Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 164
Filter
1.
J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs ; 50(3): 197-202, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2314062

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence of hospital-acquired pressure injuries (HAPIs) in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and placed in a prone position manually or using a specialty bed designed to facilitate prone positioning. A secondary aim was to compare mortality rates between these groups. DESIGN: Retrospective review of electronic medical records. SUBJECTS AND SETTING: The sample comprised 160 patients with ARDS managed by prone positioning. Their mean age was 61.08 years (SD = 12.73); 58% (n = 96) were male. The study setting was a 355-bed community hospital in the Western United States (Stockton, California). Data were collected from July 2019 to January 2021. METHODS: Data from electronic medical records were retrospectively searched for the development of pressure injuries, mortality, hospital length of stay, oxygenation status when placed in a prone position, and the presence of a COVID-19 infection. RESULTS: A majority of patients with ARDS were manually placed in a prone position (n = 106; 64.2%), and 54 of these patients (50.1%) were placed using a specialty care bed. Slightly more than half (n = 81; 50.1%) developed HAPIs. Chi-square analyses showed no association with the incidence of HAPIs using manual prone positioning versus the specialty bed (P = .9567). Analysis found no difference in HAPI occurrences between those with COVID-19 and patients without a coronavirus infection (P = .8462). Deep-tissue pressure injuries were the most common type of pressure injury. More patients (n = 85; 80.19%) who were manually placed in a prone position died compared to 58.18% of patients (n = 32) positioned using the specialty bed (P = .003). CONCLUSIONS: No differences in HAPI rates were found when placing patients manually in a prone position versus positioning using a specialty bed designed for this purpose.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pressure Ulcer , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , Adult , Male , Middle Aged , Female , Retrospective Studies , Prone Position , Pressure Ulcer/epidemiology , Pressure Ulcer/prevention & control , Pressure Ulcer/complications , Cohort Studies , COVID-19/complications , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Hospitals , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects
2.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 6554, 2023 04 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2311154

ABSTRACT

The purpose was to examine patient-centered outcomes and the occurrence of lung fibrotic changes on Chest computed tomography (CT) imaging following pneumonia-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We sought to investigate outpatient clinic chest CT imaging in survivors of COVID19-related ARDS and non-COVID-related ARDS, to determine group differences and explore relationships between lung fibrotic changes and functional outcomes. A retrospective practice analysis of electronic health records at an ICU Recovery Clinic in a tertiary academic medical center was performed in adult patients surviving ARDS due to COVID-19 and non-COVID etiologies. Ninety-four patients with mean age 53 ± 13 and 51% male were included (n = 64 COVID-19 and n = 30 non-COVID groups). There were no differences for age, sex, hospital length of stay, ICU length of stay, mechanical ventilation duration, or sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) scores between the two groups. Fibrotic changes visualized on CT imaging occurred in a higher proportion of COVID-19 survivors (70%) compared to the non-COVID group (43%, p < 0.001). Across both groups, patients with fibrotic changes (n = 58) were older, had a lower BMI, longer hospital and ICU LOS, lower mean RASS scores, longer total duration of supplemental oxygen. While not statistically different, patients with fibrotic changes did have reduced respiratory function, worse performance on the six-minute walk test, and had high occurrences of anxiety, depression, emotional distress, and mild cognitive impairment regardless of initial presenting diagnosis. Patients surviving pneumonia-ARDS are at high risk of impairments in physical, emotional, and cognitive health related to Post-Intensive Care Syndrome. Of clinical importance, pulmonary fibrotic changes on chest CT occurred in a higher proportion in COVID-ARDS group; however, no functional differences were measured in spirometry or physical assessments at ICU follow-up. Whether COVID infection imparts a unique recovery is not evident from these data but suggest that long-term follow up is necessary for all survivors of ARDS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Pulmonary Fibrosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Adult , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aged , Female , COVID-19/complications , Pulmonary Fibrosis/complications , Pulmonary Fibrosis/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , Pneumonia/complications , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(8)2023 04 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2300133

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To assess the prevalence of symptoms of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in survivors of COVID-19 Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome that needed ICU care; to investigate risk factors and their impact on the Health-Related Quality of life (HR-QoL). Materials and Methods: This multicenter, prospective, observational study included all patients who were discharged from the ICU. Patients were administered the European Quality of Life 5 Dimensions 5 Level Version (EQ-5D-5L) questionnaire, the Short-Form Health Survey 36Version 2 (SF-36v2), a socioeconomic question set and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) to assess PTSD. Results: The multivariate logistic regression model found that an International Standard Classification of Education Score (ISCED) higher than 2 (OR 3.42 (95% CI 1.28-9.85)), monthly income less than EUR 1500 (OR 0.36 (95% CI 0.13-0.97)), and more than two comorbidities (OR 4.62 (95% CI 1.33-16.88)) are risk factors for developing PTSD symptoms. Patients with PTSD symptoms are more likely to present a worsening in their quality of life as assessed by EQ-5D-5L and SF-36 scales. Conclusion: The main factors associated with the development of PTSD-related symptoms were a higher education level, a lower monthly income, and more than two comorbidities. Patients who developed symptoms of PTSD reported a significantly lower Health-Related Quality of life as compared to patients without PTSD. Future research areas should be oriented toward recognizing potential psychosocial and psychopathological variables capable of influencing the quality of life of patients discharged from the intensive care unit to better recognize the prognosis and longtime effects of diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Humans , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Quality of Life/psychology , Prospective Studies , Incidence , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Intensive Care Units , Survivors/psychology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Risk Factors
4.
Annu Rev Med ; 73: 95-111, 2022 01 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2260679

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has posed unprecedented challenges in critical care medicine, including extreme demand for intensive care unit (ICU) resources and rapidly evolving understanding of a novel disease. Up to one-third of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 experience critical illness. The most common form of organ failure in COVID-19 critical illness is acute hypoxemic respiratory failure, which clinically presents as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in three-quarters of ICU patients. Noninvasive respiratory support modalities are being used with increasing frequency given their potential to reduce the need for intubation. Determining optimal patient selection for and timing of intubation remains a challenge. Management of mechanically ventilated patients with COVID-19 largely mirrors that of non-COVID-19 ARDS. Organ failure is common and portends a poor prognosis. Mortality rates have improved over the course of the pandemic, likely owing to increasing disease familiarity, data-driven pharmacologics, and improved adherence to evidence-based critical care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Critical Illness , Humans , Pandemics , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
5.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 33(2): 181-187, 2023 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2283712

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE:  To determine frequency, microbiologic characteristics and risks of secondary infections in patients with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). STUDY DESIGN: An Observational study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY:  COVID-19 intensive care unit (ICU), University of Health Sciences, Diskapi Yildirim Beyazit Research and Training Hospital, Turkey, from July 2020 to January 2021. METHODOLOGY: Demographic data of the COVID-19 patients with ARDS, was collected with reference to (age, gender), comorbidities, illness scores, ICU management modalities, hospital, and ICU stay durations and ICU outcomes. Secondary infections [bloodstream infection (BSI), possible lower respiratory tract infection (pLRTI) or urinary tract infections (UTI)], microbiologic pathogens, and resistant patterns were recorded. RESULTS:  A total of 205 COVID-19-related ARDS patients were included in this study. Out of them, 61 (29.8%) were diagnosed with secondary infection, 27 (13.1%) had at least one BSI, 20 (9.8%) had at least one pLRTI, and 34 (16.6%) had at least one UTI. Gram-negative pathogens were the most common cause of secondary infections (66/91, 72.5%). Klebsiella spp for BSI (10/19, 52.6%), Acinetobacter baumannii for pLRTI (10/18, 55.6%), and Escherichia coli for UTI (29/40, 72.5%) were the main causative agents. Among all Gram-negative bacteria, Carbapenem resistant was 62.1% (41/66) and extended-spectrum beta-lactamases positivity was 22.7% (15/66). At multivariable analysis, application of mechanical ventilation (MV) longer than 48 h, central catheterisation longer than 72 h, ICU stay longer than 10 days, and the time from hospitalisation to admission to the ICU longer than 48 h were associated with secondary infections. CONCLUSION: Patients with COVID-19 associated ARDS had a high rate of secondary infections. In order to reduce secondary infection in these patients, MV duration and ICU stay should be shortened and invasive catheters should be removed as soon as possible. KEY WORDS: SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, Acute respiratory distress syndrome, Secondary infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Respiratory Tract Infections , Sepsis , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Intensive Care Units , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Risk Factors , Respiratory Tract Infections/microbiology , Retrospective Studies
6.
Semin Fetal Neonatal Med ; 28(1): 101426, 2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2269074

ABSTRACT

Pregnancy-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is fast becoming a growing and clinically relevant subgroup of ARDS amidst global outbreaks of various viral respiratory pathogens that include H1N1-influenza, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), middle east respiratory syndrome (MERS), and the most recent COVID-19 pandemic. Pregnancy is a risk factor for severe viral-induced ARDS and commonly associated with poor maternal and fetal outcomes including fetal growth-restriction, preterm birth, and spontaneous abortion. Physiologic changes of pregnancy further compounded by mechanical and immunologic alterations are theorized to impact the development of ARDS from viral pneumonia. The COVID-19 sub-phenotype of ARDS share overlapping molecular features of maternal pathogenicity of pregnancy with respect to immune-dysregulation and endothelial/microvascular injury (i.e., preeclampsia) that may in part explain a trend toward poor maternal and fetal outcomes seen with severe COVID-19 maternal infections. To date, current ARDS diagnostic criteria and treatment management fail to include and consider physiologic adaptations that are unique to maternal physiology of pregnancy and consideration of maternal-fetal interactions. Treatment focused on lung-protective ventilation strategies have been shown to improve clinical outcomes in adults with ARDS but may have adverse maternal-fetal interactions when applied in pregnancy-related ARDS. No specific pharmacotherapy has been identified to improve outcomes in pregnancy with ARDS. Adjunctive therapies aimed at immune-modulation and anti-viral treatment with COVID-19 infection during pregnancy have been reported but data in regard to its efficacy and safety is currently lacking.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Premature Birth , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Female , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Pregnancy Outcome , COVID-19 Testing
7.
Crit Care ; 27(1): 3, 2023 01 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196401

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent and severe complication of both COVID-19-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and non-COVID-19-related ARDS. The COVID-19 Critical Care Consortium (CCCC) has generated a global data set on the demographics, management and outcomes of critically ill COVID-19 patients. The LUNG-SAFE study was an international prospective cohort study of patients with severe respiratory failure, including ARDS, which pre-dated the pandemic. METHODS: The incidence, demographic profile, management and outcomes of early AKI in patients undergoing invasive mechanical ventilation for COVID-19-related ARDS were described and compared with AKI in a non-COVID-19-related ARDS cohort. RESULTS: Of 18,964 patients in the CCCC data set, 1699 patients with COVID-19-related ARDS required invasive ventilation and had relevant outcome data. Of these, 110 (6.5%) had stage 1, 94 (5.5%) had stage 2, 151 (8.9%) had stage 3 AKI, while 1214 (79.1%) had no AKI within 48 h of initiating invasive mechanical ventilation. Patients developing AKI were older and more likely to have hypertension or chronic cardiac disease. There were geo-economic differences in the incidence of AKI, with lower incidence of stage 3 AKI in European high-income countries and a higher incidence in patients from middle-income countries. Both 28-day and 90-day mortality risk was increased for patients with stage 2 (HR 2.00, p < 0.001) and stage 3 AKI (HR 1.95, p < 0.001). Compared to non-COVID-19 ARDS, the incidence of shock was reduced with lower cardiovascular SOFA score across all patient groups, while hospital mortality was worse in all groups [no AKI (30 vs 50%), Stage 1 (38 vs 58%), Stage 2 (56 vs 74%), and Stage 3 (52 vs 72%), p < 0.001]. The time profile of onset of AKI also differed, with 56% of all AKI occurring in the first 48 h in patients with COVID-19 ARDS compared to 89% in the non-COVID-19 ARDS population. CONCLUSION: AKI is a common and serious complication of COVID-19, with a high mortality rate, which differs by geo-economic location. Important differences exist in the profile of AKI in COVID-19 versus non-COVID-19 ARDS in terms of their haemodynamic profile, time of onset and clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Intensive Care Units , Hospital Mortality
8.
Med Sci (Basel) ; 10(4)2022 12 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2143372

ABSTRACT

Background-Previous studies on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) were limited to specific geographical locations and small sample sizes. Therefore, we used the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) 2020 database to determine the risk factors for severe outcomes and mortality in COVID-19. Methods-We included adult patients with COVID-19. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was performed to determine the predictors of severe outcomes and mortality in COVID-19. Results-1,608,980 (95% CI 1,570,803-1,647,156) hospitalizations with COVID-19 were included. Severe complications occurred in 78.3% of COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and 25% of COVID-19 pneumonia patients. The mortality rate for COVID-19 ARDS was 54% and for COVID-19 pneumonia was 16.6%. On multivariate analysis, age > 65 years, male sex, government insurance or no insurance, residence in low-income areas, non-white races, stroke, chronic kidney disease, heart failure, malnutrition, primary immunodeficiency, long-term steroid/immunomodulatory use, complicated diabetes mellitus, and liver disease were associated with COVID-19 related complications and mortality. Cardiac arrest, septic shock, and intubation had the highest odds of mortality. Conclusions-Socioeconomic disparities and medical comorbidities were significant determinants of mortality in the US in the pre-vaccine era. Therefore, aggressive vaccination of high-risk patients and healthcare policies to address socioeconomic disparities are necessary to reduce death rates in future pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Vaccines , Adult , Humans , Male , United States/epidemiology , Aged , Retrospective Studies , Inpatients , SARS-CoV-2 , Risk Factors , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(22)2022 Nov 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116234

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the global risk and risk factors associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) among patients with COVID-19: Design: A systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Hospitals or nursing homes and patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome after COVID-19. METHODS: The literature review was systematically conducted on Embase, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and Web of Science, in addition to manual searches and reference list checking from 1 January 2019 to 2 March 2022. The search terms included coronavirus, acute respiratory syndrome, acute respiratory distress syndrome and observational studies. Three reviewers independently appraised the quality of the studies and extracted the relevant data using the Joanna Briggs Institute abstraction form and critical appraisal tools. A study protocol was registered in PROSPERO (CRD42022311957). Eligible studies were meta-analyzed and underwent meta-regression. RESULTS: A total of 12 studies were included, with 148,080 participants. The risk ratio (RR) of ARDS was 23%. Risk factors were age ≥ 41-64 years old (RR = 15.3%, 95% CI =0.14-2.92, p = 0.03); fever (RR = 10.3%, 95% CI = 0.03-2.03, p = 0.04); multilobe involvement of the chest (RR = 33.5%, 95% CI = 0.35-6.36, p = 0.02); lymphopenia (RR = 25.9%, 95% CI = 1.11-4.08, p = 0.01); mechanical ventilation with oxygen therapy (RR = 31.7%, 95% CI = 1.10-5.25, p = 0.002); European region (RR = 16.3%, 95% CI = 0.09-3.17, p = 0.03); sample size ≤ 500 (RR = 18.0%, 95% CI = 0.70-2.89, p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: One in four patients experienced ARDS after having COVID-19. The age group 41-64 years old and the European region were high-risk groups. These findings can be used by policymakers to allocate resources for respiratory care facilities and can also provide scientific evidence in the design of protocols to manage COVID-19 worldwide.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Risk Factors , Respiratory Therapy
10.
Viruses ; 14(11)2022 Nov 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110279

ABSTRACT

Aims: Patients suffering from viral pneumonia caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection are at risk of developing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). ARDS is a serious complication of COVID-19 that requires early recognition and comprehensive management. Little is known about the concomitant prevalence of both entities in Germany. Thus, we sought to analyze predictors and regional trends of case fatality in patients with COVID-19 and ARDS in Germany. Methods: We analyzed data on the characteristics, comorbidities and in-hospital outcomes for all hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and compared those with and without ARDS in Germany in 2020. Results: Overall, 176,137 hospitalized patients with confirmed COVID-19 were included in this analysis; among these, 11,594 (6.6%) suffered from ARDS. Most patients with ARDS were treated in hospitals in urban areas (n = 6485); proportion rate of mechanical ventilation was higher (45.9%) compared to those treated in hospitals of suburban (36.1%) or rural areas (32.0%). Proportion of ARDS grew exponentially with age until the sixth decade of life. Case-fatality rate was considerably higher in COVID-19 patients with ARDS compared to those without (48.3% vs. 15.8%; p < 0.001). Independent predictors of in-hospital case fatality with an OR > 3 were age ≥ 70 years, severe ARDS, severe liver disease, acute renal failure, stroke, dialysis treatment, shock and necessity of ECMO. Conclusions: The case fatality of COVID-19 patients with ARDS is dramatically high and shows relevant regional disparities. Our findings may help to draw more attention to predictors for in-hospital case fatality in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 and suffering from ARDS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Retrospective Studies , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Germany/epidemiology
11.
Eur J Med Res ; 27(1): 218, 2022 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2108966

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate air leakage during invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) in a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) and explore potential risk factors. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of children who underwent IMV in a single-center PICU in a tertiary referral hospital. Air leakage risk factors and factors associated with an improved outcome were assessed. RESULTS: A total of 548 children who underwent IMV were enrolled in this study. Air leakage occurred in 7.5% (41/548) of the cases in the PICU. Air leakage increased the duration of IMV and hospitalization time. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed a higher risk of air leakage during IMV for PICU patients with acute respiratory dyspnea syndrome (ARDS) (OR = 4.38), a higher pediatric critical illness score (PCIS) (OR = 1.08), or a higher peak inspiratory pressure (PIP) (OR = 1.08), whereas the risk was lower for patients with central respiratory failure (OR = 0.14). The logistic model had excellent predictive power for air leakage, with an area under the curve of 0.883 and tenfold cross-validation. Patients aged between 1 and 6 years who were diagnosed with measles or pneumonia and had a low positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) or high PaO2/FiO2 ratio were associated with improved outcomes. Patients diagnosed with central respiratory failure or congenital heart diseases were associated with less desirable outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with ARDS, a higher PCIS at admission or a higher PIP were at higher risk of air leakage.


Subject(s)
Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Respiratory Insufficiency , Child , Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Risk Factors , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Intensive Care Units
12.
Crit Care Med ; 50(11): 1638-1643, 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2077907

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Cerebrovascular injury associated with COVID-19 has been recognized, but the mechanisms remain uncertain. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a severe pulmonary injury, which is associated with both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. It remains unclear if cerebrovascular injuries associated with severe COVID-19 are unique to COVID-19 or a consequence of severe respiratory disease or its treatment. The frequency and patterns of cerebrovascular injury on brain MRI were compared among patients with COVID-19 ARDS and non-COVID-19 ARDS. DESIGN: A case-control study. SETTING: A tertiary academic hospital system. PATIENTS: Adult patients (>18 yr) with COVID-19 ARDS (March 2020 to July 2021) and non-COVID-19 ARDS (January 2010-October 2018) who underwent brain MRI during their index hospitalization. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Cerebrovascular injury on MRI included cerebral ischemia (ischemic infarct or hypoxic ischemic brain injury) and intracranial hemorrhage (intraparenchymal, subarachnoid, or subdural, and cerebral microbleed [CMB]).Twenty-six patients with COVID-19 ARDS and sixty-six patients with non-COVID ARDS underwent brain MRI during the index hospitalization, resulting in 23 age- and sex-matched pairs. The frequency of overall cerebrovascular injury (57% vs 61%), cerebral ischemia (35% vs 43%), intracranial hemorrhage (43% vs 48%), and CMB (52% vs 41%) between COVID-19 ARDS and non-COVID-19 ARDS patients was similar (all p values >0.05). However, four of 26 patients (15%) with COVID-19 and no patients with non-COVID-19 ARDS had disseminated leukoencephalopathy with underlying CMBs, an imaging pattern that has previously been reported in patients with COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: In a case-control study of selected ARDS patients with brain MRI, the frequencies of ischemic and hemorrhagic cerebrovascular injuries were similar between COVID-19 versus non-COVID-19 ARDS patients. However, the MRI pattern of disseminated hemorrhagic leukoencephalopathy was unique to the COVID-19 ARDS patients in this cohort.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Leukoencephalopathies , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Adult , Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Intracranial Hemorrhages , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology
13.
Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc ; 132: 107-116, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2046393

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), originally described in 1967, affects more than 3 million individuals each year throughout the world and accounts for approximately 10% of all admissions to the intensive care unit. Despite substantial progress in defining the epidemiology and pathogenesis of the syndrome, there is no specific treatment and mortality rates remain high. Barriers to finding specific therapeutic interventions include the inability to predict who will get ARDS, inadequate definitions and specific diagnostic markers, the heterogeneity of the patient population, complexities of the pathogenesis, and the impact of clinical care. Measurements of biomarkers have identified these barriers as well as contributed to the current understanding of the disease. The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in a dramatic increase in patients with ARDS, driving an urgent need to understand the pathogenesis and develop and implement therapeutic interventions. Past studies of biomarkers in ARDS can provide insight that could help to meet those needs more rapidly.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Biomarkers , Humans , Pandemics , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy
14.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 15703, 2022 09 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2036882

ABSTRACT

Severe Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with several pre-existing comorbidities and demographic factors. Similar factors are linked to critical sepsis and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We hypothesized that age and comorbidities are more generically linked to critical illness mortality than a specific disease state. We used national databases to identify ICU patients and to retrieve comorbidities. The relative importance of risk factors for 60-day mortality was evaluated using the interaction with disease group (Sepsis, ARDS or COVID-19) in logistic regression models. We included 32,501 adult ICU patients. In the model on 60-day mortality in sepsis and COVID-19 there were significant interactions with disease group for age, sex and asthma. In the model on 60-day mortality in ARDS and COVID-19 significant interactions with cohort were found for acute disease severity, age and chronic renal failure. In conclusion, age and sex play particular roles in COVID-19 mortality during intensive care but the burden of comorbidity was similar between sepsis and COVID-19 and ARDS and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Sepsis , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Demography , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Sepsis/complications , Sepsis/epidemiology
15.
Trials ; 23(1): 784, 2022 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2029733

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Corticosteroids are one of the few drugs that have shown a reduction in mortality in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In the RECOVERY trial, the use of dexamethasone reduced 28-day mortality compared to standard care in hospitalized patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 requiring supplemental oxygen or invasive mechanical ventilation. Evidence has shown that 30% of COVID-19 patients with mild symptoms at presentation will progress to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), particularly patients in whom laboratory inflammatory biomarkers associated with COVID-19 disease progression are detected. We postulated that dexamethasone treatment in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 pneumonia without additional oxygen requirements and at risk of progressing to severe disease might lead to a decrease in the development of ARDS and thereby reduce death. METHODS/DESIGN: This is a multicenter, randomized, controlled, parallel, open-label trial testing dexamethasone in 252 adult patients with COVID-19 pneumonia who do not require supplementary oxygen on admission but are at risk factors for the development of ARDS. Risk for the development of ARDS is defined as levels of lactate dehydrogenase > 245 U/L, C-reactive protein > 100 mg/L, and lymphocyte count of < 0.80 × 109/L. Eligible patients will be randomly assigned to receive either dexamethasone or standard of care. Patients in the dexamethasone group will receive a dose of 6 mg once daily during 7 days. The primary outcome is a composite of the development of moderate or more severe ARDS and all-cause mortality during the 30-day period following enrolment. DISCUSSION: If our hypothesis is correct, the results of this study will provide additional insights into the management and progression of this specific subpopulation of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia without additional oxygen requirements and at risk of progressing to severe disease. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04836780. Registered on 8 April 2021 as EARLY-DEX COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , COVID-19 , Dexamethasone , Pneumonia , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/adverse effects , Adult , C-Reactive Protein , COVID-19/complications , Dexamethasone/adverse effects , Humans , Lactate Dehydrogenases , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Oxygen , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/epidemiology
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(17)2022 Aug 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2023751

ABSTRACT

Pneumonia is an acute infectious disease with high morbidity and mortality rates. Pneumonia's development, severity and outcome depend on age, comorbidities and the host immune response. In this study, we combined theoretical and experimental investigations to characterize pneumonia and its comorbidities as well as to assess the host immune response measured by TREC/KREC levels in patients with pneumonia. The theoretical study was carried out using the Columbia Open Health Data (COHD) resource, which provides access to clinical concept prevalence and co-occurrence from electronic health records. The experimental study included TREC/KREC assays in young adults (18-40 years) with community-acquired (CAP) (n = 164) or nosocomial (NP) (n = 99) pneumonia and healthy controls (n = 170). Co-occurring rates between pneumonia, sepsis, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and some other related conditions common in intensive care units were the top among 4170, 3382 and 963 comorbidities in pneumonia, sepsis and ARDS, respectively. CAP patients had higher TREC levels, while NP patients had lower TREC/KREC levels compared to controls. Low TREC and KREC levels were predictive for the development of NP, ARDS, sepsis and lethal outcome (AUCTREC in the range 0.71-0.82, AUCKREC in the range 0.67-0.74). TREC/KREC analysis can be considered as a potential prognostic test in patients with pneumonia.


Subject(s)
Pneumonia , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Sepsis , Critical Illness , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Sepsis/complications , Sepsis/epidemiology , Young Adult
17.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0267835, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021713

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory distress syndrome is a life-threatening condition that has a significant effect on the occurrence of morbidity and mortality among patients with severe Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). To the best of researchers' knowledge, there is no Study on ARDS of COVID-19 in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the prevalence of ARDS and associated factors among severe COVID-19 patients at Wollega University Referral Hospital. METHODS: An institution-based retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted from September 20, 2020, to June 10, 2021. Real-Time Reverse transcription-polymerase Chain Reaction (rRT-PCR) test was used to test Patients for COVID-19. Epi-data version 3.2 was used for data entry, and the final data analysis was through STATA version 14. After checking the assumption P-value<0.25 in the bivariable analysis was used to select a candidate variable for multi-variable analysis, and a p-value of <0.05 was used to declare statistical significance. RESULTS: In this study, the prevalence of ARDS was 32%. Almost all the patients had the clinical feature of cough (93.7%), followed by shortness of breath (79.9%), fever (77.7%), and headache (67%). Age older than 65 years (AOR = 3.35, 95%CI = 1.31, 8.55), male gender (AOR = 5.63, 95%CI = 2.15, 14.77), and low oxygen saturation level (AOR = 4.60, 95%CI = 1.15, 18.35) were the independent predictors of ARDS among severe COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of ARDS among patients with severe COVID-19 was high in the study area. Therefore, elders and patients with critical conditions (low oxygen saturation) better to get special attention during COVID-19 case management to enhance good care and monitoring of the patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Hospitals, University , Humans , Male , Referral and Consultation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Universities
18.
J Card Surg ; 37(11): 3609-3618, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2019481

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although several studies have characterized the risk of coinfection in COVID pneumonia, the risk of the bloodstream and respiratory coinfection in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) supports severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is poorly understood. METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of patients with COVID-19 ARDS on ECMO at a single center between January 2020 and December 2021. Patient characteristics and clinical outcomes were compared. RESULTS: Of 44 patients placed on ECMO support for COVID-19 ARDS, 30 (68.2%) patients developed a coinfection, and 14 (31.8%) patients did not. Most patients underwent venovenous ECMO (98%; 43/44) cannulation in the right internal jugular vein (98%; 43/44). Patients with coinfection had a longer duration of ECMO (34 [interquartile range, IQR: 19.5, 65] vs. 15.5 [IQR 11, 27.3] days; p = .02), intensive care unit (ICU; 44 [IQR: 27,75.5] vs 31 [IQR 20-39.5] days; p = .03), and hospital (56.5 [IQR 27,75.5] vs 37.5 [IQR: 20.5-43.3]; p = .02) length of stay. When stratified by the presence of a coinfection, there was no difference in hospital mortality (37% vs. 29%; p = .46) or Kaplan-Meier survival (logrank p = .82). Time from ECMO to first positive blood and respiratory culture were 12 [IQR: 3, 28] and 10 [IQR: 1, 15] days, respectively. Freedom from any coinfection was 50 (95% confidence interval: 37.2-67.2)% at 15 days from ECMO initiation. CONCLUSIONS: There is a high rate of co-infections in patients placed on ECMO for COVID-19 ARDS. Although patients with coinfections had a longer duration of extracorporeal life support, and longer length of stays in the ICU and hospital, survival was not inferior.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Coinfection/epidemiology , Humans , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Retrospective Studies
19.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 876028, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1855337

ABSTRACT

Background: An increasing level of evidence suggests that obesity not only is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) but also has adverse outcomes during COVID-19 infection. Methods: We used the German nationwide inpatient sample to analyze all hospitalized patients with confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis in Germany from January to December 2020 and stratified them for diagnosed obesity. Obesity was defined as body mass index ≥30 kg/m2 according to the WHO. The impact of obesity on in-hospital case fatality and adverse in-hospital events comprising major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), venous thromboembolism (VTE), and others was analyzed. Results: We analyzed data of 176,137 hospitalizations of patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection; among them, 9,383 (5.3%) had an additional obesity diagnosis. Although COVID-19 patients without obesity were older (72.0 [interquartile range (IQR) 56.0/82.0] vs. 66.0 [54.0/76.0] years, p < 0.001), the CVD profile was less favorable in obese COVID-19 patients (Charlson comorbidity index 4.44 ± 3.01 vs. 4.08 ± 2.92, p < 0.001). Obesity was independently associated with increased in-hospital case fatality (OR 1.203 [95% CI 1.131-1.279], p < 0.001) and MACCE (OR 1.168 [95% CI 1.101-1.239], p < 0.001), ARDS (OR 2.605 [95% CI 2.449-2.772], p < 0.001), and VTE (OR 1.780 [95% CI 1.605-1.973], p < 0.001) and also associated with increased necessity of treatment on intensive care unit (OR 2.201 [95% CI 2.097-2.310], p < 0.001), mechanical ventilation (OR 2.277 [95% CI 2.140-2.422], p < 0.001), and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (OR 3.485 [95% CI 3.023-4.017], p < 0.001). Conclusions: Obesity independently affected case fatality, MACCE, ARDS development, VTE, and other adverse in-hospital events in patients with COVID-19 infection. Obesity should be taken into account regarding COVID-19 prevention strategies, risk stratification, and adequate healthcare planning. Maintaining a healthy weight is important not only to prevent cardiometabolic diseases but also for better individual outcomes during COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Venous Thromboembolism , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Testing , Hospitals , Humans , Obesity/complications , Obesity/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology
20.
J Cardiol ; 80(4): 298-302, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1851569

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Recent studies suggest cardiac involvement with an increased incidence of arrhythmias in the setting of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of potentially lethal arrhythmias and atrial fibrillation in patients with COVID-19-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and to elicit possible predictors of arrhythmia occurrence. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 107 patients (82 male, mean age 60 ±â€¯12 years, median body mass index 28 kg/m2) treated for COVID-19-induced ARDS in a large tertiary university hospital intensive care unit between March 2020 and February 2021 were retrospectively analyzed. Eighty-four patients (79%) had at least moderate ARDS, 88 patients (83%) were mechanically ventilated, 35 patients (33%) received vvECMO. Forty-three patients (40%) died during their hospital stay. Twelve patients (11%) showed potentially lethal arrhythmias (six ventricular tachycardia, six significant bradycardia). Atrial fibrillation occurred in 27 patients (25%). In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, duration of hospitalization was associated with the occurrence of potentially lethal arrhythmias (p = 0.006). There was no association between possible predictive factors and the occurrence of atrial fibrillation. Invasive ventilation, antipsychotics, and the QTc interval were independently associated with acute in-hospital mortality, but this was not arrhythmia-driven as there was no association between the occurrence of arrhythmias and mortality. CONCLUSION: In this relatively young population with COVID-19-induced ARDS, the incidence of potentially lethal arrhythmias was low. While overall mortality was high in these severely affected patients, cardiac involvement and arrhythmia occurrence was not a significant driver of mortality.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation , COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Aged , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Retrospective Studies
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL