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1.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 72, 2021 02 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1090630

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic is responsible for many hospitalizations in intensive care units (ICU), with widespread use of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) which exposes patients to the risk of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). The characteristics of VAP in COVID-19 patients remain unclear. METHODS: We retrospectively collected data on all patients hospitalized for COVID-19 during the first phase of the epidemic in one of the seven ICUs of the Pays-de-Loire region (North-West France) and who were on invasive mechanical ventilation for more than 48 h. We studied the characteristics of VAP in these patients. VAP was diagnosed based on official recommendations, and we included only cases of VAP that were confirmed by a quantitative microbiological culture. FINDINGS: We analyzed data from 188 patients. Of these patients, 48.9% had VAP and 19.7% experienced multiple episodes. Our study showed an incidence of 39.0 VAP per 1000 days of IMV (until the first VAP episode) and an incidence of 33.7 VAP per 1000 days of IMV (including all 141 episodes of VAP). Multi-microbial VAP accounted for 39.0% of all VAP, and 205 pathogens were identified. Enterobacteria accounted for 49.8% of all the isolated pathogens. Bacteremia was associated in 15 (10.6%) cases of VAP. Pneumonia was complicated by thoracic empyema in five cases (3.5%) and by pulmonary abscess in two cases (1.4%). Males were associated with a higher risk of VAP (sHR 2.24 CI95% [1.18; 4.26] p = 0.013). INTERPRETATION: Our study showed an unusually high incidence of VAP in patients admitted to the ICU for severe COVID-19, even though our services were not inundated during the first wave of the epidemic. We also noted a significant proportion of enterobacteria. VAP-associated complications (abscess, empyema) were not exceptional. REGISTRATION: As an observational study, this study has not been registered.


Subject(s)
/therapy , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/microbiology , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Aged , Female , France/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
2.
Minerva Anestesiol ; 87(2): 144-146, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1089296
4.
JAMA ; 325(3): 254-264, 2021 01 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1086209

ABSTRACT

Importance: It is unknown whether angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) have a positive, neutral, or negative effect on clinical outcomes in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Objective: To determine whether discontinuation compared with continuation of ACEIs or ARBs changed the number of days alive and out of the hospital through 30 days. Design, Setting, and Participants: A randomized clinical trial of 659 patients hospitalized in Brazil with mild to moderate COVID-19 who were taking ACEIs or ARBs prior to hospitalization (enrolled: April 9-June 26, 2020; final follow-up: July 26, 2020). Interventions: Discontinuation (n = 334) or continuation (n = 325) of ACEIs or ARBs. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the number of days alive and out of the hospital through 30 days. Secondary outcomes included death, cardiovascular death, and COVID-19 progression. Results: Among 659 patients, the median age was 55.1 years (interquartile range [IQR], 46.1-65.0 years), 14.7% were aged 70 years or older, 40.4% were women, and 100% completed the trial. The median time from symptom onset to hospital admission was 6 days (IQR, 4-9 days) and 27.2% of patients had an oxygen saturation of less than 94% of room air at baseline. In terms of clinical severity, 57.1% of patients were considered mild at hospital admission and 42.9% were considered moderate. There was no significant difference in the number of days alive and out of the hospital in patients in the discontinuation group (mean, 21.9 days [SD, 8 days]) vs patients in the continuation group (mean, 22.9 days [SD, 7.1 days]) and the mean ratio was 0.95 (95% CI, 0.90-1.01). There also was no statistically significant difference in death (2.7% for the discontinuation group vs 2.8% for the continuation group; odds ratio [OR], 0.97 [95% CI, 0.38-2.52]), cardiovascular death (0.6% vs 0.3%, respectively; OR, 1.95 [95% CI, 0.19-42.12]), or COVID-19 progression (38.3% vs 32.3%; OR, 1.30 [95% CI, 0.95-1.80]). The most common adverse events were respiratory failure requiring invasive mechanical ventilation (9.6% in the discontinuation group vs 7.7% in the continuation group), shock requiring vasopressors (8.4% vs 7.1%, respectively), acute myocardial infarction (7.5% vs 4.6%), new or worsening heart failure (4.2% vs 4.9%), and acute kidney failure requiring hemodialysis (3.3% vs 2.8%). Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients hospitalized with mild to moderate COVID-19 and who were taking ACEIs or ARBs before hospital admission, there was no significant difference in the mean number of days alive and out of the hospital for those assigned to discontinue vs continue these medications. These findings do not support routinely discontinuing ACEIs or ARBs among patients hospitalized with mild to moderate COVID-19 if there is an indication for treatment. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04364893.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Patient Discharge , Withholding Treatment , Aged , /diagnosis , Disease Progression , Female , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Odds Ratio , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Sample Size , Shock/drug therapy , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
6.
BMJ ; 372: n387, 2021 02 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1084501
7.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0246318, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1079358

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Insight into COVID-19 intensive care unit (ICU) patient characteristics, rates and risks of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) and associated outcomes as well as any regional discrepancies is critical in this pandemic for individual case management and overall resource planning. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Electronic searches were performed for reports through May 1 2020 and reports on COVID-19 ICU admissions and outcomes were included using predefined search terms. Relevant data was subsequently extracted and pooled using fixed or random effects meta-analysis depending on heterogeneity. Study quality was assessed by the NIH tool and heterogeneity was assessed by I2 and Q tests. Baseline patient characteristics, ICU and IMV outcomes were pooled and meta-analyzed. Pooled odds ratios (pOR) were calculated for clinical features against ICU, IMV mortality. Subgroup analysis was carried out based on patient regions. A total of twenty-eight studies comprising 12,437 COVID-19 ICU admissions from seven countries were meta-analyzed. Pooled ICU admission rate was 21% [95% CI 0.12-0.34] and 69% of cases needed IMV [95% CI 0.61-0.75]. ICU and IMV mortality were 28.3% [95% CI 0.25-0.32], 43% [95% CI 0.29-0.58] and ICU, IMV duration was 7.78 [95% CI 6.99-8.63] and 10.12 [95% CI 7.08-13.16] days respectively. Besides confirming the significance of comorbidities and clinical findings of COVID-19 previously reported, we found the major correlates with ICU mortality were IMV [pOR 16.46, 95% CI 4.37-61.96], acute kidney injury (AKI) [pOR 12.47, 95% CI 1.52-102.7], and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) [pOR 6.52, 95% CI 2.66-16.01]. Subgroup analyses confirm significant regional discrepancies in outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: This is a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis of COVID-19 ICU and IMV cases and associated outcomes. The significant association of AKI, ARDS and IMV with mortality has implications for ICU resource planning for AKI and ARDS as well as suggesting the need for further research into optimal ventilation strategies for COVID-19 patients in the ICU setting. Regional differences in outcome implies a need to develop region specific protocols for ventilatory support as well as overall treatment.


Subject(s)
/therapy , Respiration, Artificial , /epidemiology , Critical Care/methods , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Risk Assessment , Treatment Outcome
8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 170, 2021 Feb 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1079220

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are limited number of studies with controversial findings regarding the association between anemia at admission and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcomes. Therefore, in this research, we aimed to investigate the prospective association between anemia and COVID-19 outcomes in hospitalized patients in Iran. METHODS: In this prospective study, the data of 1274 consecutive patients hospitalized due to COVID-19 were statistically analyzed. All biomarkers, including hemoglobin and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels were measured using standard methods. Anemia was defined as a hemoglobin (Hb) concentration of less than 13 g/dL and 12 g/dL in males and females, respectively. Assessing the association between anemia and COVID-19 survival in hospitalized patients was our primary endpoint. RESULTS: The mean age of the participants was 64.43 ± 17.16 years, out of whom 615 (48.27%) were anemic subjects. Patients with anemia were significantly older (P = 0.02) and had a higher frequency of cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, kidney disease, diabetes, and cancer (P < 0.05). The frequency of death (anemic: 23.9% vs. nonanemic: 13.8%), ICU admission (anemic: 27.8% vs. nonanemic:14.71%), and ventilator requirement (anemic: 35.93% vs. nonanemic: 20.63%) were significantly higher in anemic patients than in nonanemic patients (P < 0.001). According to the results of regression analysis, after adjusting for significant covariate in the univariable model, anemia was independently associated with mortality (OR: 1.68, 95% CI: 1.10, 2.57, P = 0.01), ventilator requirement (OR: 1.74, 95% CI: 1.19, 2.54, P = 0.004), and the risk of ICU admission (OR: 2.06, 95% CI: 1.46, 2.90, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of anemia in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 was high and was associated with poor outcomes of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anemia/complications , /mortality , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anemia/epidemiology , Female , Hemoglobins/analysis , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Iran , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Rate
9.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 915, 2021 02 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1078584

ABSTRACT

Dexamethasone can reduce mortality in hospitalised COVID-19 patients needing oxygen and ventilation by 18% and 36%, respectively. Here, we estimate the potential number of lives saved and life years gained if this treatment were to be rolled out in the UK and globally, as well as the cost-effectiveness of implementing this intervention. Assuming SARS-CoV-2 exposure levels of 5% to 15%, we estimate that, for the UK, approximately 12,000 (4,250 - 27,000) lives could be saved between July and December 2020. Assuming that dexamethasone has a similar effect size in settings where access to oxygen therapies is limited, this would translate into approximately 650,000 (240,000 - 1,400,000) lives saved globally over the same time period. If dexamethasone acts differently in these settings, the impact could be less than half of this value. To estimate the full potential of dexamethasone in the global fight against COVID-19, it is essential to perform clinical research in settings with limited access to oxygen and/or ventilators, for example in low- and middle-income countries.


Subject(s)
/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , /economics , /therapy , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Dexamethasone/economics , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Quality-Adjusted Life Years , Respiration, Artificial , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Ventilators, Mechanical
10.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e25518, 2021 02 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1076396

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has necessitated the implementation of innovative health care models in preparation for an influx of patients. A virtual ward model delivers clinical care remotely to patients in isolation. We report on an Australian cohort of patients with COVID-19 treated in a virtual ward. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe and evaluate the safety and efficacy of a virtual ward model of care for an Australian cohort of patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Retrospective clinical assessment was performed for 223 patients with confirmed COVID-19 treated in a virtual ward in Brisbane, Australia, from March 25 to May 15, 2020. Statistical analysis was performed for variables associated with the length of stay and hospitalization. RESULTS: Of 223 patients, 205 (92%) recovered without the need for escalation to hospital care. The median length of stay in the virtual ward was 8 days (range 1-44 days). In total, 18 (8%) patients were referred to hospital, of which 6 (33.3%) were discharged after assessment at the emergency department. Furthermore, 12 (5.4%) patients were admitted to hospital, of which 4 (33.3%) required supplemental oxygen and 2 (16.7%) required mechanical ventilation. No deaths were recorded. Factors associated with escalation to hospital care were the following: hypertension (odds ratio [OR] 3.6, 95% CI 1.28-9.87; P=.01), sputum production (OR 5.2, 95% CI 1.74-15.49; P=.001), and arthralgia (OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.21-11.71; P=.02) at illness onset and a polymerase chain reaction cycle threshold of ≤20 on a diagnostic nasopharyngeal swab (OR 5.0, 95% CI 1.25-19.63; P=.02). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that a virtual ward model of care to treat patients with COVID-19 is safe and efficacious, and only a small number of patients would potentially require escalation to hospital care. Further studies are required to validate this model of care.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care/methods , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Patient Isolation , Telemedicine/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Australia , Cohort Studies , Disease Management , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Nursing Assessment , Patient Discharge , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Telephone , Young Adult
11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 163, 2021 Feb 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1076131

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many studies have been published about critically ill coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) during the early phases of the pandemic but the characteristic or survival of critically ill Japanese patients have not yet been investigated. We sought to investigate the characteristics, inflammatory laboratory finding trends, and outcomes among critically ill Japanese patients who were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with the first wave of COVID-19. METHODS: A retrospective observational study was performed in a single institution in the center of Tokyo. Laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients admitted to the ICU from March 19 to April 30, 2020 were included. Trends for significant inflammatory laboratory findings were analyzed. In-hospital death, days of mechanical ventilation or oxygen supplementation, days of ICU or hospital stay were followed until May 26, 2020. RESULTS: Twenty-four patients were included. Median age was 57.5 years, and 79% were male. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio was elevated to a median of 10.1 on admission and peaked on Day 10 of illness. Seventeen patients were intubated on Day 11 of illness and received mechanical ventilation. One patient underwent extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. The majority (88%) received systemic steroids, including 16 patients who received high dose methylprednisolone (500-1000 mg). Favipiravir was used in 38% of patients. Two patients, including 1 who refused intensive care, died. Eighteen patients were discharged. Median length of ICU and hospital stay for all patients was 6 and 22 days, respectively. Median length of ventilator dependency was 7 days. Four patients underwent a tracheostomy and received prolonged ventilation for more than 21 days. One patient receiving mechanical ventilation died. All survivors discontinued ventilator use. CONCLUSIONS: Mortality was remarkably low in our single institutional study. Three survivors received mechanical ventilation for more than 3 weeks. Trends of clinically significant laboratory markers reflected the clinical course of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
/physiopathology , /therapy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , /mortality , Critical Illness , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay , Leukocyte Count , Male , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Tokyo
12.
Int J Rehabil Res ; 44(1): 77-81, 2021 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1075674

ABSTRACT

In this case series study, we aimed to evaluate the feasibility of a subacute rehabilitation program for mechanically ventilated patients with severe consequences of COVID-19 infection. Data were retrospectively collected from seven males (age 37-61 years) who were referred for inpatient rehabilitation following the stay in the ICU (14-22 days). On admission, six patients were still supported by mechanical ventilation. All patients were first placed in isolation in a special COVID unit for 6-22 days. Patients attended 11-24 treatment sessions for the duration of rehabilitation stay (13-27 days), including 6-20 sessions in the COVID unit. The treatment included pulmonary and physical rehabilitation. The initially nonventilated patient was discharged prematurely due to gallbladder problems, whereas all six mechanically ventilated patients were successfully weaned off before transfer to a COVID-free unit where they stayed for 7-19 days. At discharge, all patients increased limb muscle strength and thigh circumference, reduced activity-related dyspnea, regained functional independence and reported better quality of life. Rehabilitation plays a vital role in the recovery of seriously ill post-COVID-19 patients. Facilities should develop and implement plans for providing multidisciplinary rehabilitation treatments in various settings to recover functioning and prevent the development of long-term consequences of the COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
/rehabilitation , Respiration, Artificial , /rehabilitation , Adult , Feasibility Studies , Humans , Inpatients , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Discharge , Physical Therapy Modalities , Quality of Life , Retrospective Studies , Ventilator Weaning
13.
Ann R Coll Surg Engl ; 103(2): e44-e47, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1073076

ABSTRACT

Surgical tracheostomy is a high aerosol-generating procedure that is an essential aid to the recovery of patients who are critically ill with COVID-19 pneumonia. We present a single-centre case series of 16 patients with COVID-19 pneumonia who underwent tracheostomy. We recommend that the patient selection criteria for achieving a favourable outcome should be based on fraction of inspired oxygen together with prone-position ventilation. As with any challenging situation, the importance of effective communication is paramount. The critical modifications in the surgical steps are clearly explained. Timely tracheostomy also leads to an earlier freeing up of ventilator space during a period of a rapidly escalating pandemic. The outcomes in terms of swallow and speech function were also assessed. The study has also helped to remove the anxiety around open a tracheostomy in patients who are COVID-19 positive.


Subject(s)
/therapy , Tracheostomy/methods , Adult , Aged , Airway Extubation , /transmission , Female , Humans , Infection Control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Male , Middle Aged , Personal Protective Equipment , Respiration, Artificial , Treatment Outcome
14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 3343, 2021 02 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1072174

ABSTRACT

The new coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a challenge for clinical decision-making and the effective allocation of healthcare resources. An accurate prognostic assessment is necessary to improve survival of patients, especially in developing countries. This study proposes to predict the risk of developing critical conditions in COVID-19 patients by training multipurpose algorithms. We followed a total of 1040 patients with a positive RT-PCR diagnosis for COVID-19 from a large hospital from São Paulo, Brazil, from March to June 2020, of which 288 (28%) presented a severe prognosis, i.e. Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission, use of mechanical ventilation or death. We used routinely-collected laboratory, clinical and demographic data to train five machine learning algorithms (artificial neural networks, extra trees, random forests, catboost, and extreme gradient boosting). We used a random sample of 70% of patients to train the algorithms and 30% were left for performance assessment, simulating new unseen data. In order to assess if the algorithms could capture general severe prognostic patterns, each model was trained by combining two out of three outcomes to predict the other. All algorithms presented very high predictive performance (average AUROC of 0.92, sensitivity of 0.92, and specificity of 0.82). The three most important variables for the multipurpose algorithms were ratio of lymphocyte per C-reactive protein, C-reactive protein and Braden Scale. The results highlight the possibility that machine learning algorithms are able to predict unspecific negative COVID-19 outcomes from routinely-collected data.


Subject(s)
/diagnosis , Computational Biology/methods , Machine Learning , /genetics , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Algorithms , Brazil/epidemiology , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , /virology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Respiration, Artificial , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
15.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0246590, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1069629

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 complications can include neurological, psychiatric, psychological, and psychosocial impairments. Little is known on the consequences of SARS-COV-2 on cognitive functions of patients in the sub-acute phase of the disease. We aimed to investigate the impact of COVID-19 on cognitive functions of patients admitted to the COVID-19 Rehabilitation Unit of the San Raffaele Hospital (Milan, Italy). MATERIAL AND METHODS: 87 patients admitted to the COVID-19 Rehabilitation Unit from March 27th to June 20th 2020 were included. Patients underwent Mini Mental State Evaluation (MMSE), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, and Functional Independence Measure (FIM). Data were divided in 4 groups according to the respiratory assistance in the acute phase: Group1 (orotracheal intubation), Group2 (non-invasive ventilation using Biphasic Positive Airway Pressure), Group3 (Venturi Masks), Group4 (no oxygen therapy). Follow-ups were performed at one month after home-discharge. RESULTS: Out of the 87 patients (62 Male, mean age 67.23 ± 12.89 years), 80% had neuropsychological deficits (MoCA and MMSE) and 40% showed mild-to-moderate depression. Group1 had higher scores than Group3 for visuospatial/executive functions (p = 0.016), naming (p = 0.024), short- and long-term memory (p = 0.010, p = 0.005), abstraction (p = 0.024), and orientation (p = 0.034). Group1 was younger than Groups2 and 3. Cognitive impairments correlated with patients' age. Only 18 patients presented with anosmia. Their data did not differ from the other patients. FIM (<100) did not differ between groups. Patients partly recovered at one-month follow-up and 43% showed signs of post-traumatic stress disorder. CONCLUSION: Patients with severe functional impairments had important cognitive and emotional deficits which might have been influenced by the choice of ventilatory therapy, but mostly appeared to be related to aging, independently of FIM scores. These findings should be integrated for correct neuropsychiatric assistance of COVID-19 patients in the subacute phase of the disease, and show the need for long-term psychological support and treatment of post-COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
/complications , Cognition Disorders/virology , Respiration, Artificial , Aged , /virology , Cognition Disorders/psychology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Mental Status and Dementia Tests , Middle Aged , Neuropsychological Tests , /physiology
16.
Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med ; 29(1): 30, 2021 Feb 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1069576

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), an emerging virus, has caused a global pandemic. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by SARS-CoV-2, has led to high hospitalization rates worldwide. Little is known about the occurrence of in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) and high mortality rates have been proposed. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence, characteristics and outcome of IHCA during the pandemic in comparison to an earlier period. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of data prospectively recorded during 3-month-periods 2019 and 2020 at the University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany). All consecutive adult patients with IHCA were included. Clinical parameters, neurological outcomes and organ failure/support were assessed. RESULTS: During the study period hospital admissions declined from 18,262 (2019) to 13,994 (2020) (- 23%). The IHCA incidence increased from 4.6 (2019: 84 IHCA cases) to 6.6 (2020: 93 IHCA cases)/1000 hospital admissions. Median stay before IHCA was 4 (1-9) days. Demographic characteristics were comparable in both periods. IHCA location shifted towards the ICU (56% vs 37%, p < 0.01); shockable rhythm (VT/VF) (18% vs 29%, p = 0.05) and defibrillation were more frequent in the pandemic period (20% vs 35%, p < 0.05). Resuscitation times, rates of ROSC and post-CA characteristics were comparable in both periods. The severity of illness (SAPS II/SOFA), frequency of mechanical ventilation and frequency of vasopressor therapy after IHCA were higher during the 2020 period. Overall, 43 patients (12 with & 31 without COVID-19), presented with respiratory failure at the time of IHCA. The Horowitz index and resuscitation time were significantly lower in patients with COVID-19 (each p < 0.01). Favourable outcomes were observed in 42 and 10% of patients with and without COVID-19-related respiratory failure, respectively. CONCLUSION: Hospital admissions declined during the pandemic, but a higher incidence of IHCA was observed. IHCA in patients with COVID-19 was a common finding. Compared to patients with non-COVID-19-related respiratory failure, the outcome was improved.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Heart Arrest/epidemiology , Aged , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/statistics & numerical data , Cohort Studies , Drug Utilization/trends , Electric Countershock/trends , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Heart Arrest/therapy , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Pandemics , Patient Admission/trends , Respiration, Artificial/trends , Respiratory Insufficiency/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Vasoconstrictor Agents/therapeutic use
17.
Rev Esp Quimioter ; 34(1): 33-43, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1068346

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of corticosteroids on inflammatory and respiratory parameters of patients with COVID-19 and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). METHODS: Longitudinal, retrospective, observational study conducted in an ICU of a second level hospital. Adult patients with COVID-19 were included. Baseline characteristics, data on SARS-CoV-2 infection, treatment received, evolution of respiratory and inflammatory parameters, and ICU and hospital stay and mortality were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 27 patients were included, 63% men, median age: 68.4 (51.8, 72.2) years. All patients met ARDS criteria and received MV and corticosteroids. After corticosteroids treatment we observed a reduction in the O2 A-a gradient [day 0: 322 (249, 425); day 3: 169 (129.5, 239.5) p<0.001; day 5: 144 (127.5, 228.0) p<0.001; day 7: 192 (120, 261) p=0.002] and an increase in the pO2/FiO2 ratio on days 3 and 5, but not on day 7 [day 0: 129 (100, 168); day 3: 193 (140, 236) p=0.002; day 5: 183 (141, 255) p=0.004; day 7: 170 (116, 251) p=0.057]. CRP also decreased on days 3 and 5 and increased again on day 7 [day 0: 16 (8.6, 24); day 3: 3.4 (1.7, 10.2) p<0.001; day 5: 4.1 (1.4, 10.2) p<0.001; day 7: 13.5 (6.8, 17.3) p=0.063]. Persistence of moderate ARDS on day 7 was related to a greater risk of poor outcome (OR 6.417 [1.091-37.735], p=0.040). CONCLUSIONS: Corticosteroids appears to reduce the inflammation and temporarily improve the oxygenation in COVID-19 and ARDS patients. Persistence of ARDS after 7 days treatment is a predictor of poor outcome.


Subject(s)
/drug therapy , Oxygen Consumption/drug effects , /drug therapy , Aged , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen Consumption/physiology , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Secondary Care Centers , Spain , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
18.
Hepatol Int ; 15(1): 202-212, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064606

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infection with SARS-CoV-2 has been associated with liver dysfunction, aggravation of liver burden, and liver injury. This study aimed to assess the effects of liver injuries on the clinical outcomes of patients with COVID-19. METHODS: A total of 1520 patients with severe or critical COVID-19 from Huoshenshan Hospital, Wuhan, were enrolled. Chronic liver disease (CLD) was confirmed by consensus diagnostic criteria. Laboratory test results were compared between different groups. scRNA-seq data and bulk gene expression profiles were used to identify cell types associated with liver injury. RESULTS: A total of 10.98% of patients with severe or critical COVID-19 developed liver injury after admission that was associated with significantly higher rates of mortality (21.74%, p < 0.001) and intensive care unit admission (26.71%, p < 0.001). Pre-existing CLDs were not associated with a higher risk. However, fatty liver disease and cirrhosis were associated with higher risks, supported by evidences from single cell and bulk transcriptome analysis that showed more TMPRSS2+ cells in these tissues. By generating a model, we were able to predict the risk and severity of liver injury during hospitalization. CONCLUSION: We demonstrate that liver injury occurring during therapy as well as pre-existing CLDs like fatty liver disease and cirrhosis in patients with COVID-19 is significantly associated with the severity of disease and mortality, but the presence of other CLD is not associated. We provide a risk-score model that can predict whether patients with COVID-19 will develop liver injury or proceed to higher-risk stages during subsequent hospitalizations.


Subject(s)
/complications , Liver Diseases/diagnosis , Liver Diseases/virology , Adult , Aged , China , Critical Care , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Liver Diseases/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Respiration, Artificial , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Rate
19.
Respiration ; 100(1): 27-33, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064198

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Bronchoscopic sampling of bronchoalveolar fluid (BAL) should be safe and effective. Current sampling practice risks loss of sample to the attached negative flow, aerosolisation, or spillage, due to repeated circuit breaks, when replacing sample containers. Such concerns were highlighted during the recent coronavirus pandemic. OBJECTIVES: Evaluation of an alternative integrated sampling solution, with the Ambu Bronchosampler with aScope 4, by an experienced bronchoscopist in ICU. METHODS: An observational study of 20 sequential bronchoscopic diagnostic sampling procedures was performed on mechanically ventilated patients with suspected ventilator-associated pneumonia. Mixed methods assessment was done. The predefined outcome measures were (1) ease of set up, (2) ease of specimen collection, (3) ease of protecting specimen from loss or spillage, and (4) overall workflow. The duration of the procedure and the % volume of sample retrieved were recorded. RESULTS: The mean (±standard deviation [SD]) time for collecting 1 sample was 2.5 ± 0.8 min. The mean (±SD) specimen yield for instilled miniBAL was 54.2 ± 17.9%. Compared with standard sampling, the set-up was much easier in 18 (90%), or easier in 2 (10%) of procedures, reducing the connection steps. It was much more intuitive to use in 14 (70%), more intuitive in 4 (20%), and no more intuitive to use in 2 (10%). The overall set-up and workflow was much easier in 69% of the 13 intraprocedural connections and easier or as easy in the remaining 31% procedures. All procedures where pre connection was established were much easier (7, 100%). The Ambu Bronchosampler remained upright in all procedures with no loss or spillage of sample. Obtaining a sample was much easier in 60%, easier in 10%, no different in 20%, and worse in 10%. The ability to protect a sample from start to finish compared to standard procedures was much easier in 80%, easier in 15%, and no different in 5% of procedures. Overall workflow was much easier in 14 (70%), easier in 4 (20%), and no different in 2 (10%) of procedures. CONCLUSIONS: The Ambu Bronchosampler unit was a reliable, effective, and possibly safer technique for diagnostic sampling in ICU. It may improve safety standards during the coronavirus pandemic. A randomized control trial against the standard sampling technique is warranted.


Subject(s)
Bronchoscopes , Bronchoscopy/methods , Disposable Equipment , Respiration, Artificial , Specimen Handling/methods , Bronchoalveolar Lavage/instrumentation , Bronchoalveolar Lavage/methods , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Bronchoscopy/instrumentation , /transmission , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Patient Isolators , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/diagnosis , Risk Assessment
20.
Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 19(6): 570-588, 2020 Dec 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1068115

ABSTRACT

The prevalence of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) has increased since the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic started. This study was aimed to describe clinical manifestation and outcomes of MIS-C associated with COVID-19. This systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted on all available literature until July 3rd, 2020. The screening was done by using the following keywords: ("novel coronavirus" Or COVID-19 or severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) or coronavirus) and ("MIS-C" or "multisystem inflammatory" or Kawasaki). Data on gender, ethnicity, clinical presentations, need for mechanical ventilation or admission to intensive care unit (ICU), imaging, cardiac complications, and COVID-19 laboratory results were extracted to measure the pooled estimates. Out of 314 found articles, 16 articles with a total of 600 patients were included in the study, the most common presentation was fever (97%), followed by gastrointestinal symptoms (80%), and skin rashes (60%) as well as shock (55%), conjunctivitis (54%), and respiratory symptoms (39%). Less common presentations were neurologic problems (33%), and skin desquamation (30%), MIS-C was slightly more prevalent in males (53.7%) compared to females (46.3%). The findings of this meta-analysis on current evidence found that the common clinical presentations of COVID-19 associated MIS-C include a combination of fever and mucocutaneous involvements, similar to atypical Kawasaki disease, and multiple organ dysfunction. Due to the relatively higher morbidity and mortality rate, it is very important to diagnose this condition promptly.


Subject(s)
/physiopathology , Conjunctivitis/physiopathology , Exanthema/physiopathology , Fever/physiopathology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/physiopathology , Shock/physiopathology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/physiopathology , Abdominal Pain/physiopathology , Acute Kidney Injury/physiopathology , /therapy , Cheilitis/physiopathology , Cough/physiopathology , Diarrhea/physiopathology , Dyspnea/physiopathology , Headache/physiopathology , Humans , Meningism/physiopathology , Myalgia/epidemiology , Prognosis , Respiration, Artificial , Sex Distribution , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Vomiting/physiopathology
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