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Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol ; 50(1): 240-251, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2051162


This review concentrates on how artificial cells can contribute to helping patients with COVID-19. Artificial cells have led to mRNA vaccines with more improvements to come. Excessive cytokines in severe COVID-19 can damage organs leading to death. Artificial cell-based collodion macroporous activated charcoal adsorbent can effectively remove middle molecular weight range molecules in patients. A novel hemoperfusion device based on collodion membrane macroporous synthetic resin effectively removes cytokines and recovery in COVID-19 patients. This has been approved as an emergency treatment for COVID-19 in China, Europe, and Canada. A recent nanobiotherapeutic containing haemoglobin and up to six times the concentration of red blood cell enzymes: catalase, superoxide dismutase and carbonic anhydrase. In an animal study, this can effectively lower the damaging increase in free radicals and the removal of increased tissue pCO2. This can also help as blood substitute for the severe and critical problem of COVID-19 pandemic donor blood supply crisis.KEY MESSAGESCOVID-19 and its variants have resulted in major pandemics, severe sicknesses, and deaths around the world. COVID-19 and its variants has only started less than 3 years ago, and it is even more recently that we know more about its mechanisms, requirements, prevention, and treatment. This being the case, this is the first review on the present status and future perspectives of the use of the principle of artificial cells for COVID-19 related to vaccines, treatment, and critical donor blood supply shortage.

Artificial Cells , Blood Substitutes , COVID-19 , Hemoperfusion , Animals , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/therapy , Carbonic Anhydrases , Catalase , Charcoal/therapeutic use , Collodion , Cytokines , Free Radicals , Hemoglobins , Humans , Resins, Synthetic , Superoxide Dismutase , Vaccines
J Mater Sci Mater Med ; 33(1): 8, 2022 Jan 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1602899


The collection capacity of common nasopharyngeal swabs and irregularities of medical personnel limit the accuracy of PCR testing. This study describes a newly designed 3D-printed swab that is combined with a 3D-printed cover to prevent the extraction of undesired nasal secretions. This swab improved the accuracy of PCR test results. The results of a series of experiments showed that, because of the mucus extraction effect, 3D-printed swabs can replace ordinary cotton swabs. The crisis of the worldwide medical supply shortage can be ameliorated to a certain extent by applying 3D printing technology.

COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/instrumentation , Specimen Handling/instrumentation , Biocompatible Materials , Biomechanical Phenomena , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Computer Simulation , Equipment Design , Finite Element Analysis , Humans , Materials Testing , Nasopharynx/virology , Printing, Three-Dimensional , Resins, Synthetic , Safety , Tensile Strength , Textiles
ACS Nano ; 14(7): 8846-8854, 2020 07 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-612577


The COVID-19 pandemic is endangering the world due to the spread of respiration droplets with viruses. Medical workers and frontline staff need to wear respirators to protect themselves from breathing in the virus-containing respiration droplets. The most frequently used state-of-the-art respirators are of N95 standard; however, they lack self-decontamination capabilities. In addition, the viruses and bacteria can accumulate on the respirator surfaces, possessing high risks to the wearers over long-term usage. Photothermal decontamination is a contactless, fast, low-cost, and widely available method, capable of decontaminating the respirators. Herein, we report a plasmonic photothermal and superhydrophobic coating on N95 respirators, possessing significantly better protection than existing personal protection equipment. The plasmonic heating can raise the surface temperature to over 80 °C for this type of respirator within 1 min of sunlight illumination. The superhydrophobic features prohibit respiration droplets from accumulating on the respirator surfaces. The presence of the silver nanoparticles can provide additional protection via the silver ion's disinfection toward microbes. These synergistic features of the composite coatings provide the N95 respirator with better protection and can inspire experts from interdisciplinary fields to develop better personal protection equipment to fight the COVID-19 pandemic.

Disinfection/methods , Equipment Design/methods , Masks/standards , Personal Protective Equipment/standards , Printing, Three-Dimensional , Respiratory Protective Devices/standards , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Equipment Design/instrumentation , Hot Temperature , Humans , Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions , Lasers , Masks/virology , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Resins, Synthetic/chemistry , Respiratory Protective Devices/virology , Silver/chemistry , Sunlight