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2.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(5): 1765-1769, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1754186

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Few data are available on the ICU management and on the possible respiratory complications of invasively ventilated pregnant patients affected by COVID-19 pneumonia, especially in the early phase of pregnancy. Tension pneumothorax has been previously described as a rare cause of respiratory failure after delivery, but its occurrence in the postpartum of COVID-19 patient has not been reported yet. We hereby describe the ICU management of a 23rd gestational week pregnant woman who underwent invasive mechanical ventilation, prone positioning, and cesarean delivery during her ICU stay for COVID-19 related pneumonia. Moreover, we focused on the occurrence and management of recurrent tension pneumothorax after the cesarean delivery. CASE REPORT: A 23rd gestational week pregnant woman was admitted to the ICU for a COVID-19 bilateral pneumonia and underwent invasive mechanical ventilation and prone positioning. Cesarean delivery was planned during the ICU stay, while the patient was receiving invasive mechanical ventilation. After delivery, the patient experienced a recurrent pneumothorax that required the positioning of multiple chest drains. CONCLUSIONS: In pregnant critically ill COVID-19 patients, mechanical ventilation management is particularly challenging, especially in the postpartum period. Prone positioning is feasible and can improve oxygenation and respiratory system compliance, while tension pneumothorax must be suspected if the respiratory function suddenly deteriorates after delivery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cesarean Section , Critical Illness , Pneumothorax/etiology , Postoperative Complications/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Adult , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Postoperative Complications/diagnostic imaging , Pregnancy , Prone Position , Recurrence , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Treatment Outcome
3.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(10): e82, 2022 Mar 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742200

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) resulted in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. COVID-19 can result in fatal comorbidities, including acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Several reports suggest that children have milder illness, though severe cases have still been reported. We report a 9-year-old boy with ARDS caused by the SARS-CoV-2 delta (B.1.617.2) variant. He was admitted to our hospital and carefully observed due to underlying Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. He developed intractable seizures with a high fever. Although the seizures were controlled, his respiratory condition deteriorated to severe ARDS. High-dose methylprednisolone was administered with high positive end-expiratory pressure and low tidal volume. After ARDS treatment, oxygenation improved sufficiently to permit extubation. This case suggests that close observation is required in pediatric patients with neurologic comorbidities because of an increased risk for severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Lennox Gastaut Syndrome/complications , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/virology , Child , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Methylprednisolone/administration & dosage , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnostic imaging
4.
Ultrasound Med Biol ; 48(5): 945-953, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740249

ABSTRACT

Recent research has revealed that COVID-19 pneumonia is often accompanied by pulmonary edema. Pulmonary edema is a manifestation of acute lung injury (ALI), and may progress to hypoxemia and potentially acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), which have higher mortality. Precise classification of the degree of pulmonary edema in patients is of great significance in choosing a treatment plan and improving the chance of survival. Here we propose a deep learning neural network named Non-local Channel Attention ResNet to analyze the lung ultrasound images and automatically score the degree of pulmonary edema of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. The proposed method was designed by combining the ResNet with the non-local module and the channel attention mechanism. The non-local module was used to extract the information on characteristics of A-lines and B-lines, on the basis of which the degree of pulmonary edema could be defined. The channel attention mechanism was used to assign weights to decisive channels. The data set contains 2220 lung ultrasound images provided by Huoshenshan Hospital, Wuhan, China, of which 2062 effective images with accurate scores assigned by two experienced clinicians were used in the experiment. The experimental results indicated that our method achieved high accuracy in classifying the degree of pulmonary edema in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia by comparison with previous deep learning methods, indicating its potential to monitor patients with COVID-19 pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Edema , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Edema/complications , Pulmonary Edema/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/complications , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography
5.
Radiol Med ; 127(4): 369-382, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739408

ABSTRACT

During the coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has been proposed as a possible therapy for COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. This pictorial review is intended to provide radiologists with up-to-date information regarding different types of ECMO devices, correct placement of ECMO cannulae, and imaging features of potential complications and disease evolution in COVID-19 patients treated with ECMO, which is essential for a correct interpretation of diagnostic imaging, so as to guide proper patient management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Humans , Radiologists , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
6.
BMC Pulm Med ; 22(1): 71, 2022 Feb 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1698249

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Prone positioning enables the redistribution of lung weight, leading to the improvement of gas exchange and respiratory mechanics. We aimed to evaluate whether the initial findings of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) on computed tomography (CT) are associated with the subsequent response to prone positioning in terms of oxygenation and 60-day mortality. METHODS: We retrospectively included patients who underwent prone positioning for moderate to severe ARDS from October 2014 to November 2020 at a medical center in Taiwan. A semiquantitative CT rating scale was used to quantify the extent of consolidation and ground-glass opacification (GGO) in the sternal, central and vertebral regions at three levels (apex, hilum and base) of the lungs. A prone responder was identified by a 20% increase in the ratio of arterial oxygen pressure (PaO2) to the fraction of oxygen (FiO2) or a 20 mmHg increase in PaO2. RESULTS: Ninety-six patients were included, of whom 68 (70.8%) were responders. Compared with nonresponders, responders had a significantly greater median dorsal-ventral difference in CT-consolidation scores (10 vs. 7, p = 0.046) but not in CT-GGO scores (- 1 vs. - 1, p = 0.974). Although dorsal-ventral differences in neither CT-consolidation scores nor CT-GGO scores were associated with 60-day mortality, high total CT-GGO scores (≥ 15) were an independent factor associated with 60-day mortality (odds ratio = 4.07, 95% confidence interval, 1.39-11.89, p = 0.010). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with moderate to severe ARDS, a greater difference in the extent of consolidation along the dependent-independent axis on CT scan is associated with subsequent prone positioning oxygenation response, but not clinical outcome regarding survival. High total CT-GGO scores were independently associated with 60-day mortality.


Subject(s)
Pulmonary Gas Exchange , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , Prognosis , Prone Position/physiology , Pulmonary Gas Exchange/physiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
7.
BMC Pulm Med ; 22(1): 52, 2022 Feb 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690928

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has inflicted the world for over two years. The recent mutant virus strains pose greater challenges to disease prevention and treatment. COVID-19 can cause acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and extrapulmonary injury. Dynamic monitoring of each patient's condition is necessary to timely tailor treatments, improve prognosis and reduce mortality. Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) is broadly used in patients with ARDS. POCUS is recommended to be performed regularly in COVID-19 patients for respiratory failure management. In this review, we summarized the ultrasound characteristics of COVID-19 patients, mainly focusing on lung ultrasound and echocardiography. Furthermore, we also provided the experience of using POCUS to manage COVID-19-related ARDS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Echocardiography , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Point-of-Care Testing , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory Therapy/methods , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology
8.
J Card Surg ; 37(4): 1059-1062, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1642715

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) causes a small proportion of patients to be admitted to intensive care units, where they sometimes require extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). The literature on pregnant women with COVID-19 who require ECMO is sparse. CASE REPORT: We describe here the earliest-fetal-age pregnant patient with COVID-19 who underwent ECMO yet reported, who kept her child while under close follow-up with magnetic resonance imagery and ultrasound. CONCLUSION: The management of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in pregnant women, including ARDS secondary to COVID-19 and those cases which are not eligible for fetal delivery, may benefit from the assistance of ECMO even in the early pregnancy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Contraindications , Female , Gestational Age , Humans , Pregnancy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Curr Opin Crit Care ; 28(1): 17-24, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550613

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to explore the different imaging modalities, such as chest radiography (CXR), computed tomography (CT), ultrasound, PET/CT scan, and MRI to describe the main features for the evaluation of the chest in COVID-19 patients with ARDS. RECENT FINDINGS: This article includes a systematic literature search, evidencing the different chest imaging modalities used in patients with ARDS from COVID-19. Literature evidences different possible approaches going from the conventional CXR and CT to the LUS, MRI, and PET/CT. SUMMARY: CT is the technique with higher sensitivity and definition for studying chest in COVID-19 patients. LUS or bedside CXR are critical in patients requiring close and repeated monitoring. Moreover, LUS and CXR reduce the radiation burden and the risk of infection compared with CT. PET/CT and MRI, especially in ARDS patients, are not usually used for diagnostic or follow-up purposes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Respiratory Insufficiency , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Ultrasonography
10.
Cell ; 184(26): 6243-6261.e27, 2021 12 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1536467

ABSTRACT

COVID-19-induced "acute respiratory distress syndrome" (ARDS) is associated with prolonged respiratory failure and high mortality, but the mechanistic basis of lung injury remains incompletely understood. Here, we analyze pulmonary immune responses and lung pathology in two cohorts of patients with COVID-19 ARDS using functional single-cell genomics, immunohistology, and electron microscopy. We describe an accumulation of CD163-expressing monocyte-derived macrophages that acquired a profibrotic transcriptional phenotype during COVID-19 ARDS. Gene set enrichment and computational data integration revealed a significant similarity between COVID-19-associated macrophages and profibrotic macrophage populations identified in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. COVID-19 ARDS was associated with clinical, radiographic, histopathological, and ultrastructural hallmarks of pulmonary fibrosis. Exposure of human monocytes to SARS-CoV-2, but not influenza A virus or viral RNA analogs, was sufficient to induce a similar profibrotic phenotype in vitro. In conclusion, we demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 triggers profibrotic macrophage responses and pronounced fibroproliferative ARDS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/pathology , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/virology , Macrophages/pathology , Macrophages/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Antigens, CD/metabolism , Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic/metabolism , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Cell Communication , Cohort Studies , Fibroblasts/pathology , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/diagnostic imaging , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/genetics , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/pathology , Phenotype , Proteome/metabolism , Receptors, Cell Surface/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/pathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Transcription, Genetic
11.
Acta Anaesthesiol Scand ; 66(2): 223-231, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511269

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 acute respiratory distress syndrome (COVID-19 ARDS) is a disease that often requires invasive ventilation. Little is known about COVID-19 ARDS sequelae. We assessed the mid-term lung status of COVID-19 survivors and investigated factors associated with pulmonary sequelae. METHODS: All adult COVID-19 patients admitted to the intensive care unit from 25th February to 27th April 2020 were included. Lung function was evaluated through chest CT scan and pulmonary function tests (PFT). Logistic regression was used to identify predictors of persisting lung alterations. RESULTS: Forty-nine patients (75%) completed lung assessment. Chest CT scan was performed after a median (interquartile range) time of 97 (89-105) days, whilst PFT after 142 (133-160) days. The median age was 58 (52-65) years and most patients were male (90%). The median duration of mechanical ventilation was 11 (6-16) days. Median tidal volume/ideal body weight (TV/IBW) was 6.8 (5.71-7.67) ml/Kg. 59% and 63% of patients showed radiological and functional lung sequelae, respectively. The diffusion capacity of carbon monoxide (DLCO ) was reduced by 59%, with a median per cent of predicted DLCO of 72.1 (57.9-93.9) %. Mean TV/IBW during invasive ventilation emerged as an independent predictor of persistent CT scan abnormalities, whilst the duration of mechanical ventilation was an independent predictor of both CT and PFT abnormalities. The extension of lung involvement at hospital admission (evaluated through Radiographic Assessment of Lung Edema, RALE score) independently predicted the risk of persistent alterations in PFTs. CONCLUSIONS: Both the extent of lung parenchymal involvement and mechanical ventilation protocols predict morphological and functional lung abnormalities months after COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Adult , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Survivors
12.
Emerg Radiol ; 29(1): 23-34, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482230

ABSTRACT

The first cluster of cases of COVID-19 pneumonia was reported on December 31, 2019. Since then, this disease has spread rapidly across the world, and as of September 17, 2021, there are 226,844,344 cases of COVID-19 worldwide with 4,666,334 deaths related to COVID-19. While most COVID-19 cases are mild, some cases are severe with patients developing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The pathophysiology of ARDS includes damage to the alveolar epithelium that leads to increased permeability of the alveolar epithelial barrier causing hyaline membrane formation, interstitial edema, and alveolar edema that results in severe hypoxia. Patients with COVID-19 ARDS are supported by non-invasive or invasive mechanical ventilation with an aim to improve oxygenation and maintain adequate blood oxygen levels. Increased intra-alveolar pressure while on mechanical ventilation may lead to alveolar rupture and thus barotrauma-related injuries such as lung tension cysts, pulmonary interstitial emphysema (PIE), pneumomediastinum, pneumopericardium, and pneumothorax. Recent studies have shown that the rate of barotrauma-related events is higher in patients with COVID-19 ARDS compared to patients with ARDS secondary to other etiologies. Radiologists should be aware of the imaging features of COVID-19 ARDS as well as the complications of mechanical ventilation. This educational manuscript will review the features of COVID-19 ARDS, discuss imaging of patients on mechanical ventilation, and review the imaging features of complications related to mechanical ventilation, including ventilator-associated lung injuries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
14.
J Thorac Imaging ; 36(5): 286-293, 2021 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440700

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Patients with novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) frequently develop acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and need invasive ventilation. The potential to reaerate consolidated lung tissue in COVID-19-related ARDS is heavily debated. This study assessed the potential to reaerate lung consolidations in patients with COVID-19-related ARDS under invasive ventilation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of patients with COVID-19-related ARDS who underwent chest computed tomography (CT) at low positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and after a recruitment maneuver at high PEEP of 20 cm H2O. Lung reaeration, volume, and weight were calculated using both CT scans. CT scans were performed after intubation and start of ventilation (early CT), or after several days of intensive care unit admission (late CT). RESULTS: Twenty-eight patients were analyzed. The median percentages of reaerated and nonaerated lung tissue were 19% [interquartile range, IQR: 10 to 33] and 11% [IQR: 4 to 15] for patients with early and late CT scans, respectively (P=0.049). End-expiratory lung volume showed a median increase of 663 mL [IQR: 483 to 865] and 574 mL [IQR: 292 to 670] after recruitment for patients with early and late CT scans, respectively (P=0.43). The median decrease in lung weight attributed to nonaerated lung tissue was 229 g [IQR: 165 to 376] and 171 g [IQR: 81 to 229] after recruitment for patients with early and late CT scans, respectively (P=0.16). CONCLUSIONS: The majority of patients with COVID-19-related ARDS undergoing invasive ventilation had substantial reaeration of lung consolidations after recruitment and ventilation at high PEEP. Higher PEEP can be considered in patients with reaerated lung consolidations when accompanied by improvement in compliance and gas exchange.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Positive-Pressure Respiration , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
15.
Ther Adv Respir Dis ; 15: 17534666211042533, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440885

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to assess the effect of a short-term treatment with low-moderate corticosteroid (CS) doses by both a quantitative and qualitative assessment of chest HRCT of COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS: CORTICOVID is a single-center, cross-sectional, retrospective study involving severe/critical COVID-19 patients with mild/moderate ARDS. Lung total severity score was obtained according to Chung and colleagues. Moreover, the relative percentages of lung total severity score by ground glass opacities, consolidations, crazy paving, and linear bands were computed. Chest HRCT scores, P/F ratio, and laboratory parameters were evaluated before (pre-CS) and 7-10 days after (post-CS) methylprednisolone of 0.5-0.8 mg/kg/day. FINDINGS: A total of 34 severe/critical COVID-19 patients were included in the study, of which 17 received Standard of Care (SoC) and 17 CS therapy in add-on. CS treatment disclosed a significant decrease in HRCT total severity score [median = 6 (IQR: 5-7.5) versus 10 (IQR: 9-13) in SoC, p < 0.001], as well in single consolidations [median = 0.33 (IQR: 0-0.92) versus 6.73 (IQR: 2.49-8.03) in SoC, p < 0.001] and crazy paving scores [mean = 0.19 (SD = 0.53) versus 1.79 (SD = 2.71) in SoC, p = 0.010], along with a significant increase in linear bands [mean = 2.56 (SD = 1.65) versus 0.97 (SD = 1.30) in SoC, p = 0.006]. GGO score instead did not significantly differ at the end of treatment between the two groups. Most post-CS GGO, however, derived from previous consolidations and crazy paving [median = 1.5 (0.35-3.81) versus 2 (1.25-3.8) pre-CS; p = 0.579], while pre-CS GGO significantly decreased after methylprednisolone therapy [median = 0.66 (0.05-1.33) versus 1.5 (0.35-3.81) pre-CS; p = 0.004]. CS therapy further determined a significant improvement in P/F levels [median P/F = 310 (IQR: 235.5-370) versus 136 (IQR: 98.5-211.75) in SoC; p < 0.001], and a significant increase in white blood cells, lymphocytes, and neutrophils absolute values. CONCLUSION: The improvement of all chest HRCT findings further supports the role of CS adjunctive therapy in severe/critical COVID-19 pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Methylprednisolone/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/drug therapy , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
16.
Nutrition ; 91-92: 111449, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440280

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Severe forms of the novel coronavirus-19 (COVID-19) are associated with systemic inflammation and hypercatabolism. The aims of this study were to compare the time course of the size and quality of both rectus femoris and diaphragm muscles between critically ill, COVID-19 survivors and non-survivors and to explore the correlation between the change in muscles size and quality with the amount of nutritional support delivered and the cumulative fluid balance. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study in the general intensive care unit (ICU) of a tertiary care hospital for COVID-19. The right rectus femoris cross-sectional area and the right diaphragm thickness, as well as their echo densities were assessed within 24 h from ICU admission and on day 7. We recorded anthropometric and biochemical data, respiratory mechanics and gas exchange, daily fluid balance, and the number of calories and proteins administered. RESULTS: Twenty-eight patients were analyzed (65 ± 10 y of age; 80% men, body mass index 30 ± 7.8 kg/m2). Rectus femoris and diaphragm sizes were significantly reduced at day 7 (median = -26.1 [interquartile ratio [IQR], = -37.8 to -15.2] and -29.2% [-37.8% to -19.6%], respectively) and this reduction was significantly higher in non-survivors. Both rectus femoris and diaphragm echo density were significantly increased at day 7, with a significantly higher increase in non-survivors. The change in both rectus femoris and diaphragm size at day 7 was related to the cumulative protein deficit (R = 0.664, P < 0.001 and R = 0.640, P < 0.001, respectively), whereas the change in rectus femoris and diaphragm echo density was related to the cumulative fluid balance (R = 0.734, P < 0.001 and R = 0.646, P < 0.001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Early changes in muscle size and quality seem related to the outcome of critically ill COVID-19 patients, and to be influenced by nutritional and fluid management strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Male , Quadriceps Muscle/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Ultrasonography
17.
J Crit Care ; 67: 14-20, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440170

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Severe cases of coronavirus disease 2019 develop ARDS requiring admission to the ICU. This study aimed to investigate the ultrasound characteristics of respiratory and peripheral muscles of patients affected by COVID19 who require mechanical ventilation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a prospective observational study. We performed muscle ultrasound at the admission of ICU in 32 intubated patients with ARDS COVID19. The ultrasound was comprehensive of thickness and echogenicity of both parasternal intercostal and diaphragm muscles, and cross-sectional area and echogenicity of the rectus femoris. RESULTS: Patients who survived showed a significantly lower echogenicity score as compared with those who did not survive for both parasternal intercostal muscles. Similarly, the diaphragmatic echogenicity was significantly different between alive or dead patients. There was a significant correlation between right parasternal intercostal or diaphragm echogenicity and the cumulative fluid balance and urine protein output. Similar results were detected for rectus femoris echogenicity. CONCLUSIONS: The early changes detected by echogenicity ultrasound suggest a potential benefit of proactive early therapies designed to preserve respiratory and peripheral muscle architecture to reduce days on MV, although what constitutes a clinically significant change in muscle echogenicity remains unknown.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Ultrasonography
18.
IEEE J Biomed Health Inform ; 25(11): 4128-4139, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1352392

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 has infected over ∼165 million people worldwide causing Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) and has killed ∼3.4 million people. Artificial Intelligence (AI) has shown to benefit in the biomedical image such as X-ray/Computed Tomography in diagnosis of ARDS, but there are limited AI-based systematic reviews (aiSR). The purpose of this study is to understand the Risk-of-Bias (RoB) in a non-randomized AI trial for handling ARDS using novel AtheroPoint-AI-Bias (AP(ai)Bias). Our hypothesis for acceptance of a study to be in low RoB must have a mean score of 80% in a study. Using the PRISMA model, 42 best AI studies were analyzed to understand the RoB. Using the AP(ai)Bias paradigm, the top 19 studies were then chosen using the raw-cutoff of 1.9. This was obtained using the intersection of the cumulative plot of "mean score vs. study" and score distribution. Finally, these studies were benchmarked against ROBINS-I and PROBAST paradigm. Our observation showed that AP(ai)Bias, ROBINS-I, and PROBAST had only 32%, 16%, and 26% studies, respectively in low-moderate RoB (cutoff>2.5), however none of them met the RoB hypothesis. Further, the aiSR analysis recommends six primary and six secondary recommendations for the non-randomized AI for ARDS. The primary recommendations for improvement in AI-based ARDS design inclusive of (i) comorbidity, (ii) inter-and intra-observer variability studies, (iii) large data size, (iv) clinical validation, (v) granularity of COVID-19 risk, and (vi) cross-modality scientific validation. The AI is an important component for diagnosis of ARDS and the recommendations must be followed to lower the RoB.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Artificial Intelligence , Humans , Lung , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2
19.
J Crit Care ; 66: 14-19, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1351740

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To determine whether Macklin effect (a linear collection of air contiguous to the bronchovascular sheath) on baseline CT imaging is an accurate predictor for subsequent pneumomediastinum (PMD)/pneumothorax (PNX) development in invasively ventilated patients with COVID-19-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is an observational, case-control study. From a prospectively acquired database, all consecutive invasively ventilated COVID-19 ARDS patients who underwent at least one baseline chest CT scan during the study time period (February 25th, 2020-December 31st, 2020) were identified; those who had tracheal lesion or already had PMD/PNX at the time of the first available chest imaging were excluded. RESULTS: 37/173 (21.4%) patients enrolled had PMD/PNX; specifically, 20 (11.5%) had PMD, 10 (5.8%) PNX, 7 (4%) both. 33/37 patients with subsequent PMD/PNX had Macklin effect on baseline CT (89.2%, true positives) 8.5 days [range, 1-18] before the first actual radiological evidence of PMD/PNX. Conversely, 6/136 patients without PMD/PNX (4.4%, false positives) demonstrated Macklin effect (p < 0.001). Macklin effect yielded a sensitivity of 89.2% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 74.6-96.9), a specificity of 95.6% (95% CI: 90.6-98.4), a positive predictive value (PV) of 84.5% (95% CI: 71.3-92.3), a negative PV of 97.1% (95% CI: 74.6-96.9) and an accuracy of 94.2% (95% CI: 89.6-97.2) in predicting PMD/PNX (AUC:0.924). CONCLUSIONS: Macklin effect accurately predicts, 8.5 days in advance, PMD/PNX development in COVID-19 ARDS patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mediastinal Emphysema , Pneumothorax , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Mediastinal Emphysema/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2
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