Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 294
Filter
1.
Postgrad Med J ; 96(1137): 403-407, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20245306

ABSTRACT

This article reviews the correlation between ACE2 and COVID-19 and the resulting acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). ACE2 is a crucial component of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). The classical ACE-angiotensin Ⅱ (Ang II)-angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) axis and the ACE2-Ang(1-7)-Mas counter-regulatory axis play an essential role in RAS system. ACE2 antagonises the activation of the classical RAS ACE-Ang II-AT1R axis and protects against lung injury. Similar to severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus, 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) also uses ACE2 for cell entry. ARDS is a clinical high-mortality disease which is probably due to the excessive activation of RAS caused by 2019-nCoV infection, and ACE2 has a protective effect on ARDS caused by COVID-19. Because of these protective effects of ACE2 on ARDS, the development of drugs enhancing ACE2 activity may become one of the most promising approaches for the treatment of COVID-19 in the near future. In the meantime, however, the use of RAS blockers such as ACE inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers that inhibit the damaging (ACE-Ang II) arm of the RAS cascade in the lung may also be promising. Trial registration number: NCT04287686.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1152186, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238642

ABSTRACT

Background Severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID -19) has led to severe pneumonia or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) worldwide. we have noted that many critically ill patients with COVID-19 present with typical sepsis-related clinical manifestations, including multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, coagulopathy, and septic shock. The molecular mechanisms that underlie COVID-19, ARDS and sepsis are not well understood. The objectives of this study were to analyze potential molecular mechanisms and identify potential drugs for the treatment of COVID-19, ARDS and sepsis using bioinformatics and a systems biology approach. Methods Three RNA-seq datasets (GSE171110, GSE76293 and GSE137342) from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) were employed to detect mutual differentially expressed genes (DEGs) for the patients with the COVID-19, ARDS and sepsis for functional enrichment, pathway analysis, and candidate drugs analysis. Results We obtained 110 common DEGs among COVID-19, ARDS and sepsis. ARG1, FCGR1A, MPO, and TLR5 are the most influential hub genes. The infection and immune-related pathways and functions are the main pathways and molecular functions of these three diseases. FOXC1, YY1, GATA2, FOXL, STAT1 and STAT3 are important TFs for COVID-19. mir-335-5p, miR-335-5p and hsa-mir-26a-5p were associated with COVID-19. Finally, the hub genes retrieved from the DSigDB database indicate multiple drug molecules and drug-targets interaction. Conclusion We performed a functional analysis under ontology terms and pathway analysis and found some common associations among COVID-19, ARDS and sepsis. Transcription factors-genes interaction, protein-drug interactions, and DEGs-miRNAs coregulatory network with common DEGs were also identified on the datasets. We believe that the candidate drugs obtained in this study may contribute to the effective treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , MicroRNAs , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Sepsis , Humans , Gene Expression Profiling/methods , COVID-19/genetics , MicroRNAs/genetics , Computational Biology/methods , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/genetics , Sepsis/complications , Sepsis/drug therapy , Sepsis/genetics
3.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 27(9): 4269-4279, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2326073

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Epithelial damage together with endothelitis and microvascular thrombi are responsible for COVID-19 associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Iloprost, improves endothelial damage and reduces thrombotic complications with its vasodilator, anti-platelet, anti-inflammatory, and anti-fibrotic effects. In our study, we aimed to determine the effect of iloprost on oxygenation, hemodynamics, weaning, and mortality in severe COVID-19 ARDS. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective study conducted in a pandemic hospital in the city of Istanbul, Turkey. Patients, with severe COVID-19 ARDS, who were receiving iloprost for seven days were included in the study. The demographic data, APACHE II, and SOFA (Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score) scores (at admission and discharge), pH, PaO2, PCO2, SatO2, lactate, PaO2/FiO2 (inspiratory fractionated oxygen), respiratory rate-oxygenation (ROX) index (peripheral oxygen saturation/fraction of inhaled oxygen), systolic arterial pressure (SAP), diastolic arterial pressure (DAP), mean arterial pressures (MAP), heart rate (HR) values were recorded before starting iloprost (T0), and on days of iloprost administration (2.0 nanograms/kg/minute/6 hours/day) (T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6, T7), and the day after last day of iloprost administration (Tfinal). Also, mortality was recorded in a retrospective manner. Two groups were formed according to mortality (Group M) and discharge (Group D). RESULTS: A total of 22 patients (16 men, 6 women) were evaluated. Age, APACHE II, SOFA scores were higher in Group M. The lactate value at T1-3-4-5-7 was lower than T0 in both groups. PaO2 value between T2-Tfinal was higher than T0. A statistically significant increase was found in PaO2/FiO2 levels in both groups. The PaO2/FiO2value between T5-Tfinal was significantly lower in Group M compared to Group D. ROX index was significantly higher between T4-Tfinal when compared with T0. CONCLUSIONS: Iloprost improves oxygenation but has no effect on mortality in COVID-19 ARDS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Male , Humans , Female , Iloprost/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Prognosis
4.
Eur J Clin Pharmacol ; 79(7): 967-974, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2321755

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Remdesivir exerts positive effects on clinical improvement, even though it seems not to affect mortality among COVID-19 patients; moreover, it was associated with the occurence of marked bradycardia. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 989 consecutive patients with non-severe COVID-19 (SpO2 ≥ 94% on room air) admitted from October 2020 to July 2021 at five Italian hospitals. Propensity score matching allowed to obtain a comparable control group. Primary endpoints were bradycardia onset (heart rate < 50 bpm), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in need of intubation and mortality. RESULTS: A total of 200 patients (20.2%) received remdesivir, while 789 standard of care (79.8%). In the matched cohorts, severe ARDS in need of intubation was experienced by 70 patients (17.5%), significantly higher in the control group (68% vs. 31%; p < 0.0001). Conversely, bradycardia, experienced by 53 patients (12%), was significantly higher in the remdesivir subgroup (20% vs. 1.1%; p < 0.0001). During follow-up, all-cause mortality was 15% (N = 62), significantly higher in the control group (76% vs. 24%; log-rank p < 0.0001), as shown at the Kaplan-Meier (KM) analysis. KM furthermore showed a significantly higher risk of severe ARDS in need of intubation among controls (log-rank p < 0.001), while an increased risk of bradycardia onset in the remdesivir group (log-rank p < 0.001). Multivariable logistic regression showed a protective role of remdesivir for both ARDS in need of intubation (OR 0.50, 95%CI 0.29-0.85; p = 0.01) and mortality (OR 0.18, 95%CI 0.09-0.39; p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Remdesivir treatment emerged as associated with reduced risk of severe acute respiratory distress syndrome in need of intubation and mortality. Remdesivir-induced bradycardia was not associated with worse outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Retrospective Studies , Propensity Score , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Hospitals , Italy/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects
6.
Nitric Oxide ; 136-137: 1-7, 2023 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2319499

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Impairment of ventilation and perfusion (V/Q) matching is a common mechanism leading to hypoxemia in patients with acute respiratory failure requiring intensive care unit (ICU) admission. While ventilation has been thoroughly investigated, little progress has been made to monitor pulmonary perfusion at the bedside and treat impaired blood distribution. The study aimed to assess real-time changes in regional pulmonary perfusion in response to a therapeutic intervention. METHODS: Single-center prospective study that enrolled adult patients with ARDS caused by SARS-Cov-2 who were sedated, paralyzed, and mechanically ventilated. The distribution of pulmonary perfusion was assessed through electrical impedance tomography (EIT) after the injection of a 10-ml bolus of hypertonic saline. The therapeutic intervention consisted in the administration of inhaled nitric oxide (iNO), as rescue therapy for refractory hypoxemia. Each patient underwent two 15-min steps at 0 and 20 ppm iNO, respectively. At each step, respiratory, gas exchange, and hemodynamic parameters were recorded, and V/Q distribution was measured, with unchanged ventilatory settings. RESULTS: Ten 65 [56-75] years old patients with moderate (40%) and severe (60%) ARDS were studied 10 [4-20] days after intubation. Gas exchange improved at 20 ppm iNO (PaO2/FiO2 from 86 ± 16 to 110 ± 30 mmHg, p = 0.001; venous admixture from 51 ± 8 to 45 ± 7%, p = 0.0045; dead space from 29 ± 8 to 25 ± 6%, p = 0.008). The respiratory system's elastic properties and ventilation distribution were unaltered by iNO. Hemodynamics did not change after gas initiation (cardiac output 7.6 ± 1.9 vs. 7.7 ± 1.9 L/min, p = 0.66). The EIT pixel perfusion maps showed a variety of patterns of changes in pulmonary blood flow, whose increase positively correlated with PaO2/FiO2 increase (R2 = 0.50, p = 0.049). CONCLUSIONS: The assessment of lung perfusion is feasible at the bedside and blood distribution can be modulated with effects that are visualized in vivo. These findings might lay the foundations for testing new therapies aimed at optimizing the regional perfusion in the lungs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Respiratory Insufficiency , Adult , Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Pulmonary Circulation , Prospective Studies , Pulmonary Gas Exchange , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Nitric Oxide , Hypoxia , Respiratory Insufficiency/drug therapy , Administration, Inhalation
7.
Clin Immunol ; 249: 109289, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2310145

ABSTRACT

Acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are life-threatening conditions triggered by multiple intra- and extra-pulmonary injury factors, characterized by complicated molecular mechanisms and high mortality. Great strides have been made in the field of immunometabolism to clarify the interplay between intracellular metabolism and immune function in the past few years. Emerging evidence unveils the crucial roles of immunometabolism in inflammatory response and ALI. During ALI, both macrophages and lymphocytes undergo robust metabolic reprogramming and discrete epigenetic changes after activated. Apart from providing ATP and biosynthetic precursors, these metabolic cellular reactions and processes in lung also regulate inflammation and immunity.In fact, metabolic reprogramming involving glucose metabolism and fatty acidoxidation (FAO) acts as a double-edged sword in inflammatory response, which not only drives inflammasome activation but also elicits anti-inflammatory response. Additionally, the features and roles of metabolic reprogramming in different immune cells are not exactly the same. Here, we outline the evidence implicating how adverse factors shape immunometabolism in differentiation types of immune cells during ALI and summarize key proteins associated with energy expenditure and metabolic reprogramming. Finally, novel therapeutic targets in metabolic intermediates and enzymes together with current challenges in immunometabolism against ALI were discussed.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , Lung , Inflammation , Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Macrophages , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy
8.
Viruses ; 15(4)2023 04 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2299616

ABSTRACT

In this retrospective comparative study, we evaluated the effectiveness of remdesivir (RDSV) in patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. Individuals hospitalized between March 2020 and August 2022 at S.M. Goretti Hospital, Latina, with a positive test for SARS-CoV-2 and, concomitantly, pneumonia, were included. The overall survival was the primary endpoint. The composite secondary endpoint included death or progression in severe ARDS at 40 days. The study population was stratified according to treatment into two groups: the RDSV group (patients treated with RDSV-based regimens) and the no-RDSV group (patients treated with any other, not RDSV-based, regimens). Factors associated with death and progression to severe ARDS or death were assessed by multivariable analysis. A total of 1153 patients (632 belonging to the RDSV group and 521 to the no-RDSV group) were studied. The groups were comparable in terms of sex, PaO2/FiO2 at admission, and duration of symptoms before hospitalization. Further, 54 patients (8.5%) in the RDSV group and 113 (21.7%) in the no-RDSV group (p < 0.001) died. RDSV was associated with a significantly reduced hazard ratio (HR) of death (HR, 0.69 [95% CI, 0.49-0.97]; p = 0.03), compared to the no-RDSV group, as well as a significantly reduced OR of progression in severe ARDS or death (OR, 0.70 [95% CI 0.49-0.98]; p = 0.04). An overall significantly higher survival rate was observed in the RDSV group (p < 0.001, by log-rank test). These findings reinforce the survival benefit of RDSV and support its routine clinical use for the treatment of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use
9.
Expert Opin Biol Ther ; 23(5): 443-454, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2298178

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Itolizumab, an anti-CD6 monoclonal antibody, down-regulates COVID-19-mediated inflammation and the acute effects of cytokine release syndrome. This study aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of itolizumab in hospitalized COVID-19 patients with PaO2/FiO2 ratio (PFR) ≤200 requiring oxygen therapy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This multicenter, single-arm, Phase 4 study enrolled 300 hospitalized adults with SARS-CoV-2 infection, PFR ≤200, oxygen saturation ≤94%, and ≥1 elevated inflammatory markers from 17 COVID-19 specific tertiary Indian hospitals. Patients received 1.6 mg/kg of itolizumab infusion, were assessed for 1 month, and followed-up to Day 90. Primary outcome measures included incidence of severe acute infusion-related reactions (IRRs) (≥Grade-3) and mortality rate at 1 month. RESULTS: Incidence of severe acute IRRs was 1.3% and mortality rate at 1 month was 6.7% (n = 20/300). Mortality rate at Day 90 was 8.0% (n = 24/300). By Day 7, most patients had stable/improved SpO2 without increasing FiO2 and by Day 30, 91.7% patients were off oxygen therapy. Overall, 63 and 10 patients, respectively, reported 123 and 11 treatment-emergent adverse events up to Days 30 and 90. No deaths were attributable to itolizumab. Patient-reported outcomes showed gradual and significant improvement for all five dimensions on EQ-5D-5L. CONCLUSION: Itolizumab demonstrated acceptable safety with a favorable prognosis in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: CTRI/2020/09/027941 (Clinical Trials Registry of India).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Adult , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Oxygen , Treatment Outcome
10.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 26(3): 280-286, 2023 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2291692

ABSTRACT

Background: Although there is still no universally accepted treatment agent, steroids have been administered chronologically at every dose and at every stage of the COVID-19 pandemic. Aim: We aimed to evaluate the clinical efficacy of high-dose steroid therapy and its effect on mortality in COVID-19 patients with severe pneumonia, severe Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), and septic shock. Patients and Methods: : Patients with severe pneumonia, septic shock, and ARDS due to COVID-19 who were followed up in the intensive care unit were retrospectively reviewed. Results: The study population was divided into two groups; the methylprednisolone pulse group (MP) (n = 55) and the dexamethasone group (Dex) (n = 39). When the values before and after treatment were compared; there was a statistically significant increase in the neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio after treatment in the MP group (p = 0.006). Although it was not statistically significant in the MP group, There was a numerical increase in D-dimer levels (p = 0.28). Thromboembolic complications developed in 2 patients in the MP group. The mortality outcomes of the groups were statistically similar (p = 0.943). Conclusion: We recommend steroids use in the condition that it is indicated in the critically ill group with the poor general condition. Since there is no significant difference between high-dose pulse steroid treatment and standard treatment doses, we think that the risk of complications should not be taken into account and high doses should not be used.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Shock, Septic , Humans , Shock, Septic/drug therapy , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Steroids
11.
J Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv ; 36(3): 112-126, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2302395

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a life-threatening condition, characterized by diffuse inflammatory lung injury. Since the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic spread worldwide, the most common cause of ARDS has been the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Both the COVID-19-associated ARDS and the ARDS related to other causes-also defined as classical ARDS-are burdened by high mortality and morbidity. For these reasons, effective therapeutic interventions are urgently needed. Among them, inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) has been studied in patients with ARDS since 1993 and it is currently under investigation. In this review, we aim at describing the biological and pharmacological rationale of iNO treatment in ARDS by elucidating similarities and differences between classical and COVID-19 ARDS. Thereafter, we present the available evidence on the use of iNO in clinical practice in both types of respiratory failure. Overall, iNO seems a promising agent as it could improve the ventilation/perfusion mismatch, gas exchange impairment, and right ventricular failure, which are reported in ARDS. In addition, iNO may act as a viricidal agent and prevent lung hyperinflammation and thrombosis of the pulmonary vasculature in the specific setting of COVID-19 ARDS. However, the current evidence on the effects of iNO on outcomes is limited and clinical studies are yet to demonstrate any survival benefit by administering iNO in ARDS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , Nitric Oxide , Administration, Inhalation , SARS-CoV-2 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy
12.
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue ; 35(1): 106-109, 2023 Jan.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2296324

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infection has brought great harm to people's life and social development. Although SARS-CoV-2 infection is more common in mild patients at present, considering the characteristics of crtical disease, rapid progress and high mortality, the treatment of critical patients are the focus of clinical attention. Immune imbalance which is characterized by cytokine storm plays a vital role in SARS-CoV-2 induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), extrapulmonary multiple organ failure and even death. Therefore, the application of immunosuppressive agent in crtical coronavirus disease patients has a promising prospect. In this paper, different immunosuppressive agents and their application in crtical SARS-CoV-2 infection are reviewed, so as to provide reference for crtical coronavirus disease therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Multiple Organ Failure , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy
13.
Inflammopharmacology ; 30(4): 1189-1205, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2258069

ABSTRACT

It has been reported that corticosteroid therapy was effective in the management of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), and recently in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Corticosteroids are potent anti-inflammatory drugs that mitigate the risk of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in COVID-19 and other viral pneumonia, despite a reduction of viral clearance; corticosteroids inhibit the development of cytokine storm and multi-organ damage. The risk-benefit ratio should be assessed for critical COVID-19 patients. In conclusion, corticosteroid therapy is an effective way in the management of COVID-19, it reduces the risk of complications primarily acute lung injury and the development of ARDS. Besides, corticosteroid therapy mainly dexamethasone and methylprednisolone are effective in reducing the severity of COVID-19 and associated comorbidities such as chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD), rheumatoid arthritis, and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Pneumonia, Viral , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/adverse effects , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 53(6): e13963, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2271911

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (vvECMO) can be a lifesaver. However, anticoagulation therapy is mandatory because the nonendothelial extracorporeal surface increases the risk of thromboembolic problems. Heparin is still the most common anticoagulant, but argatroban could be an alternative. This work investigates whether argatroban offers a therapeutic advantage over heparin during vvECMO. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients who underwent vvECMO for severe ARDS and received heparin or argatroban as anticoagulation therapy. Demographic variables, intensive care unit (ICU) treatment and outcome parameters were evaluated. The primary outcome parameter was the operating time of the membrane oxygenator normalized to the duration of vvECMO treatment. Secondary outcome parameters were transfusion requirements normalized to the duration of vvECMO therapy. RESULTS: Fifty seven patients from January 2019 to February 2021 underwent vvECMO and were included in this study. Thirty three patients received heparin and 24 patients argatroban as anticoagulatory therapy. The groups did not differ in demographics, ICU scoring systems, or comorbidities. Platelet counts and partial prothrombin time did not differ between the two groups during the first 6 days of vvECMO. The argatroban group had lower requirements for red blood cells, platelets and fresh frozen plasma. The mean runtime of the individual membrane oxygenator increased from 12.3 days (heparin group) to 16.6 days in the argatroban group. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that argatroban can be considered as anticoagulant during vvECMO.


Subject(s)
Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , Oxygenators, Membrane , Retrospective Studies , Heparin/therapeutic use , Anticoagulants , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy
15.
Virulence ; 14(1): 2190650, 2023 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2281159

ABSTRACT

The global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has a detrimental impact on public health. COVID-19 usually manifests as pneumonia, which can progress into acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) related to uncontrolled TH17 immune reaction. Currently, there is no effective therapeutic agent to manage COVID-19 with complications. The currently available anti-viral drug remdesivir has an effectiveness of 30% in SARS-CoV-2-induced severe complications. Thus, there is a need to identify effective agents to treat COVID-19 and the associated acute lung injury and other complications. The host immunological pathway against this virus typically involves the THαß immune response. THαß immunity is triggered by type 1 interferon and interleukin-27 (IL-27), and the main effector cells of the THαß immune response are IL10-CD4 T cells, CD8 T cells, NK cells, and IgG1-producing B cells. In particular, IL-10 exerts a potent immunomodulatory or anti-inflammatory effect and is an anti-fibrotic agent for pulmonary fibrosis. Concurrently, IL-10 can ameliorate acute lung injury or ARDS, especially those caused by viruses. Owing to its anti-viral activity and anti-pro-inflammatory effects, in this review, IL-10 is suggested as a possible treatment agent for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Interleukin-10 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy
16.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1100461, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2287643

ABSTRACT

The hallmark of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) pathobiology is unchecked inflammation-driven diffuse alveolar damage and alveolar-capillary barrier dysfunction. Currently, therapeutic interventions for ARDS remain largely limited to pulmonary-supportive strategies, and there is an unmet demand for pharmacologic therapies targeting the underlying pathology of ARDS in patients suffering from the illness. The complement cascade (ComC) plays an integral role in the regulation of both innate and adaptive immune responses. ComC activation can prime an overzealous cytokine storm and tissue/organ damage. The ARDS and acute lung injury (ALI) have an established relationship with early maladaptive ComC activation. In this review, we have collected evidence from the current studies linking ALI/ARDS with ComC dysregulation, focusing on elucidating the new emerging roles of the extracellular (canonical) and intracellular (non-canonical or complosome), ComC (complementome) in ALI/ARDS pathobiology, and highlighting complementome as a vital nexus of the pathobiological connectome for ALI/ARDS via its crosstalking with other systems of the immunome, DAMPome, PAMPome, coagulome, metabolome, and microbiome. We have also discussed the diagnostic/therapeutic potential and future direction of ALI/ARDS care with the ultimate goal of better defining mechanistic subtypes (endotypes and theratypes) through new methodologies in order to facilitate a more precise and effective complement-targeted therapy for treating these comorbidities. This information leads to support for a therapeutic anti-inflammatory strategy by targeting the ComC, where the arsenal of clinical-stage complement-specific drugs is available, especially for patients with ALI/ARDS due to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , COVID-19 , Connectome , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , Lung/pathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Acute Lung Injury/pathology , Complement System Proteins/therapeutic use
17.
Respir Res ; 24(1): 58, 2023 Feb 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2261821

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) results in significant hypoxia, and ARDS is the central pathology of COVID-19. Inhaled prostacyclin has been proposed as a therapy for ARDS, but data regarding its role in this syndrome are unavailable. Therefore, we investigated whether inhaled prostacyclin would affect the oxygenation and survival of patients suffering from ARDS. METHODS: We performed a prospective randomized controlled single-blind multicenter trial across Germany. The trial was conducted from March 2019 with final follow-up on 12th of August 2021. Patients with moderate to severe ARDS were included and randomized to receive either inhaled prostacyclin (3 times/day for 5 days) or sodium chloride (Placebo). The primary outcome was the oxygenation index in the intervention and control groups on Day 5 of therapy. Secondary outcomes were mortality, secondary organ failure, disease severity and adverse events. RESULTS: Of 707 patients approached 150 patients were randomized to receive inhaled prostacyclin (n = 73) or sodium chloride (n = 77). Data from 144 patients were analyzed. The baseline PaO2/FiO2 ratio did not differ between groups. The primary analysis of the study was negative, and prostacyclin improved oxygenation by 20 mmHg more than Placebo (p = 0.17). Secondary analysis showed that the oxygenation was significantly improved in patients with ARDS who were COVID-19-positive (34 mmHg, p = 0.04). Mortality did not differ between groups. Secondary organ failure and adverse events were similar in the intervention and control groups. CONCLUSIONS: The primary result of our study was negative. Our data suggest that inhaled prostacyclin might be beneficial treatment in patients with COVID-19 induced ARDS. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the Research Ethics Committee of the University of Tübingen (899/2018AMG1) and the corresponding ethical review boards of all participating centers. The trial was also approved by the Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices (BfArM, EudraCT No. 2016003168-37) and registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT03111212) on April 6th 2017.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , Epoprostenol/adverse effects , Prospective Studies , Single-Blind Method , Sodium Chloride , Prostaglandins I , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy
20.
Crit Care ; 27(1): 112, 2023 03 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2264356

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The use of glucocorticoids has given contradictory results for treating acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The use of intravenous Interferon beta (IFN ß) for the treatment of ARDS was recently tested in a phase III ARDS trial (INTEREST), in which more than half of the patients simultaneously received glucocorticoids. Trial results showed deleterious effects of glucocorticoids when administered together with IFN ß, and therefore, we aimed at finding the reason behind this. METHODS: We first sequenced the genes encoding the IFN α/ß receptor of the patients, who participated in the INTEREST study (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:  NCT02622724 , November 24, 2015) in which the patients were randomized to receive an intravenous injection of IFN ß-1a (144 patients) or placebo (152 patients). Genetic background was analyzed against clinical outcome, concomitant medication, and pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. Thereafter, we tested the influence of the genetic background on IFN α/ß receptor expression in lung organ cultures and whether, it has any effect on transcription factors STAT1 and STAT2 involved in IFN signaling. RESULTS: We found a novel disease association of a SNP rs9984273, which is situated in the interferon α/ß receptor subunit 2 (IFNAR2) gene in an area corresponding to a binding motif of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). The minor allele of SNP rs9984273 associates with higher IFNAR expression, more rapid decrease of IFN γ and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels and better outcome in IFN ß treated patients with ARDS, while the major allele associates with a poor outcome especially under concomitant IFN ß and glucocorticoid treatment. Moreover, the minor allele of rs9984273 associates with a less severe form of coronavirus diseases (COVID-19) according to the COVID-19 Host Genetics Initiative database. CONCLUSIONS: The distribution of this SNP within clinical study arms may explain the contradictory results of multiple ARDS studies and outcomes in COVID-19 concerning type I IFN signaling and glucocorticoids.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , Glucocorticoids/pharmacology , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , COVID-19/genetics , Interferon-beta/pharmacology , Interferon-beta/therapeutic use , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/genetics , Interferon-alpha
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL