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1.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 381, 2021 11 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506432

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is primarily a respiratory disease; however, there is also evidence that it causes endothelial damage in the microvasculature of several organs. The aim of the present study is to characterize in vivo the microvascular reactivity in peripheral skeletal muscle of severe COVID-19 patients. METHODS: This is a prospective observational study carried out in Spain, Mexico and Brazil. Healthy subjects and severe COVID-19 patients admitted to the intermediate respiratory (IRCU) and intensive care units (ICU) due to hypoxemia were studied. Local tissue/blood oxygen saturation (StO2) and local hemoglobin concentration (THC) were non-invasively measured on the forearm by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). A vascular occlusion test (VOT), a three-minute induced ischemia, was performed in order to obtain dynamic StO2 parameters: deoxygenation rate (DeO2), reoxygenation rate (ReO2), and hyperemic response (HAUC). In COVID-19 patients, the severity of ARDS was evaluated by the ratio between peripheral arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) and the fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) (SF ratio). RESULTS: Healthy controls (32) and COVID-19 patients (73) were studied. Baseline StO2 and THC did not differ between the two groups. Dynamic VOT-derived parameters were significantly impaired in COVID-19 patients showing lower metabolic rate (DeO2) and diminished endothelial reactivity. At enrollment, most COVID-19 patients were receiving invasive mechanical ventilation (MV) (53%) or high-flow nasal cannula support (32%). Patients on MV were also receiving sedative agents (100%) and vasopressors (29%). Baseline StO2 and DeO2 negatively correlated with SF ratio, while ReO2 showed a positive correlation with SF ratio. There were significant differences in baseline StO2 and ReO2 among the different ARDS groups according to SF ratio, but not among different respiratory support therapies. CONCLUSION: Patients with severe COVID-19 show systemic microcirculatory alterations suggestive of endothelial dysfunction, and these alterations are associated with the severity of ARDS. Further evaluation is needed to determine whether these observations have prognostic implications. These results represent interim findings of the ongoing HEMOCOVID-19 trial. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04689477 . Retrospectively registered 30 December 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Intensive Care Units/trends , Microvessels/physiopathology , Respiratory Care Units/trends , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , Aged , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Mexico/epidemiology , Microcirculation/physiology , Middle Aged , Muscle, Skeletal/blood supply , Muscle, Skeletal/physiopathology , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Spain/epidemiology
2.
Crit Care Med ; 49(11): e1157-e1162, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1467424

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Joblessness is common in survivors from critical care. Our aim was to describe rates of return to work versus unemployment following coronavirus disease 2019 acute respiratory distress syndrome requiring intensive care admission. DESIGN: Single-center, prospective case series. SETTING: Critical Care Follow-Up Clinic, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center-IRCCS, Rozzano, Italy. PATIENTS: One hundred and one consecutive laboratory-confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 patients were discharged from our hospital following an ICU stay between March 1, 2020, and June 30, 2020. Twenty-five died in the ICU. Seventy-six were discharged alive from hospital. Two patients refused participation, while three were unreachable. The remaining 71 were alive at 6 months and interviewed. INTERVENTIONS: Baseline and outcome healthcare data were extracted from the electronic patient records. Employment data were collected using a previously published structured interview instrument that included current and previous employment status, hours worked per week, and timing of return to work. Health-related quality of life status was assessed using the Italian EQ-5D-5L questionnaire. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Of the 71 interviewed patients, 45 (63%) were employed prior to coronavirus disease 2019, of which 40 (89%) of them worked full-time. Thirty-three (73%) of the previously employed survivors had returned to work by 6 months, 10 (22%) were unemployed, and 2 (5%) were newly retired. Among those who returned to work, 20 (85%) of them reported reduced effectiveness at work. Those who did not return to work were either still on sick leave or lost their job as a consequence of coronavirus disease 2019. Reported quality of life of survivors not returning to work was worse than of those returning to work. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of coronavirus disease 2019 survivors following ICU in our cohort had returned to work by 6 months of follow-up. However, most of them reported reduced work effectiveness. Prolonged sick leave and unemployment were common findings in those not returning.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Return to Work/statistics & numerical data , Unemployment/statistics & numerical data , Age Factors , Aged , Comorbidity , Female , Frailty/epidemiology , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Discharge/statistics & numerical data , Quality of Life , Retirement/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors , Socioeconomic Factors
3.
Ann Acad Med Singap ; 50(9): 686-694, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1464249

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in COVID-19 is associated with a high mortality rate, though outcomes of the different lung compliance phenotypes are unclear. We aimed to measure lung compliance and examine other factors associated with mortality in COVID-19 patients with ARDS. METHODS: Adult patients with COVID-19 ARDS who required invasive mechanical ventilation at 8 hospitals in Singapore were prospectively enrolled. Factors associated with both mortality and differences between high (<40mL/cm H2O) and low (<40mL/cm H2O) compliance were analysed. RESULTS: A total of 102 patients with COVID-19 who required invasive mechanical ventilation were analysed; 15 (14.7%) did not survive. Non-survivors were older (median 70 years, interquartile range [IQR] 67-75 versus median 61 years, IQR 52-66; P<0.01), and required a longer duration of ventilation (26 days, IQR 12-27 vs 8 days, IQR 5-15; P<0.01) and intensive care unit support (26 days, IQR 11-30 vs 11.5 days, IQR 7-17.3; P=0.01), with a higher incidence of acute kidney injury (15 patients [100%] vs 40 patients [46%]; P<0.01). There were 67 patients who had lung compliance data; 24 (35.8%) were classified as having high compliance and 43 (64.2%) as having low compliance. Mortality was higher in patients with high compliance (33.3% vs 11.6%; P=0.03), and was associated with a drop in compliance at day 7 (-9.3mL/cm H2O (IQR -4.5 to -15.4) vs 0.2mL/cm H2O (4.7 to -5.2) P=0.04). CONCLUSION: COVID-19 ARDS patients with higher compliance on the day of intubation and a longitudinal decrease over time had a higher risk of death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , Lung Compliance , Phenotype , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Crit Care Clin ; 37(4): 703-716, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1415247

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a heterogeneous syndrome of high morbidity and mortality with global impact. Current epidemiologic estimates are imprecise given differences in patient populations, risk factors, resources, and practice styles around the world. Despite improvement in supportive care which has improved mortality, effective targeted therapies remain elusive. The Coronavirus Disease 2019 pandemic has resulted in a large number of ARDS cases that, despite less heterogeneity than multietiologic ARDS populations, still exhibit wide variation in physiology and outcomes. Intensive care unit rates of death have varied widely in studies to date because of a variety of patient and hospital-level factors. Despite some controversy, the best management of these patients is likely the same supportive measures shown to be effective in classical ARDS. Further epidemiologic studies are needed to help characterize the epidemiology of ARDS subphenotypes to facilitate identification of targeted therapies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Pandemics , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 331, 2021 09 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1413915

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mortality due to COVID-19 is high, especially in patients requiring mechanical ventilation. The purpose of the study is to investigate associations between mortality and variables measured during the first three days of mechanical ventilation in patients with COVID-19 intubated at ICU admission. METHODS: Multicenter, observational, cohort study includes consecutive patients with COVID-19 admitted to 44 Spanish ICUs between February 25 and July 31, 2020, who required intubation at ICU admission and mechanical ventilation for more than three days. We collected demographic and clinical data prior to admission; information about clinical evolution at days 1 and 3 of mechanical ventilation; and outcomes. RESULTS: Of the 2,095 patients with COVID-19 admitted to the ICU, 1,118 (53.3%) were intubated at day 1 and remained under mechanical ventilation at day three. From days 1 to 3, PaO2/FiO2 increased from 115.6 [80.0-171.2] to 180.0 [135.4-227.9] mmHg and the ventilatory ratio from 1.73 [1.33-2.25] to 1.96 [1.61-2.40]. In-hospital mortality was 38.7%. A higher increase between ICU admission and day 3 in the ventilatory ratio (OR 1.04 [CI 1.01-1.07], p = 0.030) and creatinine levels (OR 1.05 [CI 1.01-1.09], p = 0.005) and a lower increase in platelet counts (OR 0.96 [CI 0.93-1.00], p = 0.037) were independently associated with a higher risk of death. No association between mortality and the PaO2/FiO2 variation was observed (OR 0.99 [CI 0.95 to 1.02], p = 0.47). CONCLUSIONS: Higher ventilatory ratio and its increase at day 3 is associated with mortality in patients with COVID-19 receiving mechanical ventilation at ICU admission. No association was found in the PaO2/FiO2 variation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Ventilation-Perfusion Ratio/physiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cohort Studies , Critical Care/methods , Critical Care/trends , Female , Hospital Mortality/trends , Humans , Intensive Care Units/trends , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Pulmonary Ventilation/physiology , Respiration, Artificial/trends , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology , Retrospective Studies , Spain/epidemiology
10.
Front Immunol ; 12: 673693, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1365541

ABSTRACT

Background: Thymosin alpha 1 (Tα1) is widely used to treat patients with COVID-19 in China; however, its efficacy remains unclear. This study aimed to explore the efficacy of Tα1 as a COVID-19 therapy. Methods: We performed a multicenter cohort study in five tertiary hospitals in the Hubei province of China between December 2019 and March 2020. The patient non-recovery rate was used as the primary outcome. Results: All crude outcomes, including non-recovery rate (65/306 vs. 290/1,976, p = 0.003), in-hospital mortality rate (62/306 vs. 271/1,976, p = 0.003), intubation rate (31/306 vs. 106/1,976, p = 0.001), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) incidence (104/306 vs. 499/1,976, p = 0.001), acute kidney injury (AKI) incidence (26/306 vs. 66/1,976, p < 0.001), and length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay (14.9 ± 12.7 vs. 8.7 ± 8.2 days, p < 0.001), were significantly higher in the Tα1 treatment group. After adjusting for confounding factors, Tα1 use was found to be significantly associated with a higher non-recovery rate than non-Tα1 use (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1-2.1, p = 0.028). An increased risk of non-recovery rate associated with Tα1 use was observed in the patient subgroups with maximum sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) scores ≥2 (OR 2.0, 95%CI 1.4-2.9, p = 0.024), a record of ICU admission (OR 5.4, 95%CI 2.1-14.0, p < 0.001), and lower PaO2/FiO2 values (OR 1.9, 95%CI 1.1-3.4, p = 0.046). Furthermore, later initiation of Tα1 use was associated with a higher non-recovery rate. Conclusion: Tα1 use in COVID-19 patients was associated with an increased non-recovery rate, especially in those with greater disease severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Thymalfasin/adverse effects , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Prognosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment/statistics & numerical data , Thymalfasin/administration & dosage , Treatment Outcome
11.
Leukemia ; 35(10): 2917-2923, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356548

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019), which is associated with high morbidity and mortality, especially in elder patients. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a life-threatening complication of COVID-19 and has been linked with severe hyperinflammation. Dexamethasone has emerged as standard of care for COVID-19 associated respiratory failure. In a non-randomized prospective phase II multi-center study, we asked whether targeted inhibition of Janus kinase-mediated cytokine signaling using ruxolitinib is feasible and efficacious in SARS-CoV-2- induced ARDS with hyperinflammation. Sixteen SARS-CoV-2 infected patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation for ARDS were treated with ruxolitinib in addition to standard treatment. Ruxolitinib treatment was well tolerated and 13 patients survived at least the first 28 days on treatment, which was the primary endpoint of the trial. Immediate start of ruxolitinib after deterioration was associated with improved outcome, as was a lymphocyte-to-neutrophils ratio above 0.07. Together, treatment with the janus-kinase inhibitor ruxolitinib is feasible and might be efficacious in COVID-19 induced ARDS patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation. The trial has been registered under EudraCT-No.: 2020-001732-10 and NCT04359290.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Janus Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Survival Rate
12.
Heart Lung ; 50(6): 914-918, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1336454

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is considered the main cause of COVID-19 associated morbidity and mortality. Early and reliable risk stratification is of crucial clinical importance in order to identify persons at risk for developing a severe course of disease. Deceleration capacity (DC) of heart rate as a marker of cardiac autonomic function predicts outcome in persons with myocardial infarction and heart failure. We hypothesized that reduced modulation of heart rate may be helpful in identifying persons with COVID-19 at risk for developing ARDS. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled 60 consecutive COVID-19 positive persons presenting at the University Hospital of Tuebingen. Arterial blood gas analysis and 24 h-Holter ECG recordings were performed and analyzed at admission. The primary end point was defined as development of ARDS with regards to the Berlin classification. RESULTS: 61.7% (37 of 60 persons) developed an ARDS. In persons with ARDS DC was significantly reduced when compared to persons with milder course of infection (3.2 ms vs. 6.6 ms, p < 0.001). DC achieved a good discrimination performance (AUC = 0.76) for ARDS in COVID-19 persons. In a multivariate analysis, decreased DC was associated with the development of ARDS. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest a promising role of DC to risk stratification in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Deceleration , Electrocardiography, Ambulatory , Humans , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Clin Chest Med ; 42(3): 543-555, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1336288

ABSTRACT

Gender is emerging as a factor that may impact the trajectory of critical illness; clinical trials in critical care have largely enrolled men with little attention to equal distribution of sexes. Distribution of admission to the intensive care unit and utilization of resources differs by gender. Sex hormones are thought to impact the course of critical illness. Management and outcomes in sepsis and acute respiratory distress syndrome have been demonstrated to differ by gender as well as in pregnancy. Outcomes of critically ill patients may be impacted by gender.


Subject(s)
Critical Illness , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Sex Factors , Critical Care , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Pregnancy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy
14.
J Res Health Sci ; 21(2): e00512, 2021 May 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1326174

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to analyze the demographic and epidemiological features of identified COVID-19 cases in Kazakhstan. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. METHODS: This cross-sectional study aimed to analyze COVID-19 cases (n=5116) collected from March 13 to June 6, 2020, in Kazakhstan. The data were obtained from a state official medical electronic database. The study investigated the geographic and demographic data of patients as well as the association of COVID-19 cases with gender and age. The prevalence of symptoms, the presence of comorbidities, complications, and COVID-19 mortality were determined for all patients. RESULTS: The mean±SD age of the patients in this study was 34.8±17.6 years, and the majority (55.7%) of COVID-19 cases were male and residents of cities (79.6%). In total, 80% of the cases had the asymptomatic/mild form of the disease. Cough (20.8 %) and sore throat (17.1%) were the most common symptoms among patients, and pneumonia was diagnosed in 1 out of 5 cases. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) was recorded in 1.2% of the patients. The fatality rate was 1% in the study population and lethality was 2.6 times higher in males compared to females.  Each additional year in age increased the probability of COVID-19 infection by 1.06 times. The presence of cardiovascular, diabetes, respiratory, and kidney diseases affected the rate of mortality (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: The results demonstrated a high proportion (40%) of the asymptomatic type of coronavirus infection in the Kazakhstan population. The severity of COVID-19 symptoms and lethality were directly related to the age of patients and the presence of comorbidities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carrier State/virology , Cough/etiology , Pandemics , Pharyngitis/etiology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Carrier State/epidemiology , Child , Comorbidity , Cough/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Kazakhstan/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pharyngitis/epidemiology , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Pneumonia/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors , Young Adult
15.
Respir Care ; 66(8): 1341-1362, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325894

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) represents the greatest medical crisis encountered in the young history of critical care and respiratory care. During the early months of the pandemic, when little was known about the virus, the acute hypoxemic respiratory failure it caused did not appear to fit conveniently or consistently into our classification of ARDS. This not only re-ignited a half-century's long simmering debate over taxonomy, but also fueled similar debates over how PEEP and lung-protective ventilation should be titrated, as well as the appropriate role of noninvasive ventilation in ARDS. COVID-19 ignited other debates on emerging concepts such as ARDS phenotypes and patient self-inflicted lung injury from vigorous spontaneous breathing. Over a year later, these early perplexities have receded into the background without having been reviewed or resolved. With a full year of evidence having been published, this narrative review systematically analyzes whether COVID-19-associated respiratory failure is essentially ARDS, with perhaps a somewhat different course of presentation. This includes a review of the severity of hypoxemia and derangements in pulmonary mechanics, PEEP requirements, recruitment potential, ability to achieve lung-protective ventilation goals, duration of mechanical ventilation, associated mortality, and response to noninvasive ventilation. This paper also reviews the concepts of ARDS phenotypes and patient self-inflicted lung injury as these are crucial to understanding the contentious debate over the nature and management of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , Pandemics , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 204(1): 34-43, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1311194

ABSTRACT

Rationale: The role of and needs for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) at a population level during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic have not been completely established. Objectives: To identify the cumulative incidence of ECMO use in the first pandemic wave and to describe the Nationwide Chilean cohort of ECMO-supported patients with COVID-19. Methods: We conducted a population-based study from March 3 to August 31, 2020, using linked data from national agencies. The cumulative incidence of ECMO use and mortality risk of ECMO-supported patients were calculated and age standardized. In addition, a retrospective cohort analysis was performed. Outcomes were 90-day mortality after ECMO initiation, ECMO-associated complications, and hospital length of stay. Cox regression models were used to explore risk factors for mortality in a time-to-event analysis. Measurements and Main Results: Ninety-four patients with COVID-19 were supported with ECMO (0.42 per population of 100,000, 14.89 per 100,000 positive cases, and 1.2% of intubated patients with COVID-19); 85 were included in the cohort analysis, and the median age was 48 (interquartile range [IQR], 41-55) years, 83.5% were men, and 42.4% had obesity. The median number of pre-ECMO intubation days was 4 (IQR, 2-7), the median PaO2/FiO2 ratio was 86.8 (IQR, 64-99) mm Hg, 91.8% of patients were prone positioned, and 14 patients had refractory respiratory acidosis. Main complications were infections (70.6%), bleeding (38.8%), and thromboembolism (22.4%); 52 patients were discharged home, and 33 died. The hospital length of stay was a median of 50 (IQR, 24-69) days. Lower respiratory system compliance and higher driving pressure before ECMO initiation were associated with increased mortality. A duration of pre-ECMO intubation ≥10 days was not associated with mortality. Conclusions: Documenting nationwide ECMO needs may help in planning ECMO provision for future COVID-19 pandemic waves. The 90-day mortality of the Chilean cohort of ECMO-supported patients with COVID-19 (38.8%) is comparable to that of previous reports.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chile/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Needs Assessment , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
17.
Cardiol Rev ; 29(6): 292-295, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1310959

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has presented many new challenges to the healthcare community with the sheer number of individuals affected and the range of symptoms at presentation. Early findings have shown that increased age is an independent risk factor for COVID-19 severity. Diabetes and hypertension were also found to be strong independent risk factors for severe COVID-19. It was later discovered that obesity is a strong risk factor for severe disease as well. Possible mechanisms for the increased risk associated with metabolic disease include the increased prevalence of acute respiratory syndrome, immune cell dysfunction, and chronic inflammatory states associated with obesity and diabetes. Acknowledging these risk factors has consequences for addressing vaccination strategies as well as healthcare disparities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus/physiopathology , Humans , Hypertension/metabolism , Hypertension/physiopathology , Inflammation/metabolism , Obesity/metabolism , Obesity/physiopathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
18.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 18(7): 1202-1210, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305584

ABSTRACT

Rationale: There is an urgent need for improved understanding of the mechanisms and clinical characteristics of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) due to coronavirus disease (COVID-19).Objectives: To compare key demographic and physiologic parameters, biomarkers, and clinical outcomes of COVID-19 ARDS and ARDS secondary to direct lung injury from other etiologies of pneumonia.Methods: We enrolled 27 patients with COVID-19 ARDS in a prospective, observational cohort study and compared them with a historical, pre-COVID-19 cohort of patients with viral ARDS (n = 14), bacterial ARDS (n = 21), and ARDS due to culture-negative pneumonia (n = 30). We recorded clinical demographics; measured respiratory mechanical parameters; collected serial peripheral blood specimens for measurement of plasma interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and IL-10; and followed patients prospectively for patient-centered outcomes. We conducted between-group comparisons with nonparametric tests and analyzed time-to-event outcomes with Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards models.Results: Patients with COVID-19 ARDS had higher body mass index and were more likely to be Black, or residents of skilled nursing facilities, compared with those with non-COVID-19 ARDS (P < 0.05). Patients with COVID-19 had lower delivered minute ventilation compared with bacterial and culture-negative ARDS (post hoc P < 0.01) but not compared with viral ARDS. We found no differences in static compliance, hypoxemic indices, or carbon dioxide clearance between groups. Patients with COVID-19 had lower IL-6 levels compared with bacterial and culture-negative ARDS at early time points after intubation but no differences in IL-6 levels compared with viral ARDS. Patients with COVID-19 had longer duration of mechanical ventilation but similar 60-day mortality in both unadjusted and adjusted analyses.Conclusions: COVID-19 ARDS bears several similarities to viral ARDS but demonstrates lower minute ventilation and lower systemic levels of IL-6 compared with bacterial and culture-negative ARDS. COVID-19 ARDS was associated with longer dependence on mechanical ventilation compared with non-COVID-19 ARDS. Such detectable differences of COVID-19 do not merit deviation from evidence-based management of ARDS but suggest priorities for clinical research to better characterize and treat this new clinical entity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Biomarkers , Demography , Humans , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Eur J Anaesthesiol ; 38(12): 1274-1283, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1303952

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is uncertainty about how much positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) should be used in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether a higher PEEP strategy is superior to a lower PEEP strategy regarding the number of ventilator-free days (VFDs). DESIGN: Multicentre observational study conducted from 1 March to 1 June 2020. SETTING AND PATIENTS: Twenty-two ICUs in The Netherlands and 933 invasively ventilated COVID-19 ARDS patients. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were categorised retrospectively as having received invasive ventilation with higher (n=259) or lower PEEP (n=674), based on the high and low PEEP/FiO2 tables of the ARDS Network, and using ventilator settings and parameters in the first hour of invasive ventilation, and every 8 h thereafter at fixed time points during the first four calendar days. We also used propensity score matching to control for observed confounding factors that might influence outcomes. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The primary outcome was the number of VFDs. Secondary outcomes included distant organ failures including acute kidney injury (AKI) and use of renal replacement therapy (RRT), and mortality. RESULTS: In the unmatched cohort, the higher PEEP strategy had no association with the median [IQR] number of VFDs (2.0 [0.0 to 15.0] vs. 0.0 [0.0 to 16.0] days). The median (95% confidence interval) difference was 0.21 (-3.34 to 3.78) days, P = 0.905. In the matched cohort, the higher PEEP group had an association with a lower median number of VFDs (0.0 [0.0 to 14.0] vs. 6.0 [0.0 to 17.0] days) a median difference of -4.65 (-8.92 to -0.39) days, P = 0.032. The higher PEEP strategy had associations with higher incidence of AKI (in the matched cohort) and more use of RRT (in the unmatched and matched cohorts). The higher PEEP strategy had no association with mortality. CONCLUSION: In COVID-19 ARDS, use of higher PEEP may be associated with a lower number of VFDs, and may increase the incidence of AKI and need for RRT. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Practice of VENTilation in COVID-19 is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04346342.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , Positive-Pressure Respiration , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Ventilators, Mechanical
20.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 238, 2021 07 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1300260

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Current practices regarding tracheostomy in patients treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for acute respiratory distress syndrome are unknown. Our objectives were to assess the prevalence and the association between the timing of tracheostomy (during or after ECMO weaning) and related complications, sedative, and analgesic use. METHODS: International, multicenter, retrospective study in four large volume ECMO centers during a 9-year period. RESULTS: Of the 1,168 patients treated with ECMO for severe ARDS (age 48 ± 16 years, 76% male, SAPS II score 51 ± 18) during the enrollment period, 353 (30%) and 177 (15%) underwent tracheostomy placement during or after ECMO, respectively. Severe complications were uncommon in both groups. Local bleeding within 24 h of tracheostomy was four times more frequent during ECMO (25 vs 7% after ECMO, p < 0.01). Cumulative sedative consumption decreased more rapidly after the procedure with sedative doses almost negligible 48-72 h later, when tracheostomy was performed after ECMO decannulation (p < 0.01). A significantly increased level of consciousness was observed within 72 h after tracheostomy in the "after ECMO" group, whereas it was unchanged in the "during-ECMO" group. CONCLUSION: In contrast to patients undergoing tracheostomy after ECMO decannulation, tracheostomy during ECMO was neither associated with a decrease in sedation and analgesia levels nor with an increase in the level of consciousness. This finding together with a higher risk of local bleeding in the days following the procedure reinforces the need for a case-by-case discussion on the balance between risks and benefits of tracheotomy when performed during ECMO.


Subject(s)
Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Tracheostomy/methods , Adult , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/statistics & numerical data , Female , France/epidemiology , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Internationality , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Simplified Acute Physiology Score , Tracheostomy/statistics & numerical data , Treatment Outcome , United States/epidemiology
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