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1.
Chest ; 160(1): 175-186, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525725

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 aerosolization during noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation may endanger health care professionals. Various circuit setups have been described to reduce virus aerosolization. However, these setups may alter ventilator performance. RESEARCH QUESTION: What are the consequences of the various suggested circuit setups on ventilator efficacy during CPAP and noninvasive ventilation (NIV)? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Eight circuit setups were evaluated on a bench test model that consisted of a three-dimensional printed head and an artificial lung. Setups included a dual-limb circuit with an oronasal mask, a dual-limb circuit with a helmet interface, a single-limb circuit with a passive exhalation valve, three single-limb circuits with custom-made additional leaks, and two single-limb circuits with active exhalation valves. All setups were evaluated during NIV and CPAP. The following variables were recorded: the inspiratory flow preceding triggering of the ventilator, the inspiratory effort required to trigger the ventilator, the triggering delay, the maximal inspiratory pressure delivered by the ventilator, the tidal volume generated to the artificial lung, the total work of breathing, and the pressure-time product needed to trigger the ventilator. RESULTS: With NIV, the type of circuit setup had a significant impact on inspiratory flow preceding triggering of the ventilator (P < .0001), the inspiratory effort required to trigger the ventilator (P < .0001), the triggering delay (P < .0001), the maximal inspiratory pressure (P < .0001), the tidal volume (P = .0008), the work of breathing (P < .0001), and the pressure-time product needed to trigger the ventilator (P < .0001). Similar differences and consequences were seen with CPAP as well as with the addition of bacterial filters. Best performance was achieved with a dual-limb circuit with an oronasal mask. Worst performance was achieved with a dual-limb circuit with a helmet interface. INTERPRETATION: Ventilator performance is significantly impacted by the circuit setup. A dual-limb circuit with oronasal mask should be used preferentially.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Noninvasive Ventilation , Air Filters , Benchmarking/methods , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/transmission , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure/adverse effects , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure/instrumentation , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure/methods , Critical Pathways/standards , Critical Pathways/trends , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Noninvasive Ventilation/adverse effects , Noninvasive Ventilation/instrumentation , Noninvasive Ventilation/methods , Research Design , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Ventilators, Mechanical
2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20144, 2021 10 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462037

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary function testing (PFT) allows for quantitative analysis of lung function. However, as a result of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, a majority of international medical societies have postponed PFTs in an effort to mitigate disease transmission, complicating the continuity of care in high-risk patients diagnosed with COVID-19 or preexisting lung pathologies. Here, we describe the development of a non-contact wearable pulmonary sensor for pulmonary waveform analysis, pulmonary volume quantification, and crude thoracic imaging using the eddy current (EC) phenomenon. Statistical regression analysis is performed to confirm the predictive validity of the sensor, and all data are continuously and digitally stored with a sampling rate of 6,660 samples/second. Wearable pulmonary function sensors may facilitate rapid point-of-care monitoring for high-risk individuals, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic, and easily interface with patient hospital records or telehealth services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Monitoring, Physiologic/instrumentation , Point-of-Care Systems , Respiratory Function Tests/instrumentation , Wearable Electronic Devices , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Feasibility Studies , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Infection Control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Monitoring, Physiologic/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , Respiratory Physiological Phenomena
3.
Respir Res ; 22(1): 255, 2021 Sep 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440932

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: There is relatively little published on the effects of COVID-19 on respiratory physiology, particularly breathing patterns. We sought to determine if there were lasting detrimental effect following hospital discharge and if these related to the severity of COVID-19. METHODS: We reviewed lung function and breathing patterns in COVID-19 survivors > 3 months after discharge, comparing patients who had been admitted to the intensive therapy unit (ITU) (n = 47) to those who just received ward treatments (n = 45). Lung function included spirometry and gas transfer and breathing patterns were measured with structured light plethysmography. Continuous data were compared with an independent t-test or Mann Whitney-U test (depending on distribution) and nominal data were compared using a Fisher's exact test (for 2 categories in 2 groups) or a chi-squared test (for > 2 categories in 2 groups). A p-value of < 0.05 was taken to be statistically significant. RESULTS: We found evidence of pulmonary restriction (reduced vital capacity and/or alveolar volume) in 65.4% of all patients. 36.1% of all patients has a reduced transfer factor (TLCO) but the majority of these (78.1%) had a preserved/increased transfer coefficient (KCO), suggesting an extrapulmonary cause. There were no major differences between ITU and ward lung function, although KCO alone was higher in the ITU patients (p = 0.03). This could be explained partly by obesity, respiratory muscle fatigue, localised microvascular changes, or haemosiderosis from lung damage. Abnormal breathing patterns were observed in 18.8% of subjects, although no consistent pattern of breathing pattern abnormalities was evident. CONCLUSIONS: An "extrapulmonary restrictive" like pattern appears to be a common phenomenon in previously admitted COVID-19 survivors. Whilst the cause of this is not clear, the effects seem to be similar on patients whether or not they received mechanical ventilation or had ward based respiratory support/supplemental oxygen.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Hospitalization/trends , Lung/physiology , Respiratory Mechanics/physiology , Spirometry/trends , Survivors , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Lung Diseases/diagnosis , Lung Diseases/physiopathology , Lung Diseases/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Discharge/trends , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , Respiratory Function Tests/trends , Spirometry/methods , Young Adult
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(31): e26866, 2021 Aug 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1410308

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak began in late 2019 and spread rapidly throughout China and then the rest of the world. COVID-19 is a serious respiratory disease and many patients' exhibit varying levels of persistent parenchymal lung damage. However, there is currently a lack of effective rehabilitation treatments for COVID-19 patients with lung damage. Several clinical trials have shown that Liuzijue Qigong (LQG) can enhance the strength of respiratory muscles and overall quality of life. In this study, a meta-analysis approach was used to assess the effects of LQG on the lung function of COVID-19 patients during disease recovery. METHODS: Eight databases will be explored for relevant investigations including China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang, VIP, China Biology Medicine, EMBASE, PubMed, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library. All databases will be explored for articles published from inception through July 2021. Data will be extracted independently by 2 researchers according to the eligibility criteria. Finally, RevMan 5.3.0 will be implemented for statistical analyses. RESULTS: The results of this study will show the effects of LQG on the lung function of COVID-19 patients during disease recovery and will be submitted to a peer-reviewed journal for publication. CONCLUSIONS: This study will provide reliable evidence based on the effects of LQG on the lung function of COVID-19 patients during disease recovery. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42021268102.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Clinical Protocols , Lung/abnormalities , Qigong/standards , COVID-19/psychology , Humans , Lung/physiopathology , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Qigong/methods , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Treatment Outcome
5.
J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) ; 22(11): 828-831, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406806

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Controversial data have been published regarding the prognostic role of cardiac troponins in patients who need hospitalization because of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The aim of the study was to assess the role of high-sensitivity troponin plasma levels and of respiratory function at admission on all-cause deaths in unselected patients hospitalized because of COVID-19. METHODS: We pooled individual patient data from observational studies that assessed all-cause mortality of unselected patients hospitalized for COVID-19. The individual data of 722 patients were included. The ratio of partial pressure arterial oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2) and high-sensitivity troponins was reported at admission in all patients. This meta-analysis was registered on PROSPERO (CRD42020213209). RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 14 days, 180 deaths were observed. At multivariable regression analysis, age [hazard ratio (HR) 1.083, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.061-1.105, P < 0.0001], male sex (HR 2.049, 95% CI 1.319-3.184, P = 0.0014), moderate-severe renal dysfunction (estimated glomerular filtration rate  < 30 mL/min/m2) (HR 2.108, 95% CI 1.237-3.594, P = 0.0061) and lower PaO2/FiO2 (HR 0.901, 95% CI 0.829-0.978, P = 0.0133) were the independent predictors of death. A linear increase in the HR was associated with decreasing values of PaO2/FiO2 below the normality threshold. On the contrary, the HR curve for troponin plasma levels was near-flat with large CI for values above the normality thresholds. CONCLUSION: In unselected patients hospitalized for COVID-19, mortality is mainly driven by male gender, older age and respiratory failure. Elevated plasma levels of high-sensitivity troponins are not an independent predictor of worse survival when respiratory function is accounted for.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Oxygen/analysis , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , Troponin/blood , Age Factors , Biomarkers/analysis , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Gas Analysis/methods , Breath Tests/methods , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Humans , Prognosis , Risk Assessment/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors
6.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257040, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394554

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To study abnormality of spirometry, six-minute walk distance, and chest radiograph among patients recovered from Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: A prospective cohort study was conducted in 87 COVID-19 confirmed cases who recovered and discharged from a medical school hospital in Thailand. At the follow-up visit on day 60 after onset of symptoms, patients underwent an evaluation by spirometry (FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC, FEF25-75, and PEF), a six-minute-walk test (6MWT), and a chest radiograph. RESULTS: There were 35 men and 52 women, with a mean age of 39.6±11.8 years and the mean body mass index (BMI) was 23.8±4.3 kg/m2. Of all, 45 cases had mild symptoms; 35 had non-severe pneumonia, and 7 had severe pneumonia. Abnormality in spirometry was observed in 15 cases (17.2%), with 8% of restrictive defect and 9.2% of obstructive defect. Among the patients with an abnormal spirometry, the majority of the cases were in the severe pneumonia group (71.4%), compared with 15.6% in the non-severe pneumonia group, and 10.2% in the mild symptom group (p = 0.001). The mean six-minute-walk distance (6MWD) in the mild symptom and non-severe pneumonia groups was 538±56.8 and 527.5±53.5 meters, respectively. Although the severe pneumonia group tended to have a shorter mean 6-min walking distance, but this was not statistically significant (p = 0.118). Twelve patients (13.8%) had abnormal chest radiographs that showed residual fibrosis. This abnormality was more common in the severe pneumonia group (85.7%) and in others (7.5%) (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Abnormal spirometry was noted in 17.2% of COVID-19 survivors with both restrictive and obstructive defects. Severe COVID-19 pneumonia patients had higher prevalence rates of abnormal spirometry and residual fibrosis on the chest radiographs when compared to patients in the mild symptom and non-severe pneumonia groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , Survivors/statistics & numerical data , Walk Test/methods , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia/diagnosis , Pneumonia/physiopathology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spirometry/methods , Thailand
7.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 8(1)2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388519

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Almost half of all school-age children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) have asthma-like symptoms and more suffer from lung function deficits. While air pollution and indoor respiratory irritants are known to affect high-risk populations of children, few studies have objectively evaluated environmental contributions to long-term respiratory morbidity in this population. This study aimed to examine the role of indoor environmental exposures on respiratory morbidity in children with BPD. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The Air quality, Environment and Respiratory Ouctomes in BPD (AERO-BPD) study is a prospective, single-centre observational study that will enrol a unique cohort of 240 children with BPD and carefully characterise participants and their indoor home environmental exposures. Measures of indoor air quality constituents will assess the relationship of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter (PM2.5), nitric oxide (NO), temperature and humidity, as well as dust concentrations of allergens, with concurrently measured respiratory symptoms and lung function.Adaptations to the research protocol due to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic included remote home environment and participant assessments. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Study protocol was approved by the Boston Children's Hospital Committee on Clinical Investigation. Dissemination will be in the form of peer-reviewed publications and participant information products. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04107701.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution/adverse effects , Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia/epidemiology , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Air Pollution, Indoor/analysis , Allergens , Asthma/epidemiology , Asthma/physiopathology , Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia/diagnosis , Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia/physiopathology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Child , Cohort Studies , Environmental Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Humidity , Male , Nitric Oxide/analysis , Nitrogen Dioxide/analysis , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Temperature
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(31): e26866, 2021 Aug 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354343

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak began in late 2019 and spread rapidly throughout China and then the rest of the world. COVID-19 is a serious respiratory disease and many patients' exhibit varying levels of persistent parenchymal lung damage. However, there is currently a lack of effective rehabilitation treatments for COVID-19 patients with lung damage. Several clinical trials have shown that Liuzijue Qigong (LQG) can enhance the strength of respiratory muscles and overall quality of life. In this study, a meta-analysis approach was used to assess the effects of LQG on the lung function of COVID-19 patients during disease recovery. METHODS: Eight databases will be explored for relevant investigations including China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang, VIP, China Biology Medicine, EMBASE, PubMed, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library. All databases will be explored for articles published from inception through July 2021. Data will be extracted independently by 2 researchers according to the eligibility criteria. Finally, RevMan 5.3.0 will be implemented for statistical analyses. RESULTS: The results of this study will show the effects of LQG on the lung function of COVID-19 patients during disease recovery and will be submitted to a peer-reviewed journal for publication. CONCLUSIONS: This study will provide reliable evidence based on the effects of LQG on the lung function of COVID-19 patients during disease recovery. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42021268102.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Clinical Protocols , Lung/abnormalities , Qigong/standards , COVID-19/psychology , Humans , Lung/physiopathology , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Qigong/methods , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Treatment Outcome
9.
JCI Insight ; 6(14)2021 07 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320461

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDIndividuals recovering from COVID-19 frequently experience persistent respiratory ailments, which are key elements of postacute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC); however, little is known about the underlying biological factors that may direct lung recovery and the extent to which these are affected by COVID-19 severity.METHODSWe performed a prospective cohort study of individuals with persistent symptoms after acute COVID-19, collecting clinical data, pulmonary function tests, and plasma samples used for multiplex profiling of inflammatory, metabolic, angiogenic, and fibrotic factors.RESULTSSixty-one participants were enrolled across 2 academic medical centers at a median of 9 weeks (interquartile range, 6-10 weeks) after COVID-19 illness: n = 13 participants (21%) had mild COVID-19 and were not hospitalized, n = 30 participants (49%) were hospitalized but were considered noncritical, and n = 18 participants (30%) were hospitalized and in the intensive care unit (ICU). Fifty-three participants (85%) had lingering symptoms, most commonly dyspnea (69%) and cough (58%). Forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), and diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) declined as COVID-19 severity increased (P < 0.05) but these values did not correlate with respiratory symptoms. Partial least-squares discriminant analysis of plasma biomarker profiles clustered participants by past COVID-19 severity. Lipocalin-2 (LCN2), MMP-7, and HGF identified by our analysis were significantly higher in the ICU group (P < 0.05), inversely correlated with FVC and DLCO (P < 0.05), and were confirmed in a separate validation cohort (n = 53).CONCLUSIONSubjective respiratory symptoms are common after acute COVID-19 illness but do not correlate with COVID-19 severity or pulmonary function. Host response profiles reflecting neutrophil activation (LCN2), fibrosis signaling (MMP-7), and alveolar repair (HGF) track with lung impairment and may be novel therapeutic or prognostic targets.FundingNational Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (K08HL130557 and R01HL142818), American Heart Association (Transformational Project Award), the DeLuca Foundation Award, a donation from Jack Levin to the Benign Hematology Program at Yale University, and Duke University.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hepatocyte Growth Factor/analysis , Lipocalin-2/analysis , Matrix Metalloproteinase 7/analysis , Pulmonary Fibrosis , Respiratory Function Tests , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cough/diagnosis , Cough/etiology , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Dyspnea/etiology , Female , Humans , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Lung/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophil Activation/immunology , Prognosis , Pulmonary Fibrosis/diagnosis , Pulmonary Fibrosis/etiology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/metabolism , Recovery of Function/immunology , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , Respiratory Function Tests/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
11.
Chest ; 160(1): 175-186, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1298651

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 aerosolization during noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation may endanger health care professionals. Various circuit setups have been described to reduce virus aerosolization. However, these setups may alter ventilator performance. RESEARCH QUESTION: What are the consequences of the various suggested circuit setups on ventilator efficacy during CPAP and noninvasive ventilation (NIV)? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Eight circuit setups were evaluated on a bench test model that consisted of a three-dimensional printed head and an artificial lung. Setups included a dual-limb circuit with an oronasal mask, a dual-limb circuit with a helmet interface, a single-limb circuit with a passive exhalation valve, three single-limb circuits with custom-made additional leaks, and two single-limb circuits with active exhalation valves. All setups were evaluated during NIV and CPAP. The following variables were recorded: the inspiratory flow preceding triggering of the ventilator, the inspiratory effort required to trigger the ventilator, the triggering delay, the maximal inspiratory pressure delivered by the ventilator, the tidal volume generated to the artificial lung, the total work of breathing, and the pressure-time product needed to trigger the ventilator. RESULTS: With NIV, the type of circuit setup had a significant impact on inspiratory flow preceding triggering of the ventilator (P < .0001), the inspiratory effort required to trigger the ventilator (P < .0001), the triggering delay (P < .0001), the maximal inspiratory pressure (P < .0001), the tidal volume (P = .0008), the work of breathing (P < .0001), and the pressure-time product needed to trigger the ventilator (P < .0001). Similar differences and consequences were seen with CPAP as well as with the addition of bacterial filters. Best performance was achieved with a dual-limb circuit with an oronasal mask. Worst performance was achieved with a dual-limb circuit with a helmet interface. INTERPRETATION: Ventilator performance is significantly impacted by the circuit setup. A dual-limb circuit with oronasal mask should be used preferentially.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Noninvasive Ventilation , Air Filters , Benchmarking/methods , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/transmission , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure/adverse effects , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure/instrumentation , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure/methods , Critical Pathways/standards , Critical Pathways/trends , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Noninvasive Ventilation/adverse effects , Noninvasive Ventilation/instrumentation , Noninvasive Ventilation/methods , Research Design , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Ventilators, Mechanical
13.
Chest ; 160(1): 187-198, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1290546

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: More than 20% of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 demonstrate ARDS requiring ICU admission. The long-term respiratory sequelae in such patients remain unclear. RESEARCH QUESTION: What are the major long-term pulmonary sequelae in critical patients who survive COVID-19? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Consecutive patients with COVID-19 requiring ICU admission were recruited and evaluated 3 months after hospitalization discharge. The follow-up comprised symptom and quality of life, anxiety and depression questionnaires, pulmonary function tests, exercise test (6-min walking test [6MWT]), and chest CT imaging. RESULTS: One hundred twenty-five patients admitted to the ICU with ARDS secondary to COVID-19 were recruited between March and June 2020. At the 3-month follow-up, 62 patients were available for pulmonary evaluation. The most frequent symptoms were dyspnea (46.7%) and cough (34.4%). Eighty-two percent of patients showed a lung diffusing capacity of less than 80%. The median distance in the 6MWT was 400 m (interquartile range, 362-440 m). CT scans showed abnormal results in 70.2% of patients, demonstrating reticular lesions in 49.1% and fibrotic patterns in 21.1%. Patients with more severe alterations on chest CT scan showed worse pulmonary function and presented more degrees of desaturation in the 6MWT. Factors associated with the severity of lung damage on chest CT scan were age and length of invasive mechanical ventilation during the ICU stay. INTERPRETATION: Three months after hospital discharge, pulmonary structural abnormalities and functional impairment are highly prevalent in patients with ARDS secondary to COVID-19 who required an ICU stay. Pulmonary evaluation should be considered for all critical COVID-19 survivors 3 months after discharge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Long Term Adverse Effects , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Quality of Life , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , Survivors , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Aftercare/methods , Aftercare/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Long Term Adverse Effects/diagnosis , Long Term Adverse Effects/epidemiology , Long Term Adverse Effects/etiology , Long Term Adverse Effects/psychology , Lung/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Patient Discharge/statistics & numerical data , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology , Survivors/psychology , Survivors/statistics & numerical data , Walk Test/methods , Walk Test/statistics & numerical data
14.
J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle ; 12(4): 1056-1063, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1260553

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is limited information about the impact of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) on the muscular dysfunction, despite the generalized weakness and fatigue that patients report after overcoming the acute phase of the infection. This study aimed to detect impaired muscle efficiency by evaluating delta efficiency (DE) in patients with COVID-19 compared with subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), ischaemic heart disease (IHD), and control group (CG). METHODS: A total of 60 participants were assigned to four experimental groups: COVID-19, COPD, IHD, and CG (n = 15 each group). Incremental exercise tests in a cycle ergometer were performed to obtain peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak). DE was obtained from the end of the first workload to the power output where the respiratory exchange ratio was 1. RESULTS: A lower DE was detected in patients with COVID-19 and COPD compared with those in CG (P ≤ 0.033). However, no significant differences were observed among the experimental groups with diseases (P > 0.05). Lower VO2 peak, peak ventilation, peak power output, and total exercise time were observed in the groups with diseases than in the CG (P < 0.05). A higher VO2 , ventilation, and power output were detected in the CG compared with those in the groups with diseases at the first and second ventilatory threshold (P < 0.05). A higher power output was detected in the IHD group compared with those in the COVID-19 and COPD groups (P < 0.05) at the first and second ventilatory thresholds and when the respiratory exchange ratio was 1. A significant correlation (P < 0.001) was found between the VO2 peak and DE and between the peak power output and DE (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with COVID-19 showed marked mechanical inefficiency similar to that observed in COPD and IHD patients. Patients with COVID-19 and COPD showed a significant decrease in power output compared to IHD during pedalling despite having similar response in VO2 at each intensity. Resistance training should be considered during the early phase of rehabilitation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Exercise Test/methods , Exercise/physiology , Lung/physiopathology , Oxygen Consumption/physiology , COVID-19/virology , Heart Diseases/physiopathology , Humans , Ischemia/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/physiopathology , Resistance Training/methods , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
15.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 8(1)2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247381

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Participating in singing is considered to have a range of social and psychological benefits. However, the physiological demands of singing and its intensity as a physical activity are not well understood. METHODS: We compared cardiorespiratory parameters while completing components of Singing for Lung Health sessions, with treadmill walking at differing speeds (2, 4 and 6 km/hour). RESULTS: Eight healthy adults were included, none of whom reported regular participation in formal singing activities. Singing induced acute physiological responses that were consistent with moderate intensity activity (metabolic equivalents: median 4.12, IQR 2.72-4.78), with oxygen consumption, heart rate and volume per breath above those seen walking at 4 km/hour. Minute ventilation was higher during singing (median 22.42 L/min, IQR 16.83-30.54) than at rest (11 L/min, 9-13), lower than 6 km/hour walking (30.35 L/min, 26.94-41.11), but not statistically different from 2 km/hour (18.77 L/min, 16.89-21.35) or 4 km/hour (23.27 L/min, 20.09-26.37) walking. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest the acute metabolic demands of singing are comparable with walking at a moderately brisk pace, hence, physical effects may contribute to the health and well-being benefits attributed to singing participation. However, if physical training benefits result remains uncertain. Further research including different singing styles, singers and physical performance impacts when used as a training modality is encouraged. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ClinicalTrials.gov registry (NCT04121351).


Subject(s)
Cardiorespiratory Fitness/physiology , Heart Rate/physiology , Lung/physiology , Oxygen Consumption/physiology , Singing/physiology , Walking/physiology , Adult , Exercise Test , Female , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Male , Metabolic Flux Analysis/methods , Music , Physical Exertion/physiology , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , Warm-Up Exercise
16.
Lung ; 199(3): 255-261, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1233262

ABSTRACT

Mouse models have become an indispensable tool in translational research of human airway disease and have provided much of our understanding of the pathogenesis of airway disease such as asthma. In these models the ability to assess pulmonary function and particularly airway responsiveness is critically important. Existing methods for testing pulmonary function in mice in vivo include noninvasive and invasive technologies. Noninvasive head-out body plethysmography is a well-established and widely accepted technique which has been proven as a reliable method to measure lung function on repeated occasions in intact, conscious mice. We have performed several validation studies in allergic mice to compare the parameter midexpiratory flow (EF50) as a noninvasive marker of airflow limitation with invasively measured gold standard parameters of lung mechanics. The results of these studies showed a good agreement of EF50 with the invasive assessment of lung resistance and dynamic compliance with a somewhat lower sensitivity of EF50. The measurement of EF50 together with basic respiratory parameters is particularly appropriate for simple and repeatable screening of pulmonary function in large numbers of mice or if noninvasive measurement without use of anesthesia is required. Beyond known applications, head-out body plethysmography also provides a much-needed high-throughput screening tool to gain insights into the impact and kinetics of respiratory infections such as SARS-COV-2 on lung physiology in laboratory mice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Plethysmography, Whole Body/methods , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , Airway Resistance , Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Lung/physiopathology , Mice , Respiratory Mechanics , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 18(5): 799-806, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219727

ABSTRACT

Rationale: The natural history of recovery from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) remains unknown. Because fibrosis with persistent physiological deficit is a previously described feature of patients recovering from similar coronaviruses, treatment represents an early opportunity to modify the disease course, potentially preventing irreversible impairment.Objectives: Determine the incidence of and describe the progression of persistent inflammatory interstitial lung disease (ILD) following SARS-CoV-2 when treated with prednisolone.Methods: A structured assessment protocol screened for sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonitis. Eight hundred thirty-seven patients were assessed by telephone 4 weeks after discharge. Those with ongoing symptoms had outpatient assessment at 6 weeks. Thirty patients diagnosed with persistent interstitial lung changes at a multidisciplinary team meeting were reviewed in the interstitial lung disease service and offered treatment. These patients had persistent, nonimproving symptoms.Results: At 4 weeks after discharge, 39% of patients reported ongoing symptoms (325/837) and were assessed. Interstitial lung disease, predominantly organizing pneumonia, with significant functional deficit was observed in 35/837 survivors (4.8%). Thirty of these patients received steroid treatment, resulting in a mean relative increase in transfer factor following treatment of 31.6% (standard deviation [SD] ± 27.6, P < 0.001), and forced vital capacity of 9.6% (SD ± 13.0, P = 0.014), with significant symptomatic and radiological improvement.Conclusions: Following SARS-CoV-2 pneumonitis, a cohort of patients are left with both radiological inflammatory lung disease and persistent physiological and functional deficit. Early treatment with corticosteroids was well tolerated and associated with rapid and significant improvement. These preliminary data should inform further study into the natural history and potential treatment for patients with persistent inflammatory ILD following SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Aftercare/methods , COVID-19/complications , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Lung Diseases, Interstitial , Lung , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/physiopathology , Lung/virology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/diagnosis , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/etiology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/physiopathology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Discharge/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Survivors/statistics & numerical data , Symptom Assessment/methods , Symptom Assessment/statistics & numerical data , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Treatment Outcome , United Kingdom/epidemiology
18.
Chest ; 160(4): 1377-1387, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1213079

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Characterization of aerosol generation during exercise can inform the development of safety recommendations in the face of COVID-19. RESEARCH QUESTION: Does exercise at various intensities produce aerosols in significant quantities? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: In this experimental study, subjects were eight healthy volunteers (six men, two women) who were 20 to 63 years old. The 20-minute test protocol of 5 minutes rest, four 3-minute stages of exercise at 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of age-predicted heart rate reserve, and 3 minutes active recovery was performed in a clean, controlled environment. Aerosols were measured by four particle counters that were place to surround the subject. RESULTS: Age averaged 41 ± 14 years. Peak heart rate was 173 ± 17 beat/min (97% predicted); peak maximal oxygen uptake was 33.9 ± 7.5 mL/kg/min; and peak respiratory exchange ratio was 1.22 ± 0.10. Maximal ventilation averaged 120 ± 23 L/min, while cumulative ventilation reached 990 ± 192 L. Concentrations increased exponentially from start to 20 minutes (geometric mean ± geometric SD particles/liter): Fluke >0.3 µm = 66 ± 1.8 → 1605 ± 3.8; 0.3-1.0 µm = 35 ± 2.2 → 1095 ± 4.6; Fluke 1.0-5.0 µm = 21 ± 2.0 → 358 ± 2.3; P-Trak anterior = 637 ± 2.3 → 5148 ± 3.0; P-Trak side = 708 ± 2.7 → 6844 ± 2.7; P-Track back = 519 ± 3.1 → 5853 ± 2.8. All increases were significant at a probability value of <.05. Exercise at or above 50% of predicted heart rate reserve showed statistically significant increases in aerosol concentration. INTERPRETATION: Our data suggest exercise testing is an aerosol-generating procedure and, by extension, other activities that involve exercise intensities at or above 50% of predicted heart rate reserve. Results can guide recommendations for safety of exercise testing and other indoor exercise activities.


Subject(s)
Aerosols/analysis , COVID-19/diagnosis , Exercise/physiology , Exhalation/physiology , Lung/metabolism , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , Adult , COVID-19/metabolism , Exercise Test/methods , Female , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
19.
Elife ; 102021 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196112

ABSTRACT

Measures of lung function are heritable, and thus, we sought to utilise genetics to propose drug-repurposing candidates that could improve respiratory outcomes. Lung function measures were found to be genetically correlated with seven druggable biochemical traits, with further evidence of a causal relationship between increased fasting glucose and diminished lung function. Moreover, we developed polygenic scores for lung function specifically within pathways with known drug targets and investigated their relationship with pulmonary phenotypes and gene expression in independent cohorts to prioritise individuals who may benefit from particular drug-repurposing opportunities. A transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS) of lung function was then performed which identified several drug-gene interactions with predicted lung function increasing modes of action. Drugs that regulate blood glucose were uncovered through both polygenic scoring and TWAS methodologies. In summary, we provided genetic justification for a number of novel drug-repurposing opportunities that could improve lung function.


Chronic respiratory disorders like asthma affect around 600 million people worldwide. Although these illnesses are widespread, they can have several different underlying causes, making them difficult to treat. Drugs that work well on one type of respiratory disorder may be completely ineffective on another. Understanding the biological and environmental factors that cause these illnesses will allow them to be treated more effectively by tailoring therapies to each patient. Reduced lung function is a factor in respiratory disorders and it can have many genetic causes. Studying the genes of patients with reduced lung function can reveal the genes involved, some of which may already be targets of existing drugs for other illnesses. So, could a patient's genetics be used to repurpose existing drugs to treat their respiratory disorders? Reay et al. combined three methods to link genetics and biological processes to the causes of reduced lung function. The results reveal several factors that could lead to new treatments. In one example, reduced lung function showed a link to genes associated with high blood sugar. As such, treatments used in diabetes might help improve lung function in some patients. Reay et al. also developed a scoring system that could predict the efficacy of a treatment based on a patient's genetics. The study suggests that COVID-19 infection could be affected by blood sugar levels too. Chronic respiratory disorders are a critical issue worldwide and have proven difficult to treat, but these results suggest a way to identify new therapies and target them to the right patients. The findings also support a connection between lung function and blood sugar levels. This implies that perhaps existing diabetes treatments ­ including diet and lifestyle changes aimed at reducing or limiting blood sugar ­ could be repurposed to treat respiratory disorders in some patients. The next step will be to perform clinical trials to test whether these therapies are in fact effective.


Subject(s)
Drug Repositioning/methods , Hyperglycemia/genetics , Lung Diseases/drug therapy , Lung Diseases/genetics , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Causality , Databases, Genetic , Genome-Wide Association Study/methods , Humans , Hyperglycemia/metabolism , Hyperglycemia/physiopathology , Lung/drug effects , Lung/physiology , Lung/physiopathology , Lung Diseases/metabolism , Lung Diseases/physiopathology , Multifactorial Inheritance , Phenotype , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , Transcriptome
20.
Hepatology ; 74(3): 1674-1686, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1103301

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary disease in liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension (PH) constitutes a challenging clinical scenario and may have important implications with regard to prognosis, liver transplantation (LT) candidacy, and post-LT outcome. Pre-LT evaluation should include adequate screening for pulmonary diseases that may occur concomitantly with liver disease as well as for those that may arise as a complication of end-stage liver disease and PH, given that either may jeopardize safe LT and successful outcome. It is key to discriminate those patients who would benefit from LT, especially pulmonary disorders that have been reported to resolve post-LT and are considered "pulmonary indications" for transplant, from those who are at increased mortality risk and in whom LT is contraindicated. In conclusion, in this article, we review the impact of several pulmonary disorders, including cystic fibrosis, alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency, hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, sarcoidosis, coronavirus disease 2019, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pulmonary nodules, interstitial lung disease, hepatic hydrothorax, hepatopulmonary syndrome, and portopulmonary hypertension, on post-LT survival, as well as the reciprocal impact of LT on the evolution of lung function.


Subject(s)
Hypertension, Portal/complications , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Liver Transplantation/mortality , Lung Diseases/complications , Adult , Asthma/diagnosis , Asthma/epidemiology , Asthma/mortality , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Child , Cystic Fibrosis , End Stage Liver Disease/complications , Hepatopulmonary Syndrome/diagnosis , Hepatopulmonary Syndrome/epidemiology , Hepatopulmonary Syndrome/mortality , Humans , Hypertension, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Hypertension, Pulmonary/etiology , Liver Transplantation/methods , Lung Diseases/epidemiology , Lung Diseases/pathology , Lung Diseases/physiopathology , Mass Screening , Patient Selection/ethics , Prognosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/mortality , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sarcoidosis/diagnosis , Sarcoidosis/epidemiology , Sarcoidosis/mortality , Survival Rate/trends , Telangiectasia, Hereditary Hemorrhagic/diagnosis , Telangiectasia, Hereditary Hemorrhagic/epidemiology , Telangiectasia, Hereditary Hemorrhagic/mortality , alpha 1-Antitrypsin Deficiency/diagnosis , alpha 1-Antitrypsin Deficiency/epidemiology , alpha 1-Antitrypsin Deficiency/mortality
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