled surveillance as an early warning system to limit outbreaks, the study shows that the approach will require further refinement to differentiate contagious, newly infected individuals from persons who have persistent viral fragments shedding in their stool outside the contagious period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Residential Facilities , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Waste Water/virology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Wastewater-Based Epidemiological Monitoring
15.
Psychiatr Q ; 92(4): 1393-1411, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1169016

ABSTRACT

Long-stay institutions have been considerably affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. We aimed to assess the mental health of clients and staff as well as quality and safety of care in long-stay institutions during the state-of-emergency in the Czech Republic in response to COVID-19 pandemic. We found a high prevalence of poor mental health outcomes in clients (46% poor well-being, 58% depression, 45% anxiety) and staff (17% poor well-being, 22% depression, 14% anxiety). In clients, COVID-19 health-related and economic worries were associated with depression (1.79, 95% CI = 1.14; 2.8 and 2.28, 95% CI = 1.27; 4.08 respectively) and anxiety (1.63, 95% CI = 1.11; 2.4 and 1.85, 95% CI = 1.2; 2.85 respectively) and in staff with any mental health outcome (1.92, 95% CI = 1.33; 2.77 and 1.75, 95% CI = 1.15; 2.66 respectively). Lack of information and communication from authorities, lack of protective equipment and logistic difficulties were reported as challenges. Delivery of care was mostly disrupted as well as admission and discharge processes. Other reported issues included lack of staff, lack of activities for patients or an increase in usage of restrictive measures. Best practices and key future measures were identified by each institution, a summary of which is presented in the article.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Disorders , Pandemics , Patient Safety , Quality of Health Care , Adult , Aged , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Czech Republic/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Residential Facilities , Young Adult
16.
Med Health Care Philos ; 24(2): 189-204, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1160870

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 pandemic is a tragedy for those who have been hard hit worldwide. At the same time, it is also a test of concepts and practices of what good care is and requires, and how quality of care can be accounted for. In this paper, we present our Care-Ethical Model of Quality Enquiry (CEMQUE) and apply it to the case of residential care for older people in the Netherlands during the Covid-19 pandemic. Instead of thinking about care in healthcare and social welfare as a set of separate care acts, we think about care as a complex practice of relational caring, crossed by other practices. Instead of thinking about professional caregivers as functionaries obeying external rules, we think about them as practically wise professionals. Instead of thinking about developing external quality criteria and systems, we think about cultivating (self-)reflective quality awareness. Instead of abstracting from societal forces that make care possible but also limit it, we acknowledge them and find ways to deal with them. Based on these critical insights, the CEMQUE model can be helpful to describe, interrogate, evaluate, and improve existing care practices. It has four entries: (i) the care receiver considered from their humanness, (ii) the caregiver considered from their solicitude, (iii) the care facility considered from its habitability and (iv) the societal, institutional and scholarly context considered from the perspective of the good life, justice and decency. The crux is enabling all these different entries with all their different aspects to be taken into account. In Corona times this turns out to be more crucial than ever.


Subject(s)
Attitude to Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , Quality of Health Care , Aged , Humans , Models, Organizational , Netherlands , Quality Assurance, Health Care/ethics , Quality of Health Care/ethics , Residential Facilities/ethics , Residential Facilities/organization & administration , Residential Facilities/standards
17.
Soc Work Health Care ; 60(2): 166-176, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1147881

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has posed unprecedented challenges to the U.S. mental healthcare system. Immediate action has been required to transform existing social work practice models to ensure uninterrupted delivery of essential mental health services. This paper describes how clinicians in a residential program, who offered an in-person multi-family education workshop, rapidly pivoted in the context of the pandemic to develop and implement an alternative and unique multi-family intervention model - a virtual family town hall. This innovative telehealth practice model serves as an exemplar of best practices amidst the COVID-19 pandemic as it prioritized health and safety, increased accessibility, and allowed clinicians to effectively respond to family members' heightened informational needs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Family , Health Education/organization & administration , Mental Health Services/organization & administration , Social Work/organization & administration , Telemedicine/organization & administration , Comorbidity , Hospitals, Psychiatric/organization & administration , Humans , Pandemics , Program Development , Program Evaluation , Residential Facilities/organization & administration , SARS-CoV-2
19.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 22(6): 1142-1145, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1144762

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused a considerable mortality in long-term care facilities (LTCFs), including residential care setting and nursing homes. This study aimed to estimate COVID-19 incidence and mortality in residential care facilities and to compare them with those recorded in nursing homes. DESIGN: Nationwide observational study conducted by French health authorities. SETTINGS AND PARTICIPANTS: Since March 1, 2020, all LTCFs in France reported all COVID-19 cases and COVID-19-related deaths among their residents. METHODS: Possible cases were those with COVID-19-related symptoms without laboratory confirmation and confirmed cases those with a reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction test or serology positive for SARS-CoV-2. We included facilities with at least 1 confirmed case of COVID-19 and estimated the cumulative incidence of COVID-19 cases and mortality due to COVID-19 reported until June 30, 2020, using the maximum bed capacity as a denominator. RESULTS: Of the 2288 residential care facilities, 310 (14%) and, of the 7688 nursing homes, 3110 (40%) reported COVID-19 cases among residents (P < .001). The cumulative incidence of COVID-19 was significantly lower in residential care facilities as compared with nursing homes (1.10 vs 9.97 per 100 beds, P < .001). Mortality due to COVID-19 was also lower in residential care facilities compared with nursing homes (0.07 vs 1.29 per 100 beds, P < .001). Case fatality was lower in residential care facilities (6.49% vs 12.93%, P < .001). CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: French residential care facilities experienced a much lower burden from COVID-19 than nursing homes. Our findings may inform the implementation of better infection control practices in these settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nursing Homes , Residential Facilities , COVID-19/epidemiology , France/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 36(3): 287-298, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1126570

ABSTRACT

We conducted a nationwide, registry-based study to investigate the importance of 34 potential risk factors for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) diagnosis, hospitalization (with or without intensive care unit [ICU] admission), and subsequent all-cause mortality. The study population comprised all COVID-19 cases confirmed in Sweden by mid-September 2020 (68,575 non-hospitalized, 2494 ICU hospitalized, and 13,589 non-ICU hospitalized) and 434,081 randomly sampled general-population controls. Older age was the strongest risk factor for hospitalization, although the odds of ICU hospitalization decreased after 60-69 years and, after controlling for other risk factors, the odds of non-ICU hospitalization showed no trend after 40-49 years. Residence in a long-term care facility was associated with non-ICU hospitalization. Male sex and the presence of at least one investigated comorbidity or prescription medication were associated with both ICU and non-ICU hospitalization. Three comorbidities associated with both ICU and non-ICU hospitalization were asthma, hypertension, and Down syndrome. History of cancer was not associated with COVID-19 hospitalization, but cancer in the past year was associated with non-ICU hospitalization, after controlling for other risk factors. Cardiovascular disease was weakly associated with non-ICU hospitalization for COVID-19, but not with ICU hospitalization, after adjustment for other risk factors. Excess mortality was observed in both hospitalized and non-hospitalized COVID-19 cases. These results confirm that severe COVID-19 is related to age, sex, and comorbidity in general. The study provides new evidence that hypertension, asthma, Down syndrome, and residence in a long-term care facility are associated with severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Mortality/trends , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Residential Facilities/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors , Socioeconomic Factors , Sweden/epidemiology , Young Adult
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