Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 156
Filter
1.
Crit Care Med ; 50(11): 1638-1643, 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2077907

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Cerebrovascular injury associated with COVID-19 has been recognized, but the mechanisms remain uncertain. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a severe pulmonary injury, which is associated with both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. It remains unclear if cerebrovascular injuries associated with severe COVID-19 are unique to COVID-19 or a consequence of severe respiratory disease or its treatment. The frequency and patterns of cerebrovascular injury on brain MRI were compared among patients with COVID-19 ARDS and non-COVID-19 ARDS. DESIGN: A case-control study. SETTING: A tertiary academic hospital system. PATIENTS: Adult patients (>18 yr) with COVID-19 ARDS (March 2020 to July 2021) and non-COVID-19 ARDS (January 2010-October 2018) who underwent brain MRI during their index hospitalization. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Cerebrovascular injury on MRI included cerebral ischemia (ischemic infarct or hypoxic ischemic brain injury) and intracranial hemorrhage (intraparenchymal, subarachnoid, or subdural, and cerebral microbleed [CMB]).Twenty-six patients with COVID-19 ARDS and sixty-six patients with non-COVID ARDS underwent brain MRI during the index hospitalization, resulting in 23 age- and sex-matched pairs. The frequency of overall cerebrovascular injury (57% vs 61%), cerebral ischemia (35% vs 43%), intracranial hemorrhage (43% vs 48%), and CMB (52% vs 41%) between COVID-19 ARDS and non-COVID-19 ARDS patients was similar (all p values >0.05). However, four of 26 patients (15%) with COVID-19 and no patients with non-COVID-19 ARDS had disseminated leukoencephalopathy with underlying CMBs, an imaging pattern that has previously been reported in patients with COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: In a case-control study of selected ARDS patients with brain MRI, the frequencies of ischemic and hemorrhagic cerebrovascular injuries were similar between COVID-19 versus non-COVID-19 ARDS patients. However, the MRI pattern of disseminated hemorrhagic leukoencephalopathy was unique to the COVID-19 ARDS patients in this cohort.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Leukoencephalopathies , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Adult , Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Intracranial Hemorrhages , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology
2.
Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc ; 132: 107-116, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2046393

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), originally described in 1967, affects more than 3 million individuals each year throughout the world and accounts for approximately 10% of all admissions to the intensive care unit. Despite substantial progress in defining the epidemiology and pathogenesis of the syndrome, there is no specific treatment and mortality rates remain high. Barriers to finding specific therapeutic interventions include the inability to predict who will get ARDS, inadequate definitions and specific diagnostic markers, the heterogeneity of the patient population, complexities of the pathogenesis, and the impact of clinical care. Measurements of biomarkers have identified these barriers as well as contributed to the current understanding of the disease. The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in a dramatic increase in patients with ARDS, driving an urgent need to understand the pathogenesis and develop and implement therapeutic interventions. Past studies of biomarkers in ARDS can provide insight that could help to meet those needs more rapidly.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Biomarkers , Humans , Pandemics , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy
3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 15703, 2022 09 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2036882

ABSTRACT

Severe Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with several pre-existing comorbidities and demographic factors. Similar factors are linked to critical sepsis and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We hypothesized that age and comorbidities are more generically linked to critical illness mortality than a specific disease state. We used national databases to identify ICU patients and to retrieve comorbidities. The relative importance of risk factors for 60-day mortality was evaluated using the interaction with disease group (Sepsis, ARDS or COVID-19) in logistic regression models. We included 32,501 adult ICU patients. In the model on 60-day mortality in sepsis and COVID-19 there were significant interactions with disease group for age, sex and asthma. In the model on 60-day mortality in ARDS and COVID-19 significant interactions with cohort were found for acute disease severity, age and chronic renal failure. In conclusion, age and sex play particular roles in COVID-19 mortality during intensive care but the burden of comorbidity was similar between sepsis and COVID-19 and ARDS and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Sepsis , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Demography , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Sepsis/complications , Sepsis/epidemiology
4.
Trials ; 23(1): 784, 2022 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2029733

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Corticosteroids are one of the few drugs that have shown a reduction in mortality in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In the RECOVERY trial, the use of dexamethasone reduced 28-day mortality compared to standard care in hospitalized patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 requiring supplemental oxygen or invasive mechanical ventilation. Evidence has shown that 30% of COVID-19 patients with mild symptoms at presentation will progress to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), particularly patients in whom laboratory inflammatory biomarkers associated with COVID-19 disease progression are detected. We postulated that dexamethasone treatment in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 pneumonia without additional oxygen requirements and at risk of progressing to severe disease might lead to a decrease in the development of ARDS and thereby reduce death. METHODS/DESIGN: This is a multicenter, randomized, controlled, parallel, open-label trial testing dexamethasone in 252 adult patients with COVID-19 pneumonia who do not require supplementary oxygen on admission but are at risk factors for the development of ARDS. Risk for the development of ARDS is defined as levels of lactate dehydrogenase > 245 U/L, C-reactive protein > 100 mg/L, and lymphocyte count of < 0.80 × 109/L. Eligible patients will be randomly assigned to receive either dexamethasone or standard of care. Patients in the dexamethasone group will receive a dose of 6 mg once daily during 7 days. The primary outcome is a composite of the development of moderate or more severe ARDS and all-cause mortality during the 30-day period following enrolment. DISCUSSION: If our hypothesis is correct, the results of this study will provide additional insights into the management and progression of this specific subpopulation of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia without additional oxygen requirements and at risk of progressing to severe disease. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04836780. Registered on 8 April 2021 as EARLY-DEX COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dexamethasone , Pneumonia , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/adverse effects , Adult , C-Reactive Protein , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/adverse effects , Humans , Lactate Dehydrogenases , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Oxygen , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/epidemiology
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(17)2022 Aug 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2023751

ABSTRACT

Pneumonia is an acute infectious disease with high morbidity and mortality rates. Pneumonia's development, severity and outcome depend on age, comorbidities and the host immune response. In this study, we combined theoretical and experimental investigations to characterize pneumonia and its comorbidities as well as to assess the host immune response measured by TREC/KREC levels in patients with pneumonia. The theoretical study was carried out using the Columbia Open Health Data (COHD) resource, which provides access to clinical concept prevalence and co-occurrence from electronic health records. The experimental study included TREC/KREC assays in young adults (18-40 years) with community-acquired (CAP) (n = 164) or nosocomial (NP) (n = 99) pneumonia and healthy controls (n = 170). Co-occurring rates between pneumonia, sepsis, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and some other related conditions common in intensive care units were the top among 4170, 3382 and 963 comorbidities in pneumonia, sepsis and ARDS, respectively. CAP patients had higher TREC levels, while NP patients had lower TREC/KREC levels compared to controls. Low TREC and KREC levels were predictive for the development of NP, ARDS, sepsis and lethal outcome (AUCTREC in the range 0.71-0.82, AUCKREC in the range 0.67-0.74). TREC/KREC analysis can be considered as a potential prognostic test in patients with pneumonia.


Subject(s)
Pneumonia , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Sepsis , Critical Illness , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Sepsis/complications , Sepsis/epidemiology , Young Adult
6.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0267835, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021713

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory distress syndrome is a life-threatening condition that has a significant effect on the occurrence of morbidity and mortality among patients with severe Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). To the best of researchers' knowledge, there is no Study on ARDS of COVID-19 in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the prevalence of ARDS and associated factors among severe COVID-19 patients at Wollega University Referral Hospital. METHODS: An institution-based retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted from September 20, 2020, to June 10, 2021. Real-Time Reverse transcription-polymerase Chain Reaction (rRT-PCR) test was used to test Patients for COVID-19. Epi-data version 3.2 was used for data entry, and the final data analysis was through STATA version 14. After checking the assumption P-value<0.25 in the bivariable analysis was used to select a candidate variable for multi-variable analysis, and a p-value of <0.05 was used to declare statistical significance. RESULTS: In this study, the prevalence of ARDS was 32%. Almost all the patients had the clinical feature of cough (93.7%), followed by shortness of breath (79.9%), fever (77.7%), and headache (67%). Age older than 65 years (AOR = 3.35, 95%CI = 1.31, 8.55), male gender (AOR = 5.63, 95%CI = 2.15, 14.77), and low oxygen saturation level (AOR = 4.60, 95%CI = 1.15, 18.35) were the independent predictors of ARDS among severe COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of ARDS among patients with severe COVID-19 was high in the study area. Therefore, elders and patients with critical conditions (low oxygen saturation) better to get special attention during COVID-19 case management to enhance good care and monitoring of the patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Hospitals, University , Humans , Male , Referral and Consultation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Universities
7.
Neurology ; 99(20): e2326-e2335, 2022 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021404

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Neurologic complications have been associated with COVID-19, including delirium. Such complications have been reported to be frequent among intensive care unit (ICU)-admitted patients. We hypothesized that the rate of neurologic complications would be higher in COVID-19 associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) than those who develop ARDS from a different cause. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study in the adult ICU of Lausanne University Hospital, including all consecutive patients fulfilling the Berlin criteria for ARDS hospitalized between December 2017 and June 2021, stratifying exposure between COVID-19 or not. The primary outcome was delirium onset during ICU stay, defined by the confusion assessment method (CAM-ICU). Exploratory outcomes included development of neurologic complications of the central nervous system (stroke, hemorrhage, and vasculitis), critical illness weakness, and 30- and 180-day all-cause mortality. RESULTS: Three hundred eleven patients were included in the study (253 with COVID-19 and 58 with other causes) and CAM-ICU could be assessed in 231 (74.3% in COVID-19 vs 74.1% in non-COVID-19). The proportion of patients developing delirium was similar in patients with COVID-19 and controls in univariate comparison (69.1% vs 60.5%, p = 0.246). Yet, patients with COVID-19 had a higher body mass index, lower ICU severity, longer mechanical ventilation, and higher sedation doses (propofol and dexmedetomidine). After adjusting for these factors in a multivariable analysis, the risk of delirium remained comparable across groups (adjusted OR [95% CI]: 0.86 [0.35-2.1]). Similarly, COVID-19-related ARDS had no effect on all-cause mortality at 30 days (adjusted OR: 0.87 [0.39-1.92]) and 180 days (adjusted OR: 0.67 [0.33-1.35]). Finally, neurologic complications affecting the CNS (adjusted OR: 1.15 [0.25-5.29]) and critical illness weakness (adjusted OR: 2.99 [0.97-9.1]) were not higher in the COVID-19 group. DISCUSSION: Compared with other etiologies, patients with COVID-19 did not have higher incidence of delirium and other neurologic complications, after accounting for underlying disease severity in patients with ARDS. Management of COVID-19-associated ARDS needed longer invasive ventilation and higher sedation, which could explain higher rates of delirium in uncontrolled studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Delirium , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , Adult , Critical Illness , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19/complications , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Intensive Care Units , Respiration, Artificial , Delirium/epidemiology , Delirium/etiology
8.
J Card Surg ; 37(11): 3609-3618, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2019481

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although several studies have characterized the risk of coinfection in COVID pneumonia, the risk of the bloodstream and respiratory coinfection in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) supports severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is poorly understood. METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of patients with COVID-19 ARDS on ECMO at a single center between January 2020 and December 2021. Patient characteristics and clinical outcomes were compared. RESULTS: Of 44 patients placed on ECMO support for COVID-19 ARDS, 30 (68.2%) patients developed a coinfection, and 14 (31.8%) patients did not. Most patients underwent venovenous ECMO (98%; 43/44) cannulation in the right internal jugular vein (98%; 43/44). Patients with coinfection had a longer duration of ECMO (34 [interquartile range, IQR: 19.5, 65] vs. 15.5 [IQR 11, 27.3] days; p = .02), intensive care unit (ICU; 44 [IQR: 27,75.5] vs 31 [IQR 20-39.5] days; p = .03), and hospital (56.5 [IQR 27,75.5] vs 37.5 [IQR: 20.5-43.3]; p = .02) length of stay. When stratified by the presence of a coinfection, there was no difference in hospital mortality (37% vs. 29%; p = .46) or Kaplan-Meier survival (logrank p = .82). Time from ECMO to first positive blood and respiratory culture were 12 [IQR: 3, 28] and 10 [IQR: 1, 15] days, respectively. Freedom from any coinfection was 50 (95% confidence interval: 37.2-67.2)% at 15 days from ECMO initiation. CONCLUSIONS: There is a high rate of co-infections in patients placed on ECMO for COVID-19 ARDS. Although patients with coinfections had a longer duration of extracorporeal life support, and longer length of stays in the ICU and hospital, survival was not inferior.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Coinfection/epidemiology , Humans , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Retrospective Studies
9.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 876028, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1855337

ABSTRACT

Background: An increasing level of evidence suggests that obesity not only is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) but also has adverse outcomes during COVID-19 infection. Methods: We used the German nationwide inpatient sample to analyze all hospitalized patients with confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis in Germany from January to December 2020 and stratified them for diagnosed obesity. Obesity was defined as body mass index ≥30 kg/m2 according to the WHO. The impact of obesity on in-hospital case fatality and adverse in-hospital events comprising major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), venous thromboembolism (VTE), and others was analyzed. Results: We analyzed data of 176,137 hospitalizations of patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection; among them, 9,383 (5.3%) had an additional obesity diagnosis. Although COVID-19 patients without obesity were older (72.0 [interquartile range (IQR) 56.0/82.0] vs. 66.0 [54.0/76.0] years, p < 0.001), the CVD profile was less favorable in obese COVID-19 patients (Charlson comorbidity index 4.44 ± 3.01 vs. 4.08 ± 2.92, p < 0.001). Obesity was independently associated with increased in-hospital case fatality (OR 1.203 [95% CI 1.131-1.279], p < 0.001) and MACCE (OR 1.168 [95% CI 1.101-1.239], p < 0.001), ARDS (OR 2.605 [95% CI 2.449-2.772], p < 0.001), and VTE (OR 1.780 [95% CI 1.605-1.973], p < 0.001) and also associated with increased necessity of treatment on intensive care unit (OR 2.201 [95% CI 2.097-2.310], p < 0.001), mechanical ventilation (OR 2.277 [95% CI 2.140-2.422], p < 0.001), and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (OR 3.485 [95% CI 3.023-4.017], p < 0.001). Conclusions: Obesity independently affected case fatality, MACCE, ARDS development, VTE, and other adverse in-hospital events in patients with COVID-19 infection. Obesity should be taken into account regarding COVID-19 prevention strategies, risk stratification, and adequate healthcare planning. Maintaining a healthy weight is important not only to prevent cardiometabolic diseases but also for better individual outcomes during COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Venous Thromboembolism , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Testing , Hospitals , Humans , Obesity/complications , Obesity/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology
10.
J Cardiol ; 80(4): 298-302, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1851569

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Recent studies suggest cardiac involvement with an increased incidence of arrhythmias in the setting of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of potentially lethal arrhythmias and atrial fibrillation in patients with COVID-19-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and to elicit possible predictors of arrhythmia occurrence. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 107 patients (82 male, mean age 60 ±â€¯12 years, median body mass index 28 kg/m2) treated for COVID-19-induced ARDS in a large tertiary university hospital intensive care unit between March 2020 and February 2021 were retrospectively analyzed. Eighty-four patients (79%) had at least moderate ARDS, 88 patients (83%) were mechanically ventilated, 35 patients (33%) received vvECMO. Forty-three patients (40%) died during their hospital stay. Twelve patients (11%) showed potentially lethal arrhythmias (six ventricular tachycardia, six significant bradycardia). Atrial fibrillation occurred in 27 patients (25%). In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, duration of hospitalization was associated with the occurrence of potentially lethal arrhythmias (p = 0.006). There was no association between possible predictive factors and the occurrence of atrial fibrillation. Invasive ventilation, antipsychotics, and the QTc interval were independently associated with acute in-hospital mortality, but this was not arrhythmia-driven as there was no association between the occurrence of arrhythmias and mortality. CONCLUSION: In this relatively young population with COVID-19-induced ARDS, the incidence of potentially lethal arrhythmias was low. While overall mortality was high in these severely affected patients, cardiac involvement and arrhythmia occurrence was not a significant driver of mortality.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation , COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Aged , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Retrospective Studies
11.
BMC Nephrol ; 23(1): 183, 2022 05 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1846808

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Kidney transplant recipients have an increased risk of complications from COVID-19. However, data on the risk of allograft damage or death in kidney transplant recipients recovering from COVID-19 is limited. In addition, the first and second waves of the pandemic occurred at different times all over the world. In Turkey, the Health Minister confirmed the first case in March 2020; after that, the first wave occurred between March and August 2020; afterward, the second wave began in September 2020. This study aims to demonstrate the clinical presentations of kidney transplant recipients in the first two waves of the pandemic in Turkey and explore the impact of COVID-19 on clinical outcomes after the initial episode. METHODS: Patients with COVID-19 from seven centers were included in this retrospective cohort study. Initially, four hundred and eighty-eight kidney transplant recipients diagnosed with COVID-19 between 1 March 2020 to 28 February 2021 were enrolled. The endpoints were the occurrence of all-cause mortality, acute kidney injury, cytokine storm, and acute respiratory distress syndrome. In addition, longer-term outcomes such as mortality, need for dialysis, and allograft function of the surviving patients was analyzed. RESULTS: Four hundred seventy-five patients were followed up for a median of 132 days after COVID-19. Forty-seven patients (9.9%) died after a median length of hospitalization of 15 days. Although the mortality rate (10.1% vs. 9.8%) and intensive care unit admission (14.5% vs. 14.5%) were similar in the first two waves, hospitalization (68.8% vs. 29.7%; p < 0.001), acute kidney injury (44.2% vs. 31.8%; p = 0.009), acute respiratory distress syndrome (18.8% vs. 16%; p = 0.456), and cytokine storm rate (15.9% vs. 10.1%; p = 0.072) were higher in first wave compared to the second wave. These 47 patients died within the first month of COVID-19. Six (1.4%) of the surviving patients lost allografts during treatment. There was no difference in the median serum creatinine clearance of the surviving patients at baseline (52 mL/min [IQR, 47-66]), first- (56 mL/min [IQR, 51-68]), third- (51 mL/min [IQR,48-67]) and sixth-months (52 mL/min [IQR, 48-81]). Development of cytokine storm and posttransplant diabetes mellitus were independent predictors for mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Mortality remains a problem in COVID-19. All the deaths occur in the first month of COVID-19. Also, acute kidney injury is common in hospitalized patients, and some of the patients suffer from graft loss after the initial episode.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19/complications , Kidney Transplantation , Transplant Recipients , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/mortality , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Cohort Studies , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Humans , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Pandemics , Renal Dialysis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Turkey/epidemiology
12.
Respir Res ; 23(1): 94, 2022 Apr 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793938

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Before the pandemic of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), rapidly improving acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), mostly defined by early extubation, had been recognized as an increasingly prevalent subphenotype (making up 15-24% of all ARDS cases), associated with good prognosis (10% mortality in ARDSNet trials). We attempted to determine the prevalence and prognosis of rapidly improving ARDS and of persistent severe ARDS related to COVID-19. METHODS: We included consecutive patients with COVID-19 receiving invasive mechanical ventilation in three intensive care units (ICU) during the second pandemic wave in Greece. We defined rapidly improving ARDS as extubation or a partial pressure of arterial oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen ratio (PaO2:FiO2) greater than 300 on the first day following intubation. We defined persistent severe ARDS as PaO2:FiO2 of equal to or less than 100 on the second day following intubation. RESULTS: A total of 280 intubated patients met criteria of ARDS with a median PaO2:FiO2 of 125.0 (interquartile range 93.0-161.0) on day of intubation, and overall ICU-mortality of 52.5% (ranging from 24.3 to 66.9% across the three participating sites). Prevalence of rapidly improving ARDS was 3.9% (11 of 280 patients); no extubation occurred on the first day following intubation. ICU-mortality of patients with rapidly improving ARDS was 54.5%. This low prevalence and high mortality rate of rapidly improving ARDS were consistent across participating sites. Prevalence of persistent severe ARDS was 12.1% and corresponding mortality was 82.4%. CONCLUSIONS: Rapidly improving ARDS was not prevalent and was not associated with good prognosis among patients with COVID-19. This is starkly different from what has been previously reported for patients with ARDS not related to COVID-19. Our results on both rapidly improving ARDS and persistent severe ARDS may contribute to our understanding of trajectory of ARDS and its association with prognosis in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Oxygen , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy
13.
Eur J Anaesthesiol ; 38(12): 1274-1283, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1700154

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is uncertainty about how much positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) should be used in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether a higher PEEP strategy is superior to a lower PEEP strategy regarding the number of ventilator-free days (VFDs). DESIGN: Multicentre observational study conducted from 1 March to 1 June 2020. SETTING AND PATIENTS: Twenty-two ICUs in The Netherlands and 933 invasively ventilated COVID-19 ARDS patients. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were categorised retrospectively as having received invasive ventilation with higher (n=259) or lower PEEP (n=674), based on the high and low PEEP/FiO2 tables of the ARDS Network, and using ventilator settings and parameters in the first hour of invasive ventilation, and every 8 h thereafter at fixed time points during the first four calendar days. We also used propensity score matching to control for observed confounding factors that might influence outcomes. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The primary outcome was the number of VFDs. Secondary outcomes included distant organ failures including acute kidney injury (AKI) and use of renal replacement therapy (RRT), and mortality. RESULTS: In the unmatched cohort, the higher PEEP strategy had no association with the median [IQR] number of VFDs (2.0 [0.0 to 15.0] vs. 0.0 [0.0 to 16.0] days). The median (95% confidence interval) difference was 0.21 (-3.34 to 3.78) days, P = 0.905. In the matched cohort, the higher PEEP group had an association with a lower median number of VFDs (0.0 [0.0 to 14.0] vs. 6.0 [0.0 to 17.0] days) a median difference of -4.65 (-8.92 to -0.39) days, P = 0.032. The higher PEEP strategy had associations with higher incidence of AKI (in the matched cohort) and more use of RRT (in the unmatched and matched cohorts). The higher PEEP strategy had no association with mortality. CONCLUSION: In COVID-19 ARDS, use of higher PEEP may be associated with a lower number of VFDs, and may increase the incidence of AKI and need for RRT. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Practice of VENTilation in COVID-19 is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04346342.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , Positive-Pressure Respiration , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Ventilators, Mechanical
14.
Crit Care Med ; 50(7): 1103-1115, 2022 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1684854

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Describe the prevalence of acute cerebral dysfunction and assess the prognostic value of an early clinical and electroencephalography (EEG) assessment in ICU COVID-19 patients. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Two tertiary critical care units in Paris, France, between April and December 2020. PATIENTS: Adult critically ill patients with COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome. INTERVENTIONS: Neurologic examination and EEG at two time points during the ICU stay, first under sedation and second 4-7 days after sedation discontinuation. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Association of EEG abnormalities (background reactivity, continuity, dominant frequency, and presence of paroxystic discharges) with day-28 mortality and neurologic outcomes (coma and delirium recovery). Fifty-two patients were included, mostly male (81%), median (interquartile range) age 68 years (56-74 yr). Delayed awakening was present in 68% of patients (median awakening time of 5 d [2-16 d]) and delirium in 74% of patients who awoke from coma (62% of mixed delirium, median duration of 5 d [3-8 d]). First, EEG background was slowed in the theta-delta range in 48 (93%) patients, discontinuous in 25 patients (48%), and nonreactive in 17 patients (33%). Bifrontal slow waves were observed in 17 patients (33%). Early nonreactive EEG was associated with lower day-28 ventilator-free days (0 vs 16; p = 0.025), coma-free days (6 vs 22; p = 0.006), delirium-free days (0 vs 17; p = 0.006), and higher mortality (41% vs 11%; p = 0.027), whereas discontinuous background was associated with lower ventilator-free days (0 vs 17; p = 0.010), coma-free days (1 vs 22; p < 0.001), delirium-free days (0 vs 17; p = 0.001), and higher mortality (40% vs 4%; p = 0.001), independently of sedation and analgesia. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical and neurophysiologic cerebral dysfunction is frequent in COVID-19 ARDS patients. Early severe EEG abnormalities with nonreactive and/or discontinuous background activity are associated with delayed awakening, delirium, and day-28 mortality.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases , COVID-19 , Delirium , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Adult , Aged , Brain , Brain Diseases/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Coma/diagnosis , Coma/etiology , Critical Illness , Delirium/diagnosis , Delirium/epidemiology , Delirium/etiology , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy
15.
J Nepal Health Res Counc ; 19(3): 460-466, 2021 Dec 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1687865

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pneumomediastinum, an uncommon entity, has been on the rise with increasing cases of COVID-Acute respiratory distress syndrome. It has been unclear whether this entity represents an indicator of poor clinical outcome or not. The aims of this study were to find out the incidence of pneumomediastinum in COVID-Acute respiratory distress syndrome patients, describe their clinical characteristics and try to explain its plausible mechanisms.. METHODS: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out in the ICU of our hospital among 280 patients admitted with COVID-Acute respiratory distress syndrome over a period of 6 months. Demographics along with various clinical, laboratory, and radiological parameters were analyzed. Relevant statistical analyses were done to summarize our findings. RESULTS: The incidence of pneumomediastinum in COVID-ARDS patients was 2.8%. All patients were male, none had pulmonary co-morbidities and six of them (60%) were on invasive mechanical ventilation. All intubated patients were on lung protective mechanical ventilation. The median PEEP, peak airway pressure and plateau pressure were 10 (IQR: 4), 29 (IQR: 8) and 28 (IQR: 4) respectively. The mean CT severity score was 22.7 (SD: 1.64). Five patients died after 6.8 days (SD: 4.8) of diagnosis. The average hospital stay was of 34 days. CONCLUSIONS: Pneumomediastinum is a possible complication of COVID-Acute respiratory distress syndrome which could signify the disease severity and vice versa. Furthermore, it could be an indicator of relatively poor prognosis and therefore requires larger studies to establish the association.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mediastinal Emphysema , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Male , Mediastinal Emphysema/diagnostic imaging , Mediastinal Emphysema/epidemiology , Nepal/epidemiology , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Curr Opin Crit Care ; 28(1): 74-82, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1672366

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We conducted a systematic literature review to summarize the available evidence regarding the incidence, risk factors, and clinical characteristics of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in patients undergoing mechanical ventilation because of acute respiratory distress syndrome secondary to SARS-CoV-2 infection (C-ARDS). RECENT FINDINGS: Sixteen studies (6484 patients) were identified. Bacterial coinfection was uncommon at baseline (<15%) but a high proportion of patients developed positive bacterial cultures thereafter leading to a VAP diagnosis (range 21-64%, weighted average 50%). Diagnostic criteria varied between studies but most signs of VAP have substantial overlap with the signs of C-ARDS making it difficult to differentiate between bacterial colonization versus superinfection. Most episodes of VAP were associated with Gram-negative bacteria. Occasional cases were also attributed to herpes virus reactivations and pulmonary aspergillosis. Potential factors driving high VAP incidence rates include immunoparalysis, prolonged ventilation, exposure to immunosuppressants, understaffing, lapses in prevention processes, and overdiagnosis. SUMMARY: Covid-19 patients who require mechanical ventilation for ARDS have a high risk (>50%) of developing VAP, most commonly because of Gram-negative bacteria. Further work is needed to elucidate the disease-specific risk factors for VAP, strategies for prevention, and how best to differentiate between bacterial colonization versus superinfection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/epidemiology , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Can J Anaesth ; 69(5): 630-643, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1661743

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Critical illness is a transformative experience for both patients and their family members. For COVID-19 patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU), survival may be the start of a long road to recovery. Our knowledge of the post-ICU long-term sequelae of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) may inform our understanding and management of the long-term effects of COVID-19. SOURCE: We identified international and Canadian epidemiologic data on ICU admissions for COVID-19, COVID-19 pathophysiology, emerging ICU practice patterns, early reports of long-term outcomes, and federal support programs for survivors and their families. Centred around an illustrating case study, we applied relevant literature from ARDS and SARS to contextualize knowledge within emerging COVID-19 research and extrapolate findings to future long-term outcomes. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: COVID-19 is a multisystem disease with unknown long-term morbidity and mortality. Its pathophysiology is distinct and unique from ARDS, SARS, and critical illness. Nevertheless, based on initial reports of critical care management for COVID-19 and the varied injurious supportive practices employed in the ICU, patients and families are at risk for post-intensive care syndrome. The distinct incremental risk of COVID-19 multiple organ dysfunction is unknown. The risk of mood disorders in family members may be further exacerbated by imposed isolation and stigma. CONCLUSION: Emerging literature on COVID-19 outcomes suggests some similarities with those of ARDS/SARS and prolonged mechanical ventilation. The pathophysiology of COVID-19 is presented here in the context of early outcome data and to inform an agenda for longitudinal research for patients and families.


RéSUMé: OBJECTIF: Les maladies au stade critique constituent une expérience bouleversante tant pour les patients que pour leurs proches. Pour les patients atteints de la COVID-19 admis aux soins intensifs (USI), la survie peut être le début d'un long parcours vers la guérison. Notre connaissance des séquelles à long terme post-USI d'un syndrome de détresse respiratoire aiguë (SDRA) ou d'un syndrome respiratoire aigu sévère (SRAS) pourrait éclairer notre compréhension et notre prise en charge des effets à long terme de la COVID-19. SOURCES: Nous avons identifié des données épidémiologiques internationales et canadiennes sur les admissions aux soins intensifs pour la COVID-19, la physiopathologie de la COVID-19, les schémas de pratique émergents en soins intensifs, les premiers rapports sur les issues à long terme et les programmes de soutien fédéraux pour les survivants et leurs familles. En nous centrant autour d'une étude de cas pour illustrer notre propos, nous avons appliqué la littérature pertinente à propos du SDRA et du SRAS afin de contextualiser les connaissances de la recherche émergente sur la COVID-19 et extrapoler les conclusions aux futures issues à long terme. CONSTATATIONS PRINCIPALES: La COVID-19 est une maladie multisystémique dont la morbidité et la mortalité à long terme sont inconnues. Sa physiopathologie est unique et distincte du SDRA, du SRAS et des maladies graves. Néanmoins, en nous fondant sur les rapports initiaux de prise en charge aux soins intensifs de la COVID-19 et sur les diverses pratiques de support préjudiciables utilisées aux soins intensifs, les patients et les familles sont à risque de syndrome post-soins intensifs. Le risque distinct supplémentaire de dysfonctionnement multiviscéral de la COVID-19 est inconnu. Le risque de troubles de l'humeur chez les proches peut être encore exacerbé par l'isolement imposé et la stigmatisation. CONCLUSION: La littérature émergente sur les issues de la COVID-19 suggère certaines similitudes avec celles du SDRA/SRAS et de la ventilation mécanique prolongée. La physiopathologie de la COVID-19 est présentée ici dans le contexte des premières données sur les issues et pour éclairer un programme de recherche longitudinale pour les patients et leurs familles.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , COVID-19/therapy , Canada/epidemiology , Caregivers , Critical Illness/therapy , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Survivors
18.
Crit Care Med ; 50(6): e526-e538, 2022 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621691

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a potentially lifesaving procedure in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) due to COVID-19. Previous studies have shown a high prevalence of clinically silent cerebral microbleeds in patients with COVID-19. Based on this fact, together with the hemotrauma and the requirement of therapeutic anticoagulation on ECMO support, we hypothesized an increased risk of intracranial hemorrhages (ICHs). We analyzed ICH occurrence rate, circumstances and clinical outcome in patients that received ECMO support due to COVID-19-induced ARDS in comparison to viral non-COVID-19-induced ARDS intracerebral hemorrhage. DESIGN: Multicenter, retrospective analysis between January 2010 and May 2021. SETTING: Three tertiary care ECMO centers in Germany and Switzerland. PATIENTS: Two-hundred ten ARDS patients on ECMO support (COVID-19, n = 142 vs viral non-COVID, n = 68). INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Evaluation of ICH occurrence rate, parameters of coagulation and anticoagulation strategies, inflammation, and ICU survival. COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 ARDS patients showed comparable disease severity regarding Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score, while the oxygenation index before ECMO cannulation was higher in the COVID group (82 vs 65 mm Hg). Overall, ICH of any severity occurred in 29 of 142 COVID-19 patients (20%) versus four of 68 patients in the control ECMO group (6%). Fifteen of those 29 ICH events in the COVID-19 group were classified as major (52%) including nine fatal cases (9/29, 31%). In the control group, there was only one major ICH event (1/4, 25%). The adjusted subhazard ratio for the occurrence of an ICH in the COVID-19 group was 5.82 (97.5% CI, 1.9-17.8; p = 0.002). The overall ICU mortality in the presence of ICH of any severity was 88%. CONCLUSIONS: This retrospective multicenter analysis showed a six-fold increased adjusted risk for ICH and a 3.5-fold increased incidence of ICH in COVID-19 patients on ECMO. Prospective studies are needed to confirm this observation and to determine whether the bleeding risk can be reduced by adjusting anticoagulation strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/adverse effects , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Humans , Intracranial Hemorrhages/drug therapy , Intracranial Hemorrhages/epidemiology , Intracranial Hemorrhages/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Retrospective Studies
19.
Viruses ; 14(1)2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1614000

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a serious complication of COVID-19. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of ARDS among patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in Poland as well as to characterize clinical outcomes in patients hospitalized with COVID-19-associated ARDS. This is a retrospective, secondary analysis of epidemiological data from 116,539 discharge reports on patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in Poland between March and December 2020. The overall prevalence of ARDS was 3.6%, respectively 2.9% among females, and 4.4% among males (p < 0.001). Of the 4237 patients hospitalized with COVID-19-associated ARDS, 3764 deaths were reported (88.8%). Participants aged 60 years and over had more than three times higher odds of COVID-19-associated ARDS. Men had higher odds of COVID-19-associated ARDS than women (OR = 1.55; 95% CI: 1.45-1.65; p < 0.001). Patients with COVID-19 and diabetes had higher odds of COVID-19-associated ARDS (OR = 1.16; 95% CI: 1.03-1.30; p = 0.01). Among patients with COVID-19-associated ARDS, older age, male sex (OR = 1.27; 95% CI: 1.03-1.56; p = 0.02), and presence of cardiovascular diseases (OR = 1.26; 95% CI: 1.00-1.59; p = 0.048) were significantly associated with the risk of in-hospital death. Among patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in Poland, the prevalence of ARDS was relatively low, but the in-hospital mortality rate in patients with COVID-19-associated ARDS was higher compared to other EU countries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Incidence , Male , Poland/epidemiology , Prevalence , Registries/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL