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1.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(3): e24843, 2021 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2197884

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, there have been over 2 million deaths globally. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) may be the main cause of death. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe the clinical features, outcomes, and ARDS characteristics of patients with COVID-19 admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) in Chongqing, China. METHODS: The epidemiology of COVID-19 from January 21, 2020, to March 15, 2020, in Chongqing, China, was analyzed retrospectively, and 75 ICU patients from two hospitals were included in this study. On day 1, 56 patients with ARDS were selected for subgroup analysis, and a modified Poisson regression was performed to identify predictors for the early improvement of ARDS (eiARDS). RESULTS: Chongqing reported a 5.3% case fatality rate for the 75 ICU patients. The median age of these patients was 57 (IQR 25-75) years, and no bias was present in the sex ratio. A total of 93% (n=70) of patients developed ARDS during ICU stay, and more than half had moderate ARDS. However, most patients (n=41, 55%) underwent high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy, but not mechanical ventilation. Nearly one-third of patients with ARDS improved (arterial blood oxygen partial pressure/oxygen concentration >300 mm Hg) in 1 week, which was defined as eiARDS. Patients with eiARDS had a higher survival rate and a shorter length of ICU stay than those without eiARDS. Age (<55 years) was the only variable independently associated with eiARDS, with a risk ratio of 2.67 (95% CI 1.17-6.08). CONCLUSIONS: A new subphenotype of ARDS-eiARDS-in patients with COVID-19 was identified. As clinical outcomes differ, the stratified management of patients based on eiARDS or age is highly recommended.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
2.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 25(8): 1301-1307, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1994307

ABSTRACT

Background: Acute phase reactants and inflammation biomarkers such as ferritin, procalcitonin, C-reactive protein (CRP), and complete blood count parameters (White blood cell, platelet count) are usually used to evaluate and monitor the disease severity and treatment response of systemic inflammatory diseases. In addition to these parameters, Immature granulocytes (IG) that increase during systemic infection, hematological malignancy, and drug treatments (such as chemotherapy and glucocorticoids) are important parameters for evaluating systemic inflammation. The sensitivity and specificity of IG are as high as the abovementioned inflammatory biomarkers for monitoring disease severity and treatment response. Aim: The aim of the study is to evaluate the relationship between IG count and the need for mechanical ventilation and mortality in patients hospitalized in the intensive care unit (ICU) due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Patients and Methods: The medical records of the 401 patients who were followed up in the ICU due to COVID-19-related acute respiratory distress syndrome between October 2020 and February 2021 were retrospectively reviewed. On the day of admission to the ICU complete blood count (CBC), arterial blood gas analysis, coagulation parameters (fibrinogen, D-dimer) are recorded. CRP, procalcitonin, and ferritin levels are also recorded at the day of admission. During the follow-up period, the survival status and mechanical ventilation status of the patients were recorded and the relation between IG count and these parameters was evaluated. Results: The mean IG at the admission was 0.2 ± 0.4 109/L. The IG level of the intubated patients at the time of intubation was 0.3 ± 0.5 109/L. There was a significant positive correlation between mortality and IG levels at admission and at the time of intubation (IG admission; P = 0.001, r = 0.347 and IG at intubation; P = 0.001, r = 0.228). Conclusion: IG levels in CBC data could be a potential practical biomarker. This issue requires further research and the development of therapies targeting IG cells is needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Granulocytes , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Sepsis , Biomarkers , C-Reactive Protein , COVID-19/complications , Ferritins , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Procalcitonin , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Retrospective Studies
3.
Crit Care Med ; 50(4): 586-594, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764674

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Airway pressure release ventilation is a ventilatory mode characterized by a mandatory inverse inspiratory:expiratory ratio with a very short expiratory phase, aimed to avoid derecruitment and allow spontaneous breathing. Recent basic and clinical evidence suggests that this mode could be associated with improved outcomes in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes between airway pressure release ventilation and traditional ventilation targeting low tidal volume, in patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019. DESIGN: Single-center randomized controlled trial. SETTING: ICU of a Mexican referral center dedicated to care of patients with confirmed diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019. PATIENTS: Ninety adult intubated patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome associated with severe coronavirus disease 2019. INTERVENTIONS: Within 48 hours after intubation, patients were randomized to either receive ventilatory management with airway pressure release ventilation or continue low tidal volume ventilation. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Forty-five patients in airway pressure release ventilation group and 45 in the low tidal volume group were included. Ventilator-free days were 3.7 (0-15) and 5.2 (0-19) in the airway pressure release ventilation and low tidal volume groups, respectively (p = 0.28). During the first 7 days, patients in airway pressure release ventilation had a higher Pao2/Fio2 (mean difference, 26 [95%CI, 13-38]; p < 0.001) and static compliance (mean difference, 3.7 mL/cm H2O [95% CI, 0.2-7.2]; p = 0.03), higher mean airway pressure (mean difference, 3.1 cm H2O [95% CI, 2.1-4.1]; p < 0.001), and higher tidal volume (mean difference, 0.76 mL/kg/predicted body weight [95% CI, 0.5-1.0]; p < 0.001). More patients in airway pressure release ventilation had transient severe hypercapnia, defined as an elevation of Pco2 at greater than or equal to 55 along with a pH less than 7.15 (42% vs 15%; p = 0.009); other outcomes were similar. Overall mortality was 69%, with no difference between the groups (78% in airway pressure release ventilation vs 60% in low tidal volume; p = 0.07). CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, when compared with low tidal volume, airway pressure release ventilation was not associated with more ventilator-free days or improvement in other relevant outcomes in patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Humans , Male , Mexico , Middle Aged , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Tidal Volume
4.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(5): 1777-1785, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1754188

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The first pandemic phase of COVID-19 in Italy was characterized by high in-hospital mortality ranging from 23% to 38%. During the third pandemic phase there has been an improvement in the management and treatment of COVID-19, so mortality and predictors may have changed. A prospective study was planned to identify predictors of mortality during the third pandemic phase. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From 15 December 2020 to 15 May 2021, 208 patients were hospitalized (median age: 64 years; males: 58.6%); 83% had a median of 2 (IQR,1-4) comorbidities; pneumonia was present in 89.8%. Patients were monitored remotely for respiratory function and ECG trace for 24 hours/day. Management and treatment were done following the timing and dosage recommended by international guidelines. RESULTS: 79.2% of patients necessitated O2-therapy. ARDS was present in 46.1% of patients and 45.4% received non-invasive ventilation and 11.1% required ICU treatment. 38% developed arrhythmias which were identified early by telemetry and promptly treated. The in-hospital mortality rate was 10%. At multivariate analysis independent predictors of mortality were: older age (R-R for≥70 years: 5.44), number of comorbidities ≥3 (R-R 2.72), eGFR ≤60 ml/min (RR 2.91), high d-Dimer (R-R for≥1,000 ng/ml:7.53), and low PaO2/FiO2 (R-R for <200: 3.21). CONCLUSIONS: Management and treatment adherence to recommendations, use of telemetry, and no overcrowding appear to reduce mortality. Advanced age, number of comorbidities, severe renal failure, high d-Dimer and low P/F remain predictors of poor outcome. The data help to identify current high-risk COVID-19 patients in whom management has yet to be optimized, who require the greatest therapeutic effort, and subjects in whom vaccination is mandatory.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Hospital Departments/organization & administration , Hospital Mortality , Internal Medicine/methods , Pandemics , Telemetry/methods , Age Factors , Aged , Critical Care , Electrocardiography , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen/blood , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Pneumonia/etiology , Pneumonia/mortality , Predictive Value of Tests , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality
5.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 340, 2021 09 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594693

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Awake prone positioning (APP) is widely used in the management of patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19). The primary objective of this study was to compare the outcome of COVID-19 patients who received early versus late APP. METHODS: Post hoc analysis of data collected for a randomized controlled trial (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04325906). Adult patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure secondary to COVID-19 who received APP for at least one hour were included. Early prone positioning was defined as APP initiated within 24 h of high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) start. Primary outcomes were 28-day mortality and intubation rate. RESULTS: We included 125 patients (79 male) with a mean age of 62 years. Of them, 92 (73.6%) received early APP and 33 (26.4%) received late APP. Median time from HFNC initiation to APP was 2.25 (0.8-12.82) vs 36.35 (30.2-75.23) hours in the early and late APP group (p < 0.0001), respectively. Average APP duration was 5.07 (2.0-9.05) and 3.0 (1.09-5.64) hours per day in early and late APP group (p < 0.0001), respectively. The early APP group had lower mortality compared to the late APP group (26% vs 45%, p = 0.039), but no difference was found in intubation rate. Advanced age (OR 1.12 [95% CI 1.0-1.95], p = 0.001), intubation (OR 10.65 [95% CI 2.77-40.91], p = 0.001), longer time to initiate APP (OR 1.02 [95% CI 1.0-1.04], p = 0.047) and hydrocortisone use (OR 6.2 [95% CI 1.23-31.1], p = 0.027) were associated with increased mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Early initiation (< 24 h of HFNC use) of APP in acute hypoxemic respiratory failure secondary to COVID-19 improves 28-day survival. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04325906.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Prone Position , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Wakefulness , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Time-to-Treatment
6.
J Clin Invest ; 132(3)2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1555937

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDSevere coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with a dysregulated immune response, which can result in cytokine-release syndrome and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Patients with COVID-19-associated ARDS have elevated free serum levels of the cytokine lymphotoxin-like inducible protein that competes with glycoprotein D for herpesvirus entry on T cells (LIGHT; also known as TNFSF14). Such patients may benefit from LIGHT-neutralization therapy.METHODSThis randomized, double-blind, multicenter, proof-of-concept trial enrolled adults hospitalized with COVID-19-associated pneumonia and mild to moderate ARDS. Patients received standard of care plus a single dose of a human LIGHT-neutralizing antibody (CERC-002) or placebo. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients receiving CERC-002 who remained alive and free of respiratory failure through day 28. Safety was assessed via adverse event monitoring.RESULTSFor most of the 83 enrolled patients, standard of care included systemic corticosteroids (88.0%) or remdesivir (57.8%). A higher proportion of patients remained alive and free of respiratory failure through day 28 after receiving CERC-002 (83.9%) versus placebo (64.5%; P = 0.044), including in patients 60 years of age or older (76.5% vs. 47.1%, respectively; P = 0.042). Mortality rates were 7.7% (CERC-002) and 14.3% (placebo) on day 28 and 10.8% and 22.5%, respectively, on day 60. Treatment-emergent adverse events were less frequent with CERC-002 than placebo.CONCLUSIONFor patients with COVID-19-associated ARDS, adding CERC-002 to standard-of-care treatment reduces LIGHT levels and might reduce the risk of respiratory failure and death.TRIAL REGISTRATIONClinicalTrials.gov NCT04412057.FUNDINGAvalo Therapeutics.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor Ligand Superfamily Member 14/antagonists & inhibitors , Adenosine Monophosphate/administration & dosage , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Adult , Alanine/administration & dosage , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/mortality , Disease-Free Survival , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/blood , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Survival Rate , Tumor Necrosis Factor Ligand Superfamily Member 14/blood
7.
Br J Surg ; 108(12): 1448-1464, 2021 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1555288

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to determine the impact of pulmonary complications on death after surgery both before and during the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. METHODS: This was a patient-level, comparative analysis of two, international prospective cohort studies: one before the pandemic (January-October 2019) and the second during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic (local emergence of COVID-19 up to 19 April 2020). Both included patients undergoing elective resection of an intra-abdominal cancer with curative intent across five surgical oncology disciplines. Patient selection and rates of 30-day postoperative pulmonary complications were compared. The primary outcome was 30-day postoperative mortality. Mediation analysis using a natural-effects model was used to estimate the proportion of deaths during the pandemic attributable to SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: This study included 7402 patients from 50 countries; 3031 (40.9 per cent) underwent surgery before and 4371 (59.1 per cent) during the pandemic. Overall, 4.3 per cent (187 of 4371) developed postoperative SARS-CoV-2 in the pandemic cohort. The pulmonary complication rate was similar (7.1 per cent (216 of 3031) versus 6.3 per cent (274 of 4371); P = 0.158) but the mortality rate was significantly higher (0.7 per cent (20 of 3031) versus 2.0 per cent (87 of 4371); P < 0.001) among patients who had surgery during the pandemic. The adjusted odds of death were higher during than before the pandemic (odds ratio (OR) 2.72, 95 per cent c.i. 1.58 to 4.67; P < 0.001). In mediation analysis, 54.8 per cent of excess postoperative deaths during the pandemic were estimated to be attributable to SARS-CoV-2 (OR 1.73, 1.40 to 2.13; P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Although providers may have selected patients with a lower risk profile for surgery during the pandemic, this did not mitigate the likelihood of death through SARS-CoV-2 infection. Care providers must act urgently to protect surgical patients from SARS-CoV-2 infection.


This study compared death rates in patients who developed pulmonary complications of surgery before and during the pandemic in two large, international studies. Patients who underwent surgery during the pandemic tended to be younger and fitter. Overall, 4.3 per cent were diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection after surgery in the pandemic cohort. Deaths within 30 days after surgery tripled during the first wave of the pandemic (from 0.7 to 2.0 per cent), whereas the rate of pulmonary complications remained the similar (7.1 to 6.3 per cent). Over half of these excess deaths (54.8 per cent) were estimated to be related to SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Elective Surgical Procedures , Postoperative Complications/mortality , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Abdominal Neoplasms/surgery , Aged , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics
8.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 205(4): 431-439, 2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551111

ABSTRACT

Rationale: The "Berlin definition" of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) does not allow inclusion of patients receiving high-flow nasal oxygen (HFNO). However, several articles have proposed that criteria for defining ARDS should be broadened to allow inclusion of patients receiving HFNO. Objectives: To compare the proportion of patients fulfilling ARDS criteria during HFNO and soon after intubation, and 28-day mortality between patients treated exclusively with HFNO and patients transitioned from HFNO to invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). Methods: From previously published studies, we analyzed patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) who had PaO2/FiO2 of ⩽300 while treated with ⩾40 L/min HFNO, or noninvasive ventilation (NIV) with positive end-expiratory pressure of ⩾5 cm H2O (comparator). In patients transitioned from HFNO/NIV to invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), we compared ARDS severity during HFNO/NIV and soon after IMV. We compared 28-day mortality in patients treated exclusively with HFNO/NIV versus patients transitioned to IMV. Measurements and Main Results: We analyzed 184 and 131 patients receiving HFNO or NIV, respectively. A total of 112 HFNO and 69 NIV patients transitioned to IMV. Of those, 104 (92.9%) patients on HFNO and 66 (95.7%) on NIV continued to have PaO2/FiO2 ⩽300 under IMV. Twenty-eight-day mortality in patients who remained on HFNO was 4.2% (3/72), whereas in patients transitioned from HFNO to IMV, it was 28.6% (32/112) (P < 0.001). Twenty-eight-day mortality in patients who remained on NIV was 1.6% (1/62), whereas in patients who transitioned from NIV to IMV, it was 44.9% (31/69) (P < 0.001). Overall mortality was 19.0% (35/184) and 24.4% (32/131) for HFNO and NIV, respectively (P = 0.2479). Conclusions: Broadening the ARDS definition to include patients on HFNO with PaO2/FiO2 ⩽300 may identify patients at earlier stages of disease but with lower mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Hypoxia/therapy , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Hypoxia/diagnosis , Hypoxia/mortality , Hypoxia/virology , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/mortality , Patient Acuity , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiration, Artificial/mortality , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Treatment Outcome
9.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 112(6): 1983-1989, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1520703

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A life-threatening complication of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) refractory to conventional management. Venovenous (VV) extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) (VV-ECMO) is used to support patients with ARDS in whom conventional management fails. Scoring systems to predict mortality in VV-ECMO remain unvalidated in COVID-19 ARDS. This report describes a large single-center experience with VV-ECMO in COVID-19 and assesses the utility of standard risk calculators. METHODS: A retrospective review of a prospective database of all patients with COVID-19 who underwent VV-ECMO cannulation between March 15 and June 27, 2020 at a single academic center was performed. Demographic, clinical, and ECMO characteristics were collected. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality; survivor and nonsurvivor cohorts were compared by using univariate and bivariate analyses. RESULTS: Forty patients who had COVID-19 and underwent ECMO were identified. Of the 33 patients (82.5%) in whom ECMO had been discontinued at the time of analysis, 18 patients (54.5%) survived to hospital discharge, and 15 (45.5%) died during ECMO. Nonsurvivors presented with a statistically significant higher Prediction of Survival on ECMO Therapy (PRESET)-Score (mean ± SD, 8.33 ± 0.8 vs 6.17 ± 1.8; P = .001). The PRESET score demonstrated accurate mortality prediction. All patients with a PRESET-Score of 6 or lowers survived, and a score of 7 or higher was associated with a dramatic increase in mortality. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that favorable outcomes are possible in patients with COVID-19 who undergo ECMO at high-volume centers. This study demonstrated an association between the PRESET-Score and survival in patients with COVID-19 who underwent VV-ECMO. Standard risk calculators may aid in appropriate selection of patients with COVID-19 ARDS for ECMO.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Adult , Humans , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment
10.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 27: 10760296211051764, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511654

ABSTRACT

The precise mechanisms of pathology in severe COVID-19 remains elusive. Current evidence suggests that inflammatory mediators are responsible for the manifestation of clinical symptoms that precedes a fatal response to infection. This review examines the nature of platelet activating factor and emphasizes the similarities between the physiological effects of platelet activating factor and the clinical complications of severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Platelet Activating Factor/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , Humans , Inflammation/complications , Inflammation/metabolism , Inflammation/mortality , Inflammation/pathology , Multiple Organ Failure/complications , Multiple Organ Failure/metabolism , Multiple Organ Failure/mortality , Multiple Organ Failure/pathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/complications , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombosis/complications , Thrombosis/metabolism , Thrombosis/mortality , Thrombosis/pathology
11.
BMC Pulm Med ; 21(1): 354, 2021 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505545

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) has been used as an immunomodulatory therapy to counteract severe systemic inflammation in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). But its use in COVID-19 related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is not well established. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of electronic health records of COVID-19 patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) at Hazm Mebaireek General Hospital, Qatar, between March 7, 2020 and September 9, 2020. Patients receiving invasive mechanical ventilation for moderate-to-severe ARDS were divided into two groups based on whether they received IVIG therapy or not. The primary outcome was all-cause ICU mortality. Secondary outcomes studied were ventilator-free days and ICU-free days at day-28, and incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI). Propensity score matching was used to adjust for confounders, and the primary outcome was compared using competing-risks survival analysis. RESULTS: Among 590 patients included in the study, 400 received routine care, and 190 received IVIG therapy in addition to routine care. One hundred eighteen pairs were created after propensity score matching with no statistically significant differences between the groups. Overall ICU mortality in the study population was 27.1%, and in the matched cohort, it was 25.8%. Mortality was higher among IVIG-treated patients (36.4% vs. 15.3%; sHR 3.5; 95% CI 1.98-6.19; P < 0.001). Ventilator-free days and ICU-free days at day-28 were lower (P < 0.001 for both), and incidence of AKI was significantly higher (85.6% vs. 67.8%; P = 0.001) in the IVIG group. CONCLUSION: IVIG therapy in mechanically ventilated patients with COVID-19 related moderate-to-severe ARDS was associated with higher ICU mortality. A randomized clinical trial is needed to confirm this observation further.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Administration, Intravenous , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Propensity Score , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome
12.
Crit Care Med ; 49(7): 1149-1158, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1494026

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Circulating nucleosomes and their component histones have been implicated as pathogenic in sepsis and acute respiratory distress syndrome in adults. However, their role in pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome is unknown. DESIGN: We performed a prospective cohort study in children with acute respiratory distress syndrome, with plasma collection within 24 hours of acute respiratory distress syndrome onset. We associated nucleosome levels with severity of acute respiratory distress syndrome and with nonpulmonary organ failures and tested for association of nucleosomes with PICU mortality and ventilator-free days at 28 days in univariate and multivariable analyses. We also performed proteomics of DNA-bound plasma proteins in a matched case-control study of septic children with and without acute respiratory distress syndrome in order to identify specific histone proteins elevated in acute respiratory distress syndrome. SETTING: Large academic tertiary-care PICU. PATIENTS: Intubated children meeting Berlin criteria for acute respiratory distress syndrome. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We enrolled 333 children with acute respiratory distress syndrome, with 69 nonsurvivors (21%). Plasma nucleosomes were correlated with acute respiratory distress syndrome severity and with the number of nonpulmonary organ failures at acute respiratory distress syndrome onset. Nucleosomes were higher (p < 0.001) in nonsurvivors (0.40 [interquartile range, 0.20-0.71] arbitrary units) relative to survivors (0.10 [interquartile range, 0.04-0.25] arbitrary units). Nucleosomes were associated with PICU mortality in multivariable analysis (adjusted odds ratio 1.84 per 1 sd increase; 95% CI, 1.38-2.45; p < 0.001). Nucleosomes were also associated with a lower probability of being extubated alive by day 28 after multivariable adjustment (adjusted subdistribution hazard ratio, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.63-0.88; p = 0.001). Proteomic analysis demonstrated higher levels of the core nucleosome histones H2A, H2B, H3, and H4 in septic children with acute respiratory distress syndrome, relative to septic children without acute respiratory distress syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma nucleosomes are associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome severity, nonpulmonary organ failures, and worse outcomes in pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome.


Subject(s)
Histones/blood , Nucleosomes/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/blood , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Adolescent , Airway Extubation , Case-Control Studies , Child , Child, Preschool , DNA/blood , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Male , Multiple Organ Failure/mortality , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Proteomics , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/complications , Sepsis/blood , Sepsis/complications , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Rate
13.
Biomark Med ; 15(16): 1509-1517, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477715

ABSTRACT

Background: The contribution of endothelial injury in the pathogenesis of COVID-19-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and resulting respiratory failure remains unclear. Plasma endostatin, an endogenous inhibitor of angiogenesis and endothelial dysfunction is upregulated during hypoxia, inflammation and progress of pulmonary disease. Aim: To investigate if plasma endostatin is associated to hypoxia, inflammation and 30-day mortality in patients with severe COVID-19 infection. Method: Samples for blood analysis and plasma endostatin quantification were collected from adult patients with ongoing COVID-19 (n = 109) on admission to intensive care unit (day 1). Demographic characteristics and 30-day mortality data were extracted from medical records. The ability of endostatin to predict mortality was analyzed using receiving operating characteristics and Kaplan-Meier analysis with a cutoff at 46.2 ng/ml was used to analyze the association to survival. Results: Plasma endostatin levels correlated with; PaO2/FiO2 (r = -0.3, p < 0.001), arterial oxygen tension (r = -0.2, p = 0.01), lactate (r = 0.2, p = 0.04), C-reactive protein (r = 0.2, p = 0.04), ferritin (r = 0.2, p = 0.09), D-dimer (r = 0.2, p = 0.08) and IL-6 (r = 0.4, p < 0.001). Nonsurvivors at 30 days had higher plasma endostatin levels than survivors (72 ± 26 vs 56 ± 16 ng/ml, p = 0.01). Receiving operating characteristic curve (area under the curve 0.7) showed that plasma endostatin >46.2 ng/ml predicts mortality with a sensitivity of 92% and specificity of 71%. In patients with plasma endostatin >46.2 ng/ml probability of survival was lower (p = 0.02) in comparison to those with endostatin <46.2 ng/ml. Conclusion: Our results suggest that plasma endostatin is an early biomarker for disease severity in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Endostatins/blood , Hypoxia , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Disease-Free Survival , Female , Humans , Hypoxia/blood , Hypoxia/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/blood , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Survival Rate
14.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 355, 2021 10 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463260

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) was frequently used to treat patients with severe coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19)-associated acute respiratory distress (ARDS) during the initial outbreak. Care of COVID-19 patients evolved markedly during the second part of 2020. Our objective was to compare the characteristics and outcomes of patients who received ECMO for severe COVID-19 ARDS before or after July 1, 2020. METHODS: We included consecutive adults diagnosed with COVID-19 in Paris-Sorbonne University Hospital Network ICUs, who received ECMO for severe ARDS until January 28, 2021. Characteristics and survival probabilities over time were estimated during the first and second waves. Pre-ECMO risk factors predicting 90-day mortality were assessed using multivariate Cox regression. RESULTS: Characteristics of the 88 and 71 patients admitted, respectively, before and after July 1, 2020, were comparable except for older age, more frequent use of dexamethasone (18% vs. 82%), high-flow nasal oxygenation (19% vs. 82%) and/or non-invasive ventilation (7% vs. 37%) after July 1. Respective estimated probabilities (95% confidence intervals) of 90-day mortality were 36% (27-47%) and 48% (37-60%) during the first and the second periods. After adjusting for confounders, probability of 90-day mortality was significantly higher for patients treated after July 1 (HR 2.27, 95% CI 1.02-5.07). ECMO-related complications did not differ between study periods. CONCLUSIONS: 90-day mortality of ECMO-supported COVID-19-ARDS patients increased significantly after July 1, 2020, and was no longer comparable to that of non-COVID ECMO-treated patients. Failure of prolonged non-invasive oxygenation strategies before intubation and increased lung damage may partly explain this outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/mortality , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/trends , Hospitalization/trends , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Intensive Care Units/trends , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality/trends , Paris/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Treatment Outcome
15.
Lancet ; 398(10307): 1230-1238, 2021 10 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440421

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Over the course of the COVID-19 pandemic, the care of patients with COVID-19 has changed and the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has increased. We aimed to examine patient selection, treatments, outcomes, and ECMO centre characteristics over the course of the pandemic to date. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization Registry and COVID-19 Addendum to compare three groups of ECMO-supported patients with COVID-19 (aged ≥16 years). At early-adopting centres-ie, those using ECMO support for COVID-19 throughout 2020-we compared patients who started ECMO on or before May 1, 2020 (group A1), and between May 2 and Dec 31, 2020 (group A2). Late-adopting centres were those that provided ECMO for COVID-19 only after May 1, 2020 (group B). The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality in a time-to-event analysis assessed 90 days after ECMO initiation. A Cox proportional hazards model was fit to compare the patient and centre-level adjusted relative risk of mortality among the groups. FINDINGS: In 2020, 4812 patients with COVID-19 received ECMO across 349 centres within 41 countries. For early-adopting centres, the cumulative incidence of in-hospital mortality 90 days after ECMO initiation was 36·9% (95% CI 34·1-39·7) in patients who started ECMO on or before May 1 (group A1) versus 51·9% (50·0-53·8) after May 1 (group A2); at late-adopting centres (group B), it was 58·9% (55·4-62·3). Relative to patients in group A2, group A1 patients had a lower adjusted relative risk of in-hospital mortality 90 days after ECMO (hazard ratio 0·82 [0·70-0·96]), whereas group B patients had a higher adjusted relative risk (1·42 [1·17-1·73]). INTERPRETATION: Mortality after ECMO for patients with COVID-19 worsened during 2020. These findings inform the role of ECMO in COVID-19 for patients, clinicians, and policy makers. FUNDING: None.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Hospital Mortality/trends , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Adult , COVID-19/mortality , Duration of Therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/trends , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Selection , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Registries , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 335, 2021 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1412565

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19)-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) emerged as important fungal complications in patients with COVID-19-associated severe acute respiratory failure (ARF). Whether mould active antifungal prophylaxis (MAFP) can prevent CAPA remains elusive so far. METHODS: In this observational study, we included all consecutive patients admitted to intensive care units with COVID-19-associated ARF between September 1, 2020, and May 1, 2021. We compared patients with versus without antifungal prophylaxis with respect to CAPA incidence (primary outcome) and mortality (secondary outcome). Propensity score adjustment was performed to account for any imbalances in baseline characteristics. CAPA cases were classified according to European Confederation of Medical Mycology (ECMM)/International Society of Human and Animal Mycoses (ISHAM) consensus criteria. RESULTS: We included 132 patients, of whom 75 (57%) received antifungal prophylaxis (98% posaconazole). Ten CAPA cases were diagnosed, after a median of 6 days following ICU admission. Of those, 9 CAPA cases were recorded in the non-prophylaxis group and one in the prophylaxis group, respectively. However, no difference in 30-day ICU mortality could be observed. Thirty-day CAPA incidence estimates were 1.4% (95% CI 0.2-9.7) in the MAFP group and 17.5% (95% CI 9.6-31.4) in the group without MAFP (p = 0.002). The respective subdistributional hazard ratio (sHR) for CAPA incidence comparing the MAFP versus no MAFP group was of 0.08 (95% CI 0.01-0.63; p = 0.017). CONCLUSION: In ICU patients with COVID-19 ARF, antifungal prophylaxis was associated with significantly reduced CAPA incidence, but this did not translate into improved survival. Randomized controlled trials are warranted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of MAFP with respect to CAPA incidence and clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/prevention & control , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Triazoles/therapeutic use
18.
Respiration ; 101(2): 155-165, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1410800

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Findings from autopsies have provided evidence on systemic microvascular damage as one of the underlying mechanisms of Coronavirus disease 2019 (CO-VID-19). The aim of this study was to correlate autopsy-based cause of death in SARS-CoV-2, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) positive patients with chest imaging and severity grade of pulmonary and systemic morphological vascular pathology. METHODS: Fifteen SARS-CoV-2 positive autopsies with clinically distinct presentations (age 22-89 years) were retrospectively analyzed with focus on vascular, thromboembolic, and ischemic changes in pulmonary and in extrapulmonary sites. Eight patients died due to COVID-19 associated respiratory failure with diffuse alveolar damage in various stages and/or multi-organ failure, whereas other reasons such as cardiac decompensation, complication of malignant tumors, or septic shock were the cause of death in 7 further patients. The severity of gross and histopathological changes was semi-quantitatively scored as 0 (absent), 1 (mild), and 3 (severe). Severity scores between the 2 groups were correlated with selected clinical parameters, initial chest imaging, autopsy-based cause of death, and compared using Pearson χ2 and Mann-Whitney U tests. RESULTS: Severe pulmonary endotheliitis (p = 0.031, p = 0.029) and multi-organ involvement (p = 0.026, p = 0.006) correlated significantly with COVID-19 associated death. Pulmonary microthrombi showed limited statistical correlation, while tissue necrosis, gross pulmonary embolism, and bacterial superinfection did not differentiate the 2 study groups. Chest imaging at hospital admission did not differ either. CONCLUSIONS: Extensive pulmonary endotheliitis and multi-organ involvement are characteristic autopsy features in fatal CO-VID-19 associated deaths. Thromboembolic and ischemic events and bacterial superinfections occur frequently in SARS-CoV-2 infection independently of outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , Endothelium, Vascular/pathology , Multiple Organ Failure/virology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Vasculitis/virology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Autopsy , COVID-19/complications , Cause of Death , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Organ Failure/mortality , Multiple Organ Failure/pathology , Pulmonary Alveoli/pathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/pathology , Vasculitis/mortality , Vasculitis/pathology , Young Adult
19.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 283, 2021 08 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398871

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The intensity of ventilation, reflected by driving pressure (ΔP) and mechanical power (MP), has an association with outcome in invasively ventilated patients with or without acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). It is uncertain if a similar association exists in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with acute respiratory failure. METHODS: We aimed to investigate the impact of intensity of ventilation on patient outcome. The PRoVENT-COVID study is a national multicenter observational study in COVID-19 patients receiving invasive ventilation. Ventilator parameters were collected a fixed time points on the first calendar day of invasive ventilation. Mean dynamic ΔP and MP were calculated for individual patients at time points without evidence of spontaneous breathing. A Cox proportional hazard model, and a double stratification analysis adjusted for confounders were used to estimate the independent associations of ΔP and MP with outcome. The primary endpoint was 28-day mortality. RESULTS: In 825 patients included in this analysis, 28-day mortality was 27.5%. ΔP was not independently associated with mortality (HR 1.02 [95% confidence interval 0.88-1.18]; P = 0.750). MP, however, was independently associated with 28-day mortality (HR 1.17 [95% CI 1.01-1.36]; P = 0.031), and increasing quartiles of MP, stratified on comparable levels of ΔP, had higher risks of 28-day mortality (HR 1.15 [95% CI 1.01-1.30]; P = 0.028). CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort of critically ill invasively ventilated COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory failure, we show an independent association of MP, but not ΔP with 28-day mortality. MP could serve as one prognostic biomarker in addition to ΔP in these patients. Efforts aiming at limiting both ΔP and MP could translate in a better outcome. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov (study identifier NCT04346342).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Respiration, Artificial/mortality , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Aged , Cohort Studies , Critical Illness/mortality , Critical Illness/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality/trends , Respiration, Artificial/trends , Retrospective Studies , Tidal Volume/physiology
20.
Anaesth Crit Care Pain Med ; 39(5): 553-561, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384795

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Community transmission of SARS-CoV-2 was detected in Spain in February 2020, with 216% intensive care unit (ICU) capacity expanded in Vitoria by March 18th, 2020. METHODS: We identified patients from the two public hospitals in Vitoria who were admitted to ICU with confirmed infection by SARS-CoV-2. Data reported here were available in April 6th, 2020. Mortality was assessed in those who completed 15-days of ICU stay. RESULTS: We identified 48 patients (27 males) with confirmed SARS-CoV-2. Median [interquartile range (IQR)] age of patients was 63 [51-75] years. Symptoms began a median of 7 [5-12] days before ICU admission. The most common comorbidities identified were obesity (48%), arterial hypertension (44%) and chronic lung disease (37%). All patients were admitted by hypoxemic respiratory failure and none received non-invasive mechanical ventilation. Forty-five (94%) underwent intubation, 3 (6%) high flow nasal therapy (HFNT), 1 (2%) extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and 22 (46%) required prone position. After 15 days, 14/45 (31%) intubated patients died (13% within one week), 10/45 (22%) were extubated, and 21/45 (47%) underwent mechanical ventilation. Six patients had documented super-infection. Procalcitonin plasma above 0.5µg/L was associated with 16% vs. 19% (p=0.78) risk of death after 7 days. CONCLUSION: This early experience with SARS-CoV-2 in Spain suggests that a strategy of right oxygenation avoiding non-invasive mechanical ventilation was life-saving. Seven-day mortality in SARS-CoV-2 requiring intubation was lower than 15%, with 80% of patients still requiring mechanical ventilation. After 15 days of ICU admission, half of patients remained intubated, whereas one third died.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Hospitals, Public/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Combined Modality Therapy , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Procalcitonin/blood , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology
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