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1.
Rev Invest Clin ; 74(5): 268-275, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100851

ABSTRACT

Background: Prognostic factors in previously healthy young patients with COVID-19 remained understudied. Objectives: The objective of the study was to identify factors associated with in-hospital death or need for invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) in young (aged ≤ 65 years) and previously healthy patients with COVID-19. Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study that included patients admitted with COVID-19. The primary outcome was in-hospital death/need for IMV. Secondary outcomes included need for IMV during follow-up, days on IMV, length of stay (LOS), hospital-acquired pneumonia/ventilator-associated pneumonia (HAP/VAP), and pulmonary embolism (PE). Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Results: Among 92 patients, primary outcome occurred in 16 (17%), death in 12 (13%), need for IMV in 16 (17%), HAP/VAP in 7 (8%), and PE in 2 (2%). Median LOS and IMV duration were 7 and 12 days, respectively. Independent associations were found between the primary outcome and male sex (Adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 7.1, 95%CI 1.1-46.0, p < 0.05), D-dimer levels > 1000ng/mL (aOR 9.0, 95%CI 1.6-49.1, p < 0.05), and RT-PCR Ct-value ≤ 24 on initial swab samples (aOR 14.3, 95%CI 2.0-101.5, p < 0.01). Conclusions: In young and non-comorbid COVID-19 patients, male sex, higher levels of D-dimer, and low SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR Ct-value on an initial nasopharyngeal swab were independently associated with increased in-hospital mortality or need for IMV. (Rev Invest Clin. 2022;74(5):268-75).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Male , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Hospital Mortality , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial
5.
Crit Care ; 26(1): 272, 2022 09 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089223

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: It is unknown how to titrate positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) in patients with COVID-19-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Guidelines recommend the one-size-fits-all PEEP-FiO2 table. In this retrospective cohort study, an electrical impedance tomography (EIT)-guided PEEP trial was used to titrate PEEP. OBJECTIVES: To compare baseline PEEP according to the high PEEP-FiO2 table and personalized PEEP following an EIT-guided PEEP trial. METHODS: We performed an EIT-guided decremental PEEP trial in patients with moderate-to-severe COVID-19-related ARDS upon intensive care unit admission. PEEP was set at the lowest PEEP above the intersection of curves representing relative alveolar overdistention and collapse. Baseline PEEP was compared with PEEP set according to EIT. We identified patients in whom the EIT-guided PEEP trial resulted in a decrease or increase in PEEP of ≥ 2 cmH2O. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We performed a PEEP trial in 75 patients. In 23 (31%) patients, PEEP was decreased ≥ 2 cmH2O, and in 24 (32%) patients, PEEP was increased ≥ 2 cmH2O. Patients in whom PEEP was decreased had improved respiratory mechanics and more overdistention in the non-dependent lung region at higher PEEP levels. These patients also had a lower BMI, longer time between onset of symptoms and intubation, and higher incidence of pulmonary embolism. Oxygenation improved in patients in whom PEEP was increased. CONCLUSIONS: An EIT-guided PEEP trial resulted in a relevant change in PEEP in 63% of patients. These results support the hypothesis that PEEP should be personalized in patients with ARDS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Electric Impedance , Humans , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Retrospective Studies
6.
Respir Care ; 67(10): 1282-1290, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763135

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Postextubation monitoring helps identify patients at risk of developing respiratory failure. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of our standard respiratory therapist (RT) assessment tool versus an automated continuous monitoring alert to initiate postextubation RT-driven care on the re-intubation rate. METHODS: This was a single-center randomized clinical trial from March 2020 to September 2021 of adult subjects who received mechanical ventilation for > 24 h and underwent planned extubation in the ICU. The subjects were assigned to the standard RT assessment tool or an automated monitoring alert to identify the need for postextubation RT-driven care. The primary outcome was the need for re-intubation due to respiratory failure within 72 h. Secondary outcomes included re-intubation within 7 d, ICU and hospital lengths of stay, hospital mortality, ICU cost, and RT time associated with patient assessment and therapy provision. RESULTS: Of 234 randomized subjects, 32 were excluded from the primary analysis due to disruption in RT-driven care during the surge of patients with COVID-19, and 1 subject was excluded due to delay in the automated monitoring initiation. Analysis of the primary outcome included 85 subjects assigned to the standard RT assessment group and 116 assigned to the automated monitoring alert group to initiate RT-driven care. There was no significant difference between the study groups in re-intubation rate, median length of stay, mortality, or ICU costs. The RT time associated with patient assessment (P < .001) and therapy provided (P = .031) were significantly lower in the automated continuous monitoring alert group. CONCLUSIONS: In subjects who received mechanical ventilation for > 24 h, there were no significant outcome or cost differences between our standard RT assessment tool or an automated monitoring alert to initiate postextubation RT-driven care. Using an automated continuous monitoring alert to initiate RT-driven care saved RT time. (ClinicalTrials.gov registration NCT04231890).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Insufficiency , Adult , Airway Extubation/adverse effects , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Respiratory Insufficiency/diagnosis , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Ventilator Weaning
7.
Acta Biomed ; 93(S2): e2022152, 2022 05 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2081351

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: The time interval between the patients' intubation and the performance of a tracheostomy has been considered as critical for the disease prognosis and outcome. The aim of the present study was to compare and contrast the outcomes of early vs late tracheostomy with regard to ICU patients' weaning from respiratory support. METHODS: This retrospective observational study, involved patients who were hospitalized in two general and one Covid-19 ICUs of two tertiary hospitals in Athens and were subjected to tracheostomy. Data were collected from the patients' medical records in order to estimate the duration of patient weaning and the number of days from the patients' intubation until the time of tracheostomy. In the present study the term earlytracheostomy denotes tracheostomy performed within 14 days from patient intubation and late tracheostomydefines the tracheostomy carried out after 14 days. For Covid-19 patients, guidelines suggested that tracheostomies should be performed 21 days following intubation, due to the high risk of virus transmission. RESULTS: One hundred and thirty-one patients who underwent tracheostomy participated in the study. Most tracheostomies were performed using the percutaneous technique. The group of patients tracheostomized within 14 days after their admission in ICU weaned faster from respiratory support compared to ones who were tracheostomized after 14 days. CONCLUSIONS: The most common distinction between early and late tracheostomy is 14 days, with early tracheostomy being more beneficial in terms of patients' outcomes, and specifically ICU patients' weaning.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tracheostomy , Critical Care , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Tracheostomy/methods
8.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0276213, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079761

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Bedside lung ultrasound has gained a key role in each segment of the treatment chain during the COVID-19 pandemic. During the diagnostic assessment of the critically ill patients in ICUs, it is highly important to maximize the amount and quality of gathered information while minimizing unnecessary interventions (e.g. moving/rotating the patient). Another major factor is to reduce the risk of infection and the workload of the staff. OBJECTIVES: To serve these significant issues we constructed a feasibility study, in which we used a single-operator technique without moving the patient, only assessing the easily achievable lung regions at conventional BLUE points. We hypothesized that calculating this 'BLUE lung ultrasound score' (BLUE-LUSS) is a reasonable clinical tool. Furthermore, we used both longitudinal and transverse scans to measure their reliability and assessed the interobserver variability as well. METHODS: University Intensive Care Unit based, single-center, prospective, observational study was performed on 24 consecutive SARS-CoV2 RT-PCR positive, mechanically ventilated critically ill patients. Altogether 400 loops were recorded, rated and assessed off-line by 4 independent intensive care specialists (each 7+ years of LUS experience). RESULTS: Intraclass correlation values indicated good reliability for transversal and longitudinal qLUSS scores, while we detected excellent interrater agreement of both cLUSS calculation methods. All of our LUS scores correlated inversely and significantly to the P/F values. Best correlation was achieved in the case of longitudinal qLUSS (r = -0.55, p = 0.0119). CONCLUSION: Summarized score of BLUE-LUSS can be an important, easy-to-perform adjunct tool for assessing and quantifying lung pathology in critically ill ventilated patients at bedside, especially for the P/F ratio. The best agreement for the P/F ratio can be achieved with the longitudinal scans. Regarding these findings, assessing BLUE-points can be extended with the BLUE-LUSS for daily routine using both transverse and longitudinal views.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Critical Illness , Feasibility Studies , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , RNA, Viral , Reproducibility of Results , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Ultrasonography/methods
9.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0271964, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079705

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pneumothorax has been increasingly observed among patients with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia, specifically in those patients who develop acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). In this study, we sought to determine the incidence and potential risk factors of pneumothorax in critically ill adults with COVID-19. METHOD: This retrospective cohort study included adult patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection admitted to one of the adult intensive care units of a tertiary, academic teaching hospital from May 2020 through May 2021. RESULTS: Among 334 COVID-19 cases requiring ICU admission, the incidence of pneumothorax was 10% (33 patients). Patients who experienced pneumothorax more frequently required vasopressor support (28/33 [84%] vs. 191/301 [63%] P = 0.04), were more likely to be proned (25/33 [75%] vs. 111/301 [36%], P<0.001), and the presence of pneumothorax was associated with prolonged duration of mechanical ventilation; 21 (1-97) versus 7 (1-79) days, p<0.001 as well as prolonged hospital length of stay (29 [9-133] vs. 15 [1-90] days, P<0.001), but mortality was not significantly different between groups. Importantly, when we performed a Cox proportional hazard ratio (HR) model of multivariate parameters, we found that administration of tocilizumab significantly increased the risk of developing pneumothorax (HR = 10.7; CI [3.6-32], P<0.001). CONCLUSION: Among 334 critically ill patients with COVID-19, the incidence of pneumothorax was 10%. Presence of pneumothorax was associated with prolonged duration of mechanical ventilation and length of hospital stay. Strikingly, receipt of tocilizumab was associated with an increased risk of developing pneumothorax.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumothorax , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Critical Illness , Humans , Incidence , Intensive Care Units , Pneumothorax/epidemiology , Pneumothorax/etiology , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(12): 1377-1386, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2076878

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with COVID-19-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) have been postulated to present with distinct respiratory subphenotypes. However, most phenotyping schema have been limited by sample size, disregard for temporal dynamics, and insufficient validation. We aimed to identify respiratory subphenotypes of COVID-19-related ARDS using unbiased data-driven approaches. METHODS: PRoVENT-COVID was an investigator-initiated, national, multicentre, prospective, observational cohort study at 22 intensive care units (ICUs) in the Netherlands. Consecutive patients who had received invasive mechanical ventilation for COVID-19 (aged 18 years or older) served as the derivation cohort, and similar patients from two ICUs in the USA served as the replication cohorts. COVID-19 was confirmed by positive RT-PCR. We used latent class analysis to identify subphenotypes using clinically available respiratory data cross-sectionally at baseline, and longitudinally using 8-hourly data from the first 4 days of invasive ventilation. We used group-based trajectory modelling to evaluate trajectories of individual variables and to facilitate potential clinical translation. The PRoVENT-COVID study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04346342. FINDINGS: Between March 1, 2020, and May 15, 2020, 1007 patients were admitted to participating ICUs in the Netherlands, and included in the derivation cohort. Data for 288 patients were included in replication cohort 1 and 326 in replication cohort 2. Cross-sectional latent class analysis did not identify any underlying subphenotypes. Longitudinal latent class analysis identified two distinct subphenotypes. Subphenotype 2 was characterised by higher mechanical power, minute ventilation, and ventilatory ratio over the first 4 days of invasive mechanical ventilation than subphenotype 1, but PaO2/FiO2, pH, and compliance of the respiratory system did not differ between the two subphenotypes. 185 (28%) of 671 patients with subphenotype 1 and 109 (32%) of 336 patients with subphenotype 2 had died at day 28 (p=0·10). However, patients with subphenotype 2 had fewer ventilator-free days at day 28 (median 0, IQR 0-15 vs 5, 0-17; p=0·016) and more frequent venous thrombotic events (109 [32%] of 336 patients vs 176 [26%] of 671 patients; p=0·048) compared with subphenotype 1. Group-based trajectory modelling revealed trajectories of ventilatory ratio and mechanical power with similar dynamics to those observed in latent class analysis-derived trajectory subphenotypes. The two trajectories were: a stable value for ventilatory ratio or mechanical power over the first 4 days of invasive mechanical ventilation (trajectory A) or an upward trajectory (trajectory B). However, upward trajectories were better independent prognosticators for 28-day mortality (OR 1·64, 95% CI 1·17-2·29 for ventilatory ratio; 1·82, 1·24-2·66 for mechanical power). The association between upward ventilatory ratio trajectories (trajectory B) and 28-day mortality was confirmed in the replication cohorts (OR 4·65, 95% CI 1·87-11·6 for ventilatory ratio in replication cohort 1; 1·89, 1·05-3·37 for ventilatory ratio in replication cohort 2). INTERPRETATION: At baseline, COVID-19-related ARDS has no consistent respiratory subphenotype. Patients diverged from a fairly homogenous to a more heterogeneous population, with trajectories of ventilatory ratio and mechanical power being the most discriminatory. Modelling these parameters alone provided prognostic value for duration of mechanical ventilation and mortality. FUNDING: Amsterdam UMC.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Netherlands , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 21(1): 216, 2022 10 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079423

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is not clear whether pre-existing macrovascular complications (ischemic heart disease, stroke or peripheral artery disease) are associated with health outcomes in people with diabetes mellitus hospitalized for COVID-19. METHODS: We conducted cohort studies of adults with pre-existing diabetes hospitalized for COVID-19 infection in the UK, France, and Spain during the early phase of the pandemic (between March 2020-October 2020). Logistic regression models adjusted for demographic factors and other comorbidities were used to determine associations between previous macrovascular disease and relevant clinical outcomes: mortality, intensive care unit (ICU) admission and use of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) during the hospitalization. Output from individual logistic regression models for each cohort was combined in a meta-analysis. RESULTS: Complete data were available for 4,106 (60.4%) individuals. Of these, 1,652 (40.2%) had any prior macrovascular disease of whom 28.5% of patients died. Mortality was higher for people with compared to those without previous macrovascular disease (37.7% vs 22.4%). The combined crude odds ratio (OR) for previous macrovascular disease and mortality for all four cohorts was 2.12 (95% CI 1.83-2.45 with an I2 of 60%, reduced after adjustments for age, sex, type of diabetes, hypertension, microvascular disease, ethnicity, and BMI to adjusted OR 1.53 [95% CI 1.29-1.81]) for the three cohorts. Further analysis revealed that ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease were the main contributors of adverse outcomes. However, proportions of people admitted to ICU (adjOR 0.48 [95% CI 0.31-0.75], I2 60%) and the use of IMV during hospitalization (adjOR 0.52 [95% CI 0.40-0.68], I2 37%) were significantly lower for people with previous macrovascular disease. CONCLUSIONS: This large multinational study of people with diabetes mellitus hospitalized for COVID-19 demonstrates that previous macrovascular disease is associated with higher mortality and lower proportions admitted to ICU and treated with IMV during hospitalization suggesting selective admission criteria. Our findings highlight the importance correctly assess the prognosis and intensive monitoring in this high-risk group of patients and emphasize the need to design specific public health programs aimed to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection in this subgroup.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Myocardial Ischemia , Adult , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Risk Factors , Hospitalization , Critical Care , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(41): e31077, 2022 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2077960

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) with (COVID-19 often result in mortality. Treatment outcomes among puerperant, when compared with non-pregnant women (NPW) with the same syndrome. Physiological changes underwent within the gestation period have a considerable impact on the immune system, respiratory system, cardiovascular function, and coagulation. Through this research, it was aimed to compare intensive care unit (ICU) follow-up and treatment results of postpartum-period patients with those of non-pregnant ones. During the first week of ICU, 23 puerperant COVID-19 patients with ARDS and 34 non-pregnant COVID-19 patients took part in the study. Age, height, and predictive body weight (PBW) at admission to the ICU were compared with the clinical parameters of disease severity, such as FiO2 (fraction of inspired oxygen), PaO2 (arterial oxygen partial pressure), Horowitz index (PaO2/FiO2), procalcitonin (PCT), and C-reactive protein (CRP). Respiration parameters were recorded a meta-vision back server. Demographic data, FiO2, PaO2, Horowitz index, PCT, CRP and respiration parameters values were similar in both groups. The duration of non-mechanical ventilation and number of patients were seen to be significantly greater among the puerperant group than control group (P; .04 and .002, respectively). The duration of mechanical ventilation was similar in both groups (P; .07), while the mortality rate was lower in the puerperant group (P; .004). The postpartum women with COVID-19 induced ARDS were observed to have better ICU follow-up results and lower mortality. However, it is considered that the present results need to be supported greater number of participants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , C-Reactive Protein , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Oxygen , Postpartum Period , Procalcitonin , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy
13.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 17339, 2022 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2077115

ABSTRACT

The relationship between fluid management and the severity of illness, duration of treatment, and outcome of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is not fully understood. This study aimed to evaluate whether weight change during hospitalization was associated with COVID-19 severity, length of hospital stay, and route of admission. In this study, we assessed the effectiveness of fluid restriction management in patients with severe COVID-19. COVID-19 patients admitted to our hospital between July 2020 and October 2021 were analyzed. Patients were treated with standard drug therapy based on the Japanese guidelines and respiratory support according to the severity of the disease. Early enteral nutrition, defecation management, and anticoagulation therapy were also administered. Fluid restriction management was performed using furosemide and continuous renal replacement therapy as needed unless hemodynamic instability or hyperlactatemia was present. Patient background, route of admission (ambulance, A; transfer, T), weight at admission and discharge, the severity of illness (oxygen therapy, G1; mechanical ventilation, G2; extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, G3), in-hospital mortality, and length of hospital stay were analyzed. There were 116 subjects: G1 (n = 48), G2 (n = 43), and G3 (n = 25), with ages (median [IQR]) of 58 (47-70), 65 (53-71.5), 56 (51-62) years, 40 (83.3%), 31 (72.1%), and 19 (76.0%) males, respectively. Hospital stays were 4.5 (2-7), 10 (7-16), and 18 (15-26) days, and the in-hospital mortality rates were 0 (0%), 7 (16.3%), and 8 (32%), respectively. Body mass index on admission was 26 (23.1-30.2), 27.1 (22.7-31.1), and 31.5 (27.1-33.1) kg/m2, and weight loss during admission was 1.1 (0-2.9), 4.6 (2.3-5.7), 9.2 (5.6-10.5) kg (P < 0.001, Jonckheere-Terpstra test. Weight loss in the severe group (G2 + G3) was 3.4 (0.5-5.8) kg [A, n = 12] and 5.6 (4.4-9) kg [T, n = 43] [P = 0.026, Mann-Whitney U test]. The lengths of hospital stay were 5 (2-7), 9 (7-15), and 18 (12-26) days [P < 0.001, Jonckheere-Terpstra test]. In our fluid restriction management, patients with severe COVID-19 had significant longer hospital length of stay, weight loss, especially those who were transferred to the hospital.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anticoagulants , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Furosemide , Humans , Male , Oxygen , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Weight Loss
14.
Int J Infect Dis ; 124: 143-151, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2076183

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Possible immunomodulatory effect of amantadine in patients treated in intensive care unit (ICU), mostly among patients with brain injuries or vascular diseases was observed in several studies. The potential antiviral effect of amantadine against SARS-CoV-2 was discarded in clinical trials; however, immunomodulatory potential was not studied. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of immunomodulatory amantadine therapy on mortality in patients with respiratory insufficiency due to COVID-19 requiring mechanical ventilation in ICU. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 241 cases of 141 (58.5%) receiving intravenous amantadine sulfate vs 100 (41.5%) controls on standard of care only was performed. RESULTS: Overall mortality was 72.6%, being notably lower among amantadine treated patients (59.5%, n = 84) compared with controls (91%, n = 91), P-value = 0.001. In multivariate models administration of amantadine was independently associated with lower mortality rate (hazard ratio: 0.220, CI: 0.146-0.333 P-value = 0.001). Furthermore, survival was improved in patients who received amantadine; late administration of amantadine after 5th day was independently associated with lower mortality (hazard ratio: 0.560, CI: 0.313-0.999, P-value = 0.050). CONCLUSION: In patients treated in ICU with severe respiratory failure, administration of amantadine is associated with lower mortality, which may be associated with the potential anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of this agent.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Insufficiency , Humans , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Retrospective Studies , Intensive Care Units , Respiration, Artificial , Amantadine/therapeutic use
15.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 72(9): 1820-1826, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2067711

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To review studies reporting pulmonary physical therapy techniques for the management of coronavirus disease-2019 patients. METHODS: The systematic review was conducted according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines Comprised search of MEDLINE via PubMed, Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE), Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED) and Cumulated Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINHAL) for Observational and interventional studies published in English language between December 2019 and January 2022 describing pulmonary physical therapy techniques for the management of coronavirus disease-2019 patients. Google Scholar and reference lists of relevant studies were also searched to identify additional articles. Methodological quality of the included studies was assessed using either the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale for interventional studies or the National Institutes of Health quality assessment tool for observational studies. RESULTS: Of the 3767 studies found, 17(0.45%) were analysed; 13(76.5%) observational and 4(23.5%) interventional. The most common pulmonary physical therapy techniques used were active cycle of breathing techniques, positive expiratory pressure device, breathing exercises, percussions, and chest abdomen muscle exercises. However, majority of the studies applied prone positioning and suctioning as priority treatment. During mechanical ventilation, mucus clearance and alveolar recruitment manoeuvres were commonly applied. CONCLUSIONS: There was scarcity of high-quality studies regarding the use of different pulmonary physical therapy techniques in coronavirus disease-2019 patients. Based on available literature, different techniques can be used, depending on stage and severity of the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Physical Therapy Modalities , Exercise Therapy/methods , Respiration, Artificial , Exercise
16.
Crit Care ; 26(1): 70, 2022 03 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2064832

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Excessive inspiratory effort could translate into self-inflicted lung injury, thus worsening clinical outcomes of spontaneously breathing patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF). Although esophageal manometry is a reliable method to estimate the magnitude of inspiratory effort, procedural issues significantly limit its use in daily clinical practice. The aim of this study is to describe the correlation between esophageal pressure swings (ΔPes) and nasal (ΔPnos) as a potential measure of inspiratory effort in spontaneously breathing patients with de novo ARF. METHODS: From January 1, 2021, to September 1, 2021, 61 consecutive patients with ARF (83.6% related to COVID-19) admitted to the Respiratory Intensive Care Unit (RICU) of the University Hospital of Modena (Italy) and candidate to escalation of non-invasive respiratory support (NRS) were enrolled. Clinical features and tidal changes in esophageal and nasal pressure were recorded on admission and 24 h after starting NRS. Correlation between ΔPes and ΔPnos served as primary outcome. The effect of ΔPnos measurements on respiratory rate and ΔPes was also assessed. RESULTS: ΔPes and ΔPnos were strongly correlated at admission (R2 = 0.88, p < 0.001) and 24 h apart (R2 = 0.94, p < 0.001). The nasal plug insertion and the mouth closure required for ΔPnos measurement did not result in significant change of respiratory rate and ΔPes. The correlation between measures at 24 h remained significant even after splitting the study population according to the type of NRS (high-flow nasal cannulas [R2 = 0.79, p < 0.001] or non-invasive ventilation [R2 = 0.95, p < 0.001]). CONCLUSIONS: In a cohort of patients with ARF, nasal pressure swings did not alter respiratory mechanics in the short term and were highly correlated with esophageal pressure swings during spontaneous tidal breathing. ΔPnos might warrant further investigation as a measure of inspiratory effort in patients with ARF. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT03826797 . Registered October 2016.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noninvasive Ventilation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Respiratory Insufficiency , Humans , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy
17.
Rev Med Virol ; 32(6): e2402, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2059644

ABSTRACT

The therapeutic potential of sotrovimab in the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a controversial issue. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of sotrovimab in COVID-19 patients. To this end, PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, Web of Science, medRxiv, and Google Scholar were searched up to 15 August 2022. The reference lists of key studies were also scanned to find additional records. Meta-analysis was performed using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis. Seventeen studies involving 27,429 patients were included. A significant difference was observed in mortality rate (odds ratio [OR] = 0.40; 95% CI: 0.25-0.63, p = 0.00), hospitalisation rate (OR = 0.53; 95% CI: 0.43-0.65. p = 0.00), hospital or death rate (OR = 0.43; 95% CI: 0.25-0.73, p = 0.00), the need for mechanical ventilation (OR = 0.57; 95% CI: 0.33-0.96, p = 0.03), and ICU admission (OR = 0.33; 95% CI: 0.17-0.67, p = 0.00) of the sotrovimab-receiving group compared to those having no sotrovimab. However, no significant difference was observed between the two groups in terms of disease progression (OR = 0.45; 95% CI: 0.16-1.24, p = 0.12) and emergency department visit (OR = 1.01; 95% CI: 0.83-1.24, p = 0.87). The two groups had no significant difference in terms of incidence of adverse events (OR = 0.98; 95% CI: 0.78-1.23, p = 0.88). The findings of the present meta-analysis support that sotrovimab could be an effective and safe treatment option to reduce mortality and hospitalisation rate in both Delta and Omicron Variants of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Respiration, Artificial , Hospitalization
18.
Rev Med Chil ; 150(4): 465-472, 2022 Apr.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2055647

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic posed a great strain in health services. AIM: To describe the epidemiological and clinical features of patients with SARS-CoV-2 admitted to a regional hospital in southern Chile between April and August 2020. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Clinical records of all hospitalized patients with RT-PCR (+) for SARS-CoV-2 were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: During the study period 226 patients aged 55 ± 18 years (55% men) were admitted. The main comorbidities were high blood pressure in 45%, diabetes in 31% and obesity in 21%. The main symptoms were dyspnea in 70%, cough in 69%, fever in 62% and myalgia in 47%. Pneumonia was the main cause of admission in 66%. Images on admission were compatible with pneumonia in 81%, and with a typical COVID-19 pattern in 84%. In 76% there was five-lobe involvement. Eighty-seven cases (39%) were admitted to critical care, with an APACHE score of 10.9 ± 7.1. Invasive mechanical ventilation was used in 16%, 30% required prone position and 13%, a high-flow nasal cannula. The mean stay in critical care was 13.3 days. The mean duration of invasive mechanical ventilation was 14.1 days. Antimicrobials were used in 55% and dexamethasone in 36%. Twenty-two (9.7%) patients aged 71.7 ± 14 died. A Charlson comorbidity index > 3, heart failure and connection to invasive mechanical ventilation were independent risk factors for death. An age > 65 years alone and other comorbidities were not risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: Viral pneumonia is the main cause of hospitalization for COVID-19, usually extensive and bilateral. The greater severity and poor prognosis of these patients are mainly related to comorbidities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chile/epidemiology , Dexamethasone , Female , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 29: e3496, 2021. graf
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-2054558

ABSTRACT

Objective: to analyze the evidence available in the literature about postoperative complications in adult patients undergoing surgical procedures with confirmed infection by SARS-CoV-2. Method: an integrative literature review conducted in the CINAHL, EMBASE, LILACS, PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science databases, as well as in the gray literature. The references identified were exported to the EndNote manager and, subsequently, to the Rayyan web application for study selection. The stages of sampling, categorization of studies, evaluation of the studies included, interpretation of the results and knowledge synthesis were performed by two reviewers independently and in a masked manner. The data were analyzed descriptively. Results: of the 247 articles identified, 15 were selected to comprise this review. The prevalent postoperative complications in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 were the following: cough, dyspnea and hypoxia, need for invasive mechanical ventilation or not, admission to the intensive care unit and death. Conclusion: the most reported postoperative complications in the studies evaluated were respiratory-related, followed by cardiovascular complications. The importance of preoperative screening for COVID-19 is highlighted, as well as of the monitoring and tracking of confirmed cases in the postoperative period, as these actions exert an impact on reducing the occurrence of complications related to SARS-CoV-2.


Objetivo: analizar la evidencia disponible en la literatura sobre las complicaciones postoperatorias en pacientes adultos sometidos a procedimientos quirúrgicos con infección confirmada por SARS-CoV-2. Método: revisión integradora de la literatura realizada en las bases de datos CINAHL, EMBASE, LILACS, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science y literatura gris. Las referencias identificadas se exportaron al administrador EndNote y luego a la aplicación web Rayyan para la selección de estudios. Las etapas de muestreo, categorización de los estudios, evaluación de los estudios incluidos, interpretación de los resultados y síntesis del conocimiento fueron realizadas por dos revisores de forma independiente y enmascarada. Los datos se analizaron de forma descriptiva. Resultados: de los 247 artículos identificados, se seleccionaron 15 para componer esta revisión. Las complicaciones postoperatorias prevalentes en pacientes infectados por SARS-CoV-2 fueron: tos, disnea e hipoxia, necesidad de ventilación mecánica invasiva o no, ingreso en la unidad de terapia intensiva y muerte. Conclusión: las complicaciones postoperatorias más reportadas en los estudios evaluados fueron las respiratorias seguidas de las cardiovasculares. Se destaca la importancia del cribado preoperatorio de COVID-19, así como también del monitoreo y seguimiento de los casos confirmados en el postoperatorio, ya que son acciones que reducen la aparición de complicaciones relacionadas con el SARS-CoV-2.


Objetivo: analisar as evidências disponíveis na literatura sobre as complicações pós-operatórias em pacientes adultos submetidos a procedimentos cirúrgicos com infecção confirmada por SARS-CoV-2. Método: revisão integrativa da literatura realizada nas bases de dados CINAHL, EMBASE, LILACS, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science e na literatura cinzenta. As referências identificadas foram exportadas para o gerenciador EndNote e, em seguida, para o aplicativo web Rayyan para a seleção dos estudos. As etapas de amostragem, categorização dos estudos, avaliação dos estudos incluídos, interpretação dos resultados e síntese do conhecimento foram realizadas por dois revisores de forma independente e mascarada. Os dados foram analisados de forma descritiva. Resultados: dos 247 artigos identificados, 15 foram selecionados para compor a presente revisão. As complicações pós-operatórias prevalentes em pacientes infectados com SARS-CoV-2 foram: tosse, dispneia e hipóxia, necessidade de ventilação mecânica invasiva ou não, internação em unidade de terapia intensiva e óbito. Conclusão: destacaram-se, como complicações pós-operatórias mais relatadas nos estudos avaliados, as respiratórias seguidas das cardiovasculares. Ressalta-se a importância da triagem pré-operatória para COVID-19, bem como de acompanhamento e rastreamento de casos confirmados no pós-operatório, por serem ações que impactam na redução da ocorrência de complicações relacionadas ao SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Respiration, Artificial , Perioperative Nursing , Coronavirus Infections , SARS-CoV-2
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