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1.
Thorax ; 76(7): 726-728, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270899

ABSTRACT

Acute admission to hospital for an exacerbation of chronic respiratory disease (CRD) may impair skeletal muscle mass and function. We measured quadriceps thickness (Qthick), as a surrogate marker of muscle mass, at hospital admission, discharge, 6 weeks and 3 months in 55 patients with CRD. Qthick fell by 8.3% during the period of hospitalisation, which was sustained at 6 weeks, and only partially recovered at 3 months. Sustained loss was most marked in patients readmitted during the follow-up period. Acute reduction in quadriceps muscle mass occurs during hospitalisation, with prolonged and variable recovery, which is prevented with subsequent hospital readmission.


Subject(s)
Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Quadriceps Muscle/physiopathology , Respiration Disorders/complications , Sarcopenia/etiology , Aged , Chronic Disease , Disease Progression , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Prognosis , Quality of Life , Respiration Disorders/physiopathology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sarcopenia/physiopathology
5.
Nature ; 585(7824): 268-272, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-244486

ABSTRACT

An outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by a novel coronavirus (named SARS-CoV-2) and has a case fatality rate of approximately 2%, started in Wuhan (China) in December 20191,2. Following an unprecedented global spread3, the World Health Organization declared COVID-19 a pandemic on 11 March 2020. Although data on COVID-19 in humans are emerging at a steady pace, some aspects of the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 can be studied in detail only in animal models, in which repeated sampling and tissue collection is possible. Here we show that SARS-CoV-2 causes a respiratory disease in rhesus macaques that lasts between 8 and 16 days. Pulmonary infiltrates, which are a hallmark of COVID-19 in humans, were visible in lung radiographs. We detected high viral loads in swabs from the nose and throat of all of the macaques, as well as in bronchoalveolar lavages; in one macaque, we observed prolonged rectal shedding. Together, the rhesus macaque recapitulates the moderate disease that has been observed in the majority of human cases of COVID-19. The establishment of the rhesus macaque as a model of COVID-19 will increase our understanding of the pathogenesis of this disease, and aid in the development and testing of medical countermeasures.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Disease Models, Animal , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Respiration Disorders/pathology , Respiration Disorders/virology , Animals , Body Fluids/virology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cough/complications , Female , Fever/complications , Lung/pathology , Lung/physiopathology , Lung/virology , Macaca mulatta , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Radiography , Respiration Disorders/complications , Respiration Disorders/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors , Viral Load
6.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 55(7): 1598-1600, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-155146

ABSTRACT

The 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is endangering human health worldwide; scarcity of published pediatric cases and current literature and the absence of evidence-based guidelines necessitate international sharing of experience and personal communication. On 31 March 2020 the International Committee of the American Thoracic Society Pediatrics Assembly recorded an online podcast, during which pediatric pulmonologists worldwide shared their experience on the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in children. The aim was to share personal experience in organizing pediatric care in different health care settings globally, protecting health care workers, and isolation practices. This manuscript summarizes the common themes of the podcast which centered around three main topics: more benign clinical disease and progression in pediatric cases compared to adults, a strong need for strategies to protect health care workers, and social or economic disparities as a barrier to successful pandemic control.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pediatrics/trends , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Webcasts as Topic , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Child , Chronic Disease , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Disease Progression , Global Health , Healthcare Disparities , Hospitalization , Hospitals, Pediatric/organization & administration , Humans , Internationality , Occupational Health , Pandemics , Pediatrics/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pulmonary Medicine , Quarantine , Respiration Disorders/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
7.
Thromb Haemost ; 120(6): 998-1000, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-102182

ABSTRACT

In late December 2019 an outbreak of a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) causing severe pneumonia (COVID-19) was reported in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. A common finding in most COVID-19 patients is high D-dimer levels which are associated with a worse prognosis. We aimed to evaluate coagulation abnormalities via traditional tests and whole blood thromboelastometry profiles in a group of 22 (mean age 67 ± 8 years, M:F 20:2) consecutive patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit of Padova University Hospital for acute respiratory failure due to COVID-19. Cases showed significantly higher fibrinogen and D-dimer plasma levels versus healthy controls (p < 0.0001 in both comparisons). Interestingly enough, markedly hypercoagulable thromboelastometry profiles were observed in COVID-19 patients, as reflected by shorter Clot Formation Time (CFT) in INTEM (p = 0.0002) and EXTEM (p = 0.01) and higher Maximum Clot Firmness (MCF) in INTEM, EXTEM and FIBTEM (p < 0.001 in all comparisons). In conclusion, COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory failure present a severe hypercoagulability rather than consumptive coagulopathy. Fibrin formation and polymerization may predispose to thrombosis and correlate with a worse outcome.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiration Disorders/complications , Respiration Disorders/therapy , Thrombophilia/complications , Acute Disease , Aged , Area Under Curve , Betacoronavirus , Blood Coagulation Tests , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Critical Care , Female , Fibrin/analysis , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Fibrinogen/analysis , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombelastography , Treatment Outcome
8.
Fetal Pediatr Pathol ; 39(3): 246-250, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-27839

ABSTRACT

Background: Since early December 2019, the Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19) infection has been prevalent in China and eventually spread to other countries. There are a few published cases of COVID-19 occurring during pregnancy and due the possibility of mother-fetal vertical transmission, there is a concern that the fetuses may be at risk of congenital COVID-19. Methods: We reviewed the risk of vertical transmission of COVID-19 to the fetus of infected mothers by using data of published articles or official websites up to March 4, 2020. Results: A total of 31 infected pregnant mothers with COVID-19 were reported. No COVID-19 infection was detected in their neonates or placentas. Two mothers died from COVID-19-related respiratory complications after delivery. Conclusions: Currently, based on limited data, there is no evidence for intrauterine transmission of COVID-19 from infected pregnant women to their fetuses. Mothers may be at increased risk for more severe respiratory complications.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Canada , China/epidemiology , Female , Hong Kong , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Iran/epidemiology , Maternal Mortality , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Respiration Disorders/complications , Risk , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
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