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1.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 340, 2021 09 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594693

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Awake prone positioning (APP) is widely used in the management of patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19). The primary objective of this study was to compare the outcome of COVID-19 patients who received early versus late APP. METHODS: Post hoc analysis of data collected for a randomized controlled trial (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04325906). Adult patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure secondary to COVID-19 who received APP for at least one hour were included. Early prone positioning was defined as APP initiated within 24 h of high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) start. Primary outcomes were 28-day mortality and intubation rate. RESULTS: We included 125 patients (79 male) with a mean age of 62 years. Of them, 92 (73.6%) received early APP and 33 (26.4%) received late APP. Median time from HFNC initiation to APP was 2.25 (0.8-12.82) vs 36.35 (30.2-75.23) hours in the early and late APP group (p < 0.0001), respectively. Average APP duration was 5.07 (2.0-9.05) and 3.0 (1.09-5.64) hours per day in early and late APP group (p < 0.0001), respectively. The early APP group had lower mortality compared to the late APP group (26% vs 45%, p = 0.039), but no difference was found in intubation rate. Advanced age (OR 1.12 [95% CI 1.0-1.95], p = 0.001), intubation (OR 10.65 [95% CI 2.77-40.91], p = 0.001), longer time to initiate APP (OR 1.02 [95% CI 1.0-1.04], p = 0.047) and hydrocortisone use (OR 6.2 [95% CI 1.23-31.1], p = 0.027) were associated with increased mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Early initiation (< 24 h of HFNC use) of APP in acute hypoxemic respiratory failure secondary to COVID-19 improves 28-day survival. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04325906.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Prone Position , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Wakefulness , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Time-to-Treatment
2.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 27: 10760296211051764, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511654

ABSTRACT

The precise mechanisms of pathology in severe COVID-19 remains elusive. Current evidence suggests that inflammatory mediators are responsible for the manifestation of clinical symptoms that precedes a fatal response to infection. This review examines the nature of platelet activating factor and emphasizes the similarities between the physiological effects of platelet activating factor and the clinical complications of severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Platelet Activating Factor/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , Humans , Inflammation/complications , Inflammation/metabolism , Inflammation/mortality , Inflammation/pathology , Multiple Organ Failure/complications , Multiple Organ Failure/metabolism , Multiple Organ Failure/mortality , Multiple Organ Failure/pathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/complications , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombosis/complications , Thrombosis/metabolism , Thrombosis/mortality , Thrombosis/pathology
3.
BMC Pulm Med ; 21(1): 354, 2021 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505545

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) has been used as an immunomodulatory therapy to counteract severe systemic inflammation in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). But its use in COVID-19 related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is not well established. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of electronic health records of COVID-19 patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) at Hazm Mebaireek General Hospital, Qatar, between March 7, 2020 and September 9, 2020. Patients receiving invasive mechanical ventilation for moderate-to-severe ARDS were divided into two groups based on whether they received IVIG therapy or not. The primary outcome was all-cause ICU mortality. Secondary outcomes studied were ventilator-free days and ICU-free days at day-28, and incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI). Propensity score matching was used to adjust for confounders, and the primary outcome was compared using competing-risks survival analysis. RESULTS: Among 590 patients included in the study, 400 received routine care, and 190 received IVIG therapy in addition to routine care. One hundred eighteen pairs were created after propensity score matching with no statistically significant differences between the groups. Overall ICU mortality in the study population was 27.1%, and in the matched cohort, it was 25.8%. Mortality was higher among IVIG-treated patients (36.4% vs. 15.3%; sHR 3.5; 95% CI 1.98-6.19; P < 0.001). Ventilator-free days and ICU-free days at day-28 were lower (P < 0.001 for both), and incidence of AKI was significantly higher (85.6% vs. 67.8%; P = 0.001) in the IVIG group. CONCLUSION: IVIG therapy in mechanically ventilated patients with COVID-19 related moderate-to-severe ARDS was associated with higher ICU mortality. A randomized clinical trial is needed to confirm this observation further.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Administration, Intravenous , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Propensity Score , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome
4.
Crit Care Med ; 49(7): 1149-1158, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1494026

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Circulating nucleosomes and their component histones have been implicated as pathogenic in sepsis and acute respiratory distress syndrome in adults. However, their role in pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome is unknown. DESIGN: We performed a prospective cohort study in children with acute respiratory distress syndrome, with plasma collection within 24 hours of acute respiratory distress syndrome onset. We associated nucleosome levels with severity of acute respiratory distress syndrome and with nonpulmonary organ failures and tested for association of nucleosomes with PICU mortality and ventilator-free days at 28 days in univariate and multivariable analyses. We also performed proteomics of DNA-bound plasma proteins in a matched case-control study of septic children with and without acute respiratory distress syndrome in order to identify specific histone proteins elevated in acute respiratory distress syndrome. SETTING: Large academic tertiary-care PICU. PATIENTS: Intubated children meeting Berlin criteria for acute respiratory distress syndrome. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We enrolled 333 children with acute respiratory distress syndrome, with 69 nonsurvivors (21%). Plasma nucleosomes were correlated with acute respiratory distress syndrome severity and with the number of nonpulmonary organ failures at acute respiratory distress syndrome onset. Nucleosomes were higher (p < 0.001) in nonsurvivors (0.40 [interquartile range, 0.20-0.71] arbitrary units) relative to survivors (0.10 [interquartile range, 0.04-0.25] arbitrary units). Nucleosomes were associated with PICU mortality in multivariable analysis (adjusted odds ratio 1.84 per 1 sd increase; 95% CI, 1.38-2.45; p < 0.001). Nucleosomes were also associated with a lower probability of being extubated alive by day 28 after multivariable adjustment (adjusted subdistribution hazard ratio, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.63-0.88; p = 0.001). Proteomic analysis demonstrated higher levels of the core nucleosome histones H2A, H2B, H3, and H4 in septic children with acute respiratory distress syndrome, relative to septic children without acute respiratory distress syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma nucleosomes are associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome severity, nonpulmonary organ failures, and worse outcomes in pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome.


Subject(s)
Histones/blood , Nucleosomes/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/blood , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Adolescent , Airway Extubation , Case-Control Studies , Child , Child, Preschool , DNA/blood , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Male , Multiple Organ Failure/mortality , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Proteomics , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/complications , Sepsis/blood , Sepsis/complications , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Rate
5.
Biomark Med ; 15(16): 1509-1517, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477715

ABSTRACT

Background: The contribution of endothelial injury in the pathogenesis of COVID-19-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and resulting respiratory failure remains unclear. Plasma endostatin, an endogenous inhibitor of angiogenesis and endothelial dysfunction is upregulated during hypoxia, inflammation and progress of pulmonary disease. Aim: To investigate if plasma endostatin is associated to hypoxia, inflammation and 30-day mortality in patients with severe COVID-19 infection. Method: Samples for blood analysis and plasma endostatin quantification were collected from adult patients with ongoing COVID-19 (n = 109) on admission to intensive care unit (day 1). Demographic characteristics and 30-day mortality data were extracted from medical records. The ability of endostatin to predict mortality was analyzed using receiving operating characteristics and Kaplan-Meier analysis with a cutoff at 46.2 ng/ml was used to analyze the association to survival. Results: Plasma endostatin levels correlated with; PaO2/FiO2 (r = -0.3, p < 0.001), arterial oxygen tension (r = -0.2, p = 0.01), lactate (r = 0.2, p = 0.04), C-reactive protein (r = 0.2, p = 0.04), ferritin (r = 0.2, p = 0.09), D-dimer (r = 0.2, p = 0.08) and IL-6 (r = 0.4, p < 0.001). Nonsurvivors at 30 days had higher plasma endostatin levels than survivors (72 ± 26 vs 56 ± 16 ng/ml, p = 0.01). Receiving operating characteristic curve (area under the curve 0.7) showed that plasma endostatin >46.2 ng/ml predicts mortality with a sensitivity of 92% and specificity of 71%. In patients with plasma endostatin >46.2 ng/ml probability of survival was lower (p = 0.02) in comparison to those with endostatin <46.2 ng/ml. Conclusion: Our results suggest that plasma endostatin is an early biomarker for disease severity in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Endostatins/blood , Hypoxia , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Disease-Free Survival , Female , Humans , Hypoxia/blood , Hypoxia/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/blood , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Survival Rate
6.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 355, 2021 10 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463260

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) was frequently used to treat patients with severe coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19)-associated acute respiratory distress (ARDS) during the initial outbreak. Care of COVID-19 patients evolved markedly during the second part of 2020. Our objective was to compare the characteristics and outcomes of patients who received ECMO for severe COVID-19 ARDS before or after July 1, 2020. METHODS: We included consecutive adults diagnosed with COVID-19 in Paris-Sorbonne University Hospital Network ICUs, who received ECMO for severe ARDS until January 28, 2021. Characteristics and survival probabilities over time were estimated during the first and second waves. Pre-ECMO risk factors predicting 90-day mortality were assessed using multivariate Cox regression. RESULTS: Characteristics of the 88 and 71 patients admitted, respectively, before and after July 1, 2020, were comparable except for older age, more frequent use of dexamethasone (18% vs. 82%), high-flow nasal oxygenation (19% vs. 82%) and/or non-invasive ventilation (7% vs. 37%) after July 1. Respective estimated probabilities (95% confidence intervals) of 90-day mortality were 36% (27-47%) and 48% (37-60%) during the first and the second periods. After adjusting for confounders, probability of 90-day mortality was significantly higher for patients treated after July 1 (HR 2.27, 95% CI 1.02-5.07). ECMO-related complications did not differ between study periods. CONCLUSIONS: 90-day mortality of ECMO-supported COVID-19-ARDS patients increased significantly after July 1, 2020, and was no longer comparable to that of non-COVID ECMO-treated patients. Failure of prolonged non-invasive oxygenation strategies before intubation and increased lung damage may partly explain this outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/mortality , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/trends , Hospitalization/trends , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Intensive Care Units/trends , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality/trends , Paris/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Treatment Outcome
7.
Lancet ; 398(10307): 1230-1238, 2021 10 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440421

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Over the course of the COVID-19 pandemic, the care of patients with COVID-19 has changed and the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has increased. We aimed to examine patient selection, treatments, outcomes, and ECMO centre characteristics over the course of the pandemic to date. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization Registry and COVID-19 Addendum to compare three groups of ECMO-supported patients with COVID-19 (aged ≥16 years). At early-adopting centres-ie, those using ECMO support for COVID-19 throughout 2020-we compared patients who started ECMO on or before May 1, 2020 (group A1), and between May 2 and Dec 31, 2020 (group A2). Late-adopting centres were those that provided ECMO for COVID-19 only after May 1, 2020 (group B). The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality in a time-to-event analysis assessed 90 days after ECMO initiation. A Cox proportional hazards model was fit to compare the patient and centre-level adjusted relative risk of mortality among the groups. FINDINGS: In 2020, 4812 patients with COVID-19 received ECMO across 349 centres within 41 countries. For early-adopting centres, the cumulative incidence of in-hospital mortality 90 days after ECMO initiation was 36·9% (95% CI 34·1-39·7) in patients who started ECMO on or before May 1 (group A1) versus 51·9% (50·0-53·8) after May 1 (group A2); at late-adopting centres (group B), it was 58·9% (55·4-62·3). Relative to patients in group A2, group A1 patients had a lower adjusted relative risk of in-hospital mortality 90 days after ECMO (hazard ratio 0·82 [0·70-0·96]), whereas group B patients had a higher adjusted relative risk (1·42 [1·17-1·73]). INTERPRETATION: Mortality after ECMO for patients with COVID-19 worsened during 2020. These findings inform the role of ECMO in COVID-19 for patients, clinicians, and policy makers. FUNDING: None.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Hospital Mortality/trends , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Adult , COVID-19/mortality , Duration of Therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/trends , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Selection , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Registries , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 335, 2021 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1412565

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19)-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) emerged as important fungal complications in patients with COVID-19-associated severe acute respiratory failure (ARF). Whether mould active antifungal prophylaxis (MAFP) can prevent CAPA remains elusive so far. METHODS: In this observational study, we included all consecutive patients admitted to intensive care units with COVID-19-associated ARF between September 1, 2020, and May 1, 2021. We compared patients with versus without antifungal prophylaxis with respect to CAPA incidence (primary outcome) and mortality (secondary outcome). Propensity score adjustment was performed to account for any imbalances in baseline characteristics. CAPA cases were classified according to European Confederation of Medical Mycology (ECMM)/International Society of Human and Animal Mycoses (ISHAM) consensus criteria. RESULTS: We included 132 patients, of whom 75 (57%) received antifungal prophylaxis (98% posaconazole). Ten CAPA cases were diagnosed, after a median of 6 days following ICU admission. Of those, 9 CAPA cases were recorded in the non-prophylaxis group and one in the prophylaxis group, respectively. However, no difference in 30-day ICU mortality could be observed. Thirty-day CAPA incidence estimates were 1.4% (95% CI 0.2-9.7) in the MAFP group and 17.5% (95% CI 9.6-31.4) in the group without MAFP (p = 0.002). The respective subdistributional hazard ratio (sHR) for CAPA incidence comparing the MAFP versus no MAFP group was of 0.08 (95% CI 0.01-0.63; p = 0.017). CONCLUSION: In ICU patients with COVID-19 ARF, antifungal prophylaxis was associated with significantly reduced CAPA incidence, but this did not translate into improved survival. Randomized controlled trials are warranted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of MAFP with respect to CAPA incidence and clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/prevention & control , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Triazoles/therapeutic use
10.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 283, 2021 08 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398871

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The intensity of ventilation, reflected by driving pressure (ΔP) and mechanical power (MP), has an association with outcome in invasively ventilated patients with or without acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). It is uncertain if a similar association exists in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with acute respiratory failure. METHODS: We aimed to investigate the impact of intensity of ventilation on patient outcome. The PRoVENT-COVID study is a national multicenter observational study in COVID-19 patients receiving invasive ventilation. Ventilator parameters were collected a fixed time points on the first calendar day of invasive ventilation. Mean dynamic ΔP and MP were calculated for individual patients at time points without evidence of spontaneous breathing. A Cox proportional hazard model, and a double stratification analysis adjusted for confounders were used to estimate the independent associations of ΔP and MP with outcome. The primary endpoint was 28-day mortality. RESULTS: In 825 patients included in this analysis, 28-day mortality was 27.5%. ΔP was not independently associated with mortality (HR 1.02 [95% confidence interval 0.88-1.18]; P = 0.750). MP, however, was independently associated with 28-day mortality (HR 1.17 [95% CI 1.01-1.36]; P = 0.031), and increasing quartiles of MP, stratified on comparable levels of ΔP, had higher risks of 28-day mortality (HR 1.15 [95% CI 1.01-1.30]; P = 0.028). CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort of critically ill invasively ventilated COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory failure, we show an independent association of MP, but not ΔP with 28-day mortality. MP could serve as one prognostic biomarker in addition to ΔP in these patients. Efforts aiming at limiting both ΔP and MP could translate in a better outcome. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov (study identifier NCT04346342).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Respiration, Artificial/mortality , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Aged , Cohort Studies , Critical Illness/mortality , Critical Illness/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality/trends , Respiration, Artificial/trends , Retrospective Studies , Tidal Volume/physiology
11.
Anaesth Crit Care Pain Med ; 39(5): 553-561, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384795

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Community transmission of SARS-CoV-2 was detected in Spain in February 2020, with 216% intensive care unit (ICU) capacity expanded in Vitoria by March 18th, 2020. METHODS: We identified patients from the two public hospitals in Vitoria who were admitted to ICU with confirmed infection by SARS-CoV-2. Data reported here were available in April 6th, 2020. Mortality was assessed in those who completed 15-days of ICU stay. RESULTS: We identified 48 patients (27 males) with confirmed SARS-CoV-2. Median [interquartile range (IQR)] age of patients was 63 [51-75] years. Symptoms began a median of 7 [5-12] days before ICU admission. The most common comorbidities identified were obesity (48%), arterial hypertension (44%) and chronic lung disease (37%). All patients were admitted by hypoxemic respiratory failure and none received non-invasive mechanical ventilation. Forty-five (94%) underwent intubation, 3 (6%) high flow nasal therapy (HFNT), 1 (2%) extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and 22 (46%) required prone position. After 15 days, 14/45 (31%) intubated patients died (13% within one week), 10/45 (22%) were extubated, and 21/45 (47%) underwent mechanical ventilation. Six patients had documented super-infection. Procalcitonin plasma above 0.5µg/L was associated with 16% vs. 19% (p=0.78) risk of death after 7 days. CONCLUSION: This early experience with SARS-CoV-2 in Spain suggests that a strategy of right oxygenation avoiding non-invasive mechanical ventilation was life-saving. Seven-day mortality in SARS-CoV-2 requiring intubation was lower than 15%, with 80% of patients still requiring mechanical ventilation. After 15 days of ICU admission, half of patients remained intubated, whereas one third died.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Hospitals, Public/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Combined Modality Therapy , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Procalcitonin/blood , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology
12.
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 74(4): 293-298, 2021 Jul 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1380101

ABSTRACT

The prognostic value of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) needs to be clarified. In this retrospective study, COVID-19 patients treated at Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University from January 7 to February 8, 2020 with measurements of serum IL-6 levels within 1 week after admission were included. Data regarding demographics, clinical characteristics, laboratory tests, complications, and outcomes were collected and analyzed. Sixty-six patients diagnosed with COVID-19 were included in this study (31 patients were females). They were divided into a normal group (serum IL-6 <10 pg/mL, n = 35) and an abnormal group (serum IL-6 <10 pg/mL, n = 31). Compared with the normal group, the incidence of critical cases (P <0.001), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (P = 0.001), acute cardiac injury (P = 0.002), cardiac insufficiency (P = 0.039), mechanical ventilation rate (P = 0.002), and mortality (P = 0.021) was significantly increased in the abnormal group. Serum IL-6 concentration was an independent predictor of fatal outcome (P = 0.04). The optimal cutoff value of serum IL-6 concentration for predicting fatal outcomes was 26.09 pg/mL (P <0.001). In COVID-19, elevated serum IL-6 levels were associated with critical illness, use of mechanical ventilation, and complications, including heart injury and ARDS, and could predict a fatal outcome. Early detection of serum IL-6 levels after admission should be necessary in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Interleukin-6/blood , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Critical Illness/mortality , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Morbidity , Prognosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/blood , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
13.
Tuberk Toraks ; 68(4): 388-398, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1380064

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Respiratory virus infections may cause serious respiratory failure requiring intensive care unit (ICU) admission. The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical features and the outcome in patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF) due to viral infections comparing etiological agents. Materials and Methods: ARF patients with positive viral serology were retrospectively recruited. Cohort was evaluated with regard to subgroups as influenza and other respiratory viruses (ORV), as well as survivors and nonsurvivors. Result: Out of 938 admitted patients, 319 were followed as ARF and only 149 patients had viral respiratory panel results. In 49 patients with ARF, 52 positive viral results were detected and 47 patients with single positive viral isolates of either influenza or ORV were included. Among them, 62% had ORV with quite similar characteristics with influenza group apart from diabetes mellitus which was encountered more in influenza group (p= 0.02). Overall ICU mortality was 32% and there was no difference between the two groups (p= 0.42). Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score was independently associated with ICU mortality (OR: 1.25; 95% CI: 1.04-1.51; p= 0.02). Conclusions: This study emphasizes to consider the possibility of other respiratory viruses for the cause of ARF with similar characteristics and mortality as influenza species.


Subject(s)
Critical Illness , Influenza, Human/mortality , Patient Admission , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , APACHE , Adult , Aged , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Turkey , Young Adult
14.
J Prev Med Hyg ; 62(2): E298-E304, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1355286

ABSTRACT

Background: We aimed to further clarify the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 2019-nCoV pneumonia and risk factors associated for mortality. Methods: In this study, we included inpatient with acute respiratory distress syndrome at Golestan Hospitals who had been discharged or had died in 2020. Epidemiological, and clinical data were extracted from electronic medical records and compared between recovered and died cases. We used multiple logistic regression methods to explore the risk factors associated with in-hospital death. Results: Overall 2,835 acute respiratory distress syndrome patients were included in this study, and 874 (30.83%) were positive for 2019-nCoV. Five hundred and sixty-three patients (19.86%) died, 1,687 patients (59.51%) were recovered. Of the total deaths, only 288 (10.15%) were attributed to COVID-19. The most common symptoms at onset of illness were respiratory distress [1,795 (63.32%)], fever [1,601 (56.47%)], dry cough [1,595 (56.26%)], sore throat [445 (15.70%)], and myalgia [342 (12.06%)]. One thousand and twelve (35.7%) had 1 or more coexisting medical conditions. In multiple logistic regression analysis, risk factors associated with the death included older age [OR (Odds Ratio) = 1.03; 95% CI; 1.02-1.04], blood oxygen level (SPO2 < 93%) (OR = 2.44; 95% CI; 1.79-3.31), comorbidities (OR = 2.15; 95% CI; 1.62-2.84), respiratory distress (OR = 1.74; 95% CI; 1.28-2.37), and headache (OR = 0.44 95% CI; 0.21-0.92). Conclusions: The 2019-nCoV infection caused collections of severe respiratory illness and was associated to a high ratio of hospitalization in ICU and high mortality. Older age and comorbidities were associated with more risk of death among patients with 2019-nCoV.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/complications , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Comorbidity , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors
15.
Med Intensiva (Engl Ed) ; 45(6): 325-331, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343315

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe outcomes of critically ill patients with COVID-19, particularly the association of renal replacement therapy to mortality. DESIGN: A single-center prospective observational study was carried out. SETTING: ICU of a tertiary care center. PATIENTS: Consecutive adults with COVID-19 admitted to the ICU. INTERVENTION: Renal replacement therapy. MAIN VARIABLES OF INTEREST: Demographic data, medical history, illness severity, type of oxygen therapy, laboratory data and use of renal replacement therapy to generate a logistic regression model describing independent risk factors for mortality. RESULTS: Of the total of 166 patients, 51% were mechanically ventilated and 26% required renal replacement therapy. The overall hospital mortality rate was 36%, versus 56% for those requiring renal replacement therapy, and 68% for those with both mechanical ventilation and renal replacement therapy. The logistic regression model identified four independent risk factors for mortality: age (adjusted OR 2.8 [95% CI 1.8-4.4] for every 10-year increase), mechanical ventilation (4.2 [1.7-10.6]), need for continuous venovenous hemofiltration (2.3 [1.3-4.0]) and C-reactive protein (1.1 [1.0-1.2] for every 10mg/L increase). CONCLUSIONS: In our cohort, acute kidney injury requiring renal replacement therapy was associated to a high mortality rate similar to that associated to the need for mechanical ventilation, while multiorgan failure necessitating both techniques implied an extremely high mortality risk.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , COVID-19/complications , Critical Illness/therapy , Renal Replacement Therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/mortality , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/blood , Comorbidity , Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy , Critical Illness/mortality , District of Columbia/epidemiology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitals, University/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Organ Failure/etiology , Multiple Organ Failure/mortality , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Procedures and Techniques Utilization/statistics & numerical data , Prospective Studies , Renal Replacement Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Risk Factors , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data , Treatment Outcome
16.
Respir Med ; 187: 106556, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1340826

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Galectin-3 is ß-galactoside-binding lectin with several roles in immune-inflammatory response. To date, there is no evidence of Galectin-3 role as a prognostic biomarker in COVID-19 disease. The aim of this study is to clarify the prognostic role of Galectin-3 in patients with COVID 19 acute respiratory failure. METHODS: We enrolled 156 consecutive patients with COVID-19 disease. Routine laboratory test, arterial blood gas, chest X-ray or Computed Tomography and Galectin-3 dosage were performed. The primary outcome was to assess Galectin-3 predictive power for 30-day mortality. Secondary outcomes were 30-day Intensive Care Unit admission and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome stratification according to Galectin-3 dosage. We performed Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests for continuous variables comparison. Fisher's exact test or Chi-square test were used for categorical variables analysis. Receiver Operating Characteristic curves estimated Galectin-3 predictive power for the endpoints. With a fixed cut-off of 35.3 ng/ml, Kaplan-Meier with Log-Rank test and Cox Regression were performed to assess mortality and Intensive Care Unit admission risk. RESULTS: Galectin-3 correlated with many other prognostic predictors tested in our analysis. Moreover, patients with serum levels of Galectin-3 above 35.3 ng/ml had increased risk for mortality, Intensive Care Unit admission and severe Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates the role of Galectin-3 as a predictor of mortality, Intensive Care Unit access and ARDS stratification in patients with COVID 19 acute respiratory failure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Galectins/blood , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/blood , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Proteins , COVID-19/complications , Critical Care , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate
17.
Crit Care Med ; 49(10): 1757-1768, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1334267

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess whether right ventricular dilation or systolic impairment is associated with mortality and/or disease severity in invasively ventilated patients with coronavirus disease 2019 acute respiratory distress syndrome. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Single-center U.K. ICU. PATIENTS: Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 acute respiratory distress syndrome undergoing invasive mechanical ventilation that received a transthoracic echocardiogram between March and December 2020. INTERVENTION: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Right ventricular dilation was defined as right ventricular:left ventricular end-diastolic area greater than 0.6, right ventricular systolic impairment as fractional area change less than 35%, or tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion less than 17 mm. One hundred seventy-two patients were included, 59 years old (interquartile range, 49-67), with mostly moderate acute respiratory distress syndrome (n = 101; 59%). Ninety-day mortality was 41% (n = 70): 49% in patients with right ventricular dilation, 53% in right ventricular systolic impairment, and 72% in right ventricular dilation with systolic impairment. The right ventricular dilation with systolic impairment phenotype was independently associated with mortality (odds ratio, 3.11 [95% CI, 1.15-7.60]), but either disease state alone was not. Right ventricular fractional area change correlated with Pao2:Fio2 ratio, Paco2, chest radiograph opacification, and dynamic compliance, whereas right ventricular:left ventricle end-diastolic area correlated negatively with urine output. CONCLUSIONS: Right ventricular systolic impairment correlated with pulmonary pathophysiology, whereas right ventricular dilation correlated with renal dysfunction. Right ventricular dilation with systolic impairment was the only right ventricular phenotype that was independently associated with mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/complications , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , Echocardiography/methods , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units/organization & administration , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality/trends , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Retrospective Studies , United Kingdom , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/mortality
18.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 263, 2021 07 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331949

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pathophysiological features of coronavirus disease 2019-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (COVID-19 ARDS) were indicated to be somewhat different from those described in nonCOVID-19 ARDS, because of relatively preserved compliance of the respiratory system despite marked hypoxemia. We aim ascertaining whether respiratory system static compliance (Crs), driving pressure (DP), and tidal volume normalized for ideal body weight (VT/kg IBW) at the 1st day of controlled mechanical ventilation are associated with intensive care unit (ICU) mortality in COVID-19 ARDS. METHODS: Observational multicenter cohort study. All consecutive COVID-19 adult patients admitted to 25 ICUs belonging to the COVID-19 VENETO ICU network (February 28th-April 28th, 2020), who received controlled mechanical ventilation, were screened. Only patients fulfilling ARDS criteria and with complete records of Crs, DP and VT/kg IBW within the 1st day of controlled mechanical ventilation were included. Crs, DP and VT/kg IBW were collected in sedated, paralyzed and supine patients. RESULTS: A total of 704 COVID-19 patients were screened and 241 enrolled. Seventy-one patients (29%) died in ICU. The logistic regression analysis showed that: (1) Crs was not linearly associated with ICU mortality (p value for nonlinearity = 0.01), with a greater risk of death for values < 48 ml/cmH2O; (2) the association between DP and ICU mortality was linear (p value for nonlinearity = 0.68), and increasing DP from 10 to 14 cmH2O caused significant higher odds of in-ICU death (OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.06-1.99); (3) VT/kg IBW was not associated with a significant increase of the risk of death (OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.55-1.52). Multivariable analysis confirmed these findings. CONCLUSIONS: Crs < 48 ml/cmH2O was associated with ICU mortality, while DP was linearly associated with mortality. DP should be kept as low as possible, even in the case of relatively preserved Crs, irrespective of VT/kg IBW, to reduce the risk of death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Aged , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Intubation , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Tidal Volume
19.
Mycoses ; 64(10): 1238-1252, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1314088

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to report clinical features, contributing factors and outcome of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-associated mucormycosis (CAM). METHODS: A cross-sectional descriptive multicentre study was conducted on patients with biopsy-proven mucormycosis with RT-PCR-confirmed COVID-19 from April to September 2020. Demographics, the time interval between COVID-19 and mucormycosis, underlying systemic diseases, clinical features, course of disease and outcomes were collected and analysed. RESULTS: Fifteen patients with COVID-19 and rhino-orbital mucormycosis were observed. The median age of patients was 52 years (range 14-71), and 66% were male. The median interval time between COVID-19 disease and diagnosis of mucormycosis was seven (range: 1-37) days. Among all, 13 patients (86%) had diabetes mellitus, while 7 (46.6%) previously received intravenous corticosteroid therapy. Five patients (33%) underwent orbital exenteration, while seven (47%) patients died from mucormycosis. Six patients (40%) received combined antifungal therapy and none that received combined antifungal therapy died. CONCLUSION: Clinicians should be aware that mucormycosis may be complication of COVID-19 in high-risk patients. Poor control of diabetes mellitus is an important predisposing factor for CAM. Systematic surveillance for control of diabetes mellitus and educating physician about the early diagnosis of CAM are suggested.


Subject(s)
Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Coinfection , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Mucormycosis/mortality , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/pathology , Caspofungin/therapeutic use , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Complications/microbiology , Diabetes Complications/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/pathology , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Humans , Iran , Male , Middle Aged , Mucormycosis/pathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/microbiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/pathology , Triazoles/therapeutic use , Young Adult
20.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(12): 15801-15814, 2021 06 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1285614

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) has rapidly spread worldwide and causes high mortality of elderly patients. High-flow nasal cannula therapy (HFNC) is an oxygen delivery method for severely ill patients. We retrospectively analyzed the course of illness and outcomes in 110 elderly COVID-19 patients (≥65 years) treated with HFNC from 6 hospitals. 38 patients received HFNC (200 mmHg < PaO2/FiO2 ≤ 300 mmHg, early HFNC group), and 72 patients received HFNC (100 mmHg < PaO2/FiO2 ≤ 200 mmHg, late HFNC group). There were no significant differences of sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) scores and APECH II scores between early and late HFNC group on admission. Compared with the late HFNC group, patients in the early HFNC group had a lower likelihood of developing severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), longer time from illness onset to severe ARDS and shorter duration of viral shedding after illness onset, as well as shorter lengths of ICU and hospital stay. 24 patients died during hospitalization, of whom 22 deaths (30.6%) were in the late HFNC group and 2 (5.3%) in the early HFNC group. The present study suggested that the outcomes were better in severely ill elderly patients with COVID-19 receiving early compared to late HFNC.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cannula , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/instrumentation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , China , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Logistic Models , Male , Multivariate Analysis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Retrospective Studies
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