Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 337
Filter
1.
Monaldi Arch Chest Dis ; 92(1)2021 Aug 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1822487

ABSTRACT

A pandemic caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 was declared in 2020. Severe cases were characterized by the development of acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (AHRF) requiring advanced respiratory support. However, intensive care units (ICU) were saturated, and many patients had to be treated out of ICU. This case describes a 75-year-old man affected by AHRF due to Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), hospitalized in a high-dependency unit, with PaO2/FiO2 <100 for 28 consecutive days. An experienced team with respiratory physiotherapists was in charge of the noninvasive ventilatory support (NIVS). The patient required permanent NIVS with continuous positive airway pressure, non-invasive ventilation, high flow nasal oxygen and body positioning. He was weaned from NIVS after 37 days and started exercise training afterwards. The patient was discharged at home with low-flow oxygen therapy. This case represents an example of a successful treatment of AHRF with the still controversial noninvasive respiratory support in one patient with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noninvasive Ventilation , Respiratory Insufficiency , Aged , Humans , Male , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Pandemics , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy
2.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(4)2022 Apr 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1788927

ABSTRACT

A woman in her 50s was admitted to the intensive therapy unit with acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure secondary to COVID-19 pneumonitis. The patient was intubated on admission and worsening gas exchange necessitated multiple rounds of proning . She later improved, and her ventilation was switched to spontaneous mode. However, the patient started to develop air trapping with subsequent respiratory and cardiovascular compromise. Routine investigations showed no clear cause for her sudden deterioration and a suction catheter passed easily through the endotracheal tube. Bronchoscopy revealed mucinous/phlegmatic membranes had developed across the inner diameter of the endotracheal tube. This had created a one-way valve that allowed positive pressure ventilation through the tube into her lungs but only allowed a fraction of air to passively escape in expiration. This case report highlights a less commonly regarded complication associated with long-term intubation and lack of circuit humidification in the context of productive lung pathology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Insufficiency , Female , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Suction
3.
Sci Prog ; 105(2): 368504221092891, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784977

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization; it has affected millions of people and caused hundreds of thousands of deaths. Patients with COVID-19 pneumonia may develop acute hypoxia respiratory failure and require noninvasive respiratory support or invasive respiratory management. Healthcare workers have a high risk of contracting COVID-19 while fitting respiratory devices. Recently, European experts have suggested that the use of helmet continuous positive airway pressure should be the first choice for acute hypoxia respiratory failure caused by COVID-19 because it reduces the spread of the virus in the ambient air. By contrast, in the United States, helmets were restricted for respiratory care before the COVID-19 pandemic until the Food and Drug Administration provided the 'Umbrella Emergency Use Authorization for Ventilators and Ventilator Accessories'. This narrative review provides an evidence-based overview of the use of helmet ventilation for patients with respiratory failure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noninvasive Ventilation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Respiratory Insufficiency , COVID-19/epidemiology , Head Protective Devices/adverse effects , Humans , Hypoxia/complications , Noninvasive Ventilation/adverse effects , Pandemics , Respiratory Insufficiency/epidemiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy
4.
J Infect Public Health ; 15(3): 349-359, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778317

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) is beneficial in exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but its effectiveness in pneumonia-associated respiratory failure is still controversial. In the current meta-analysis, we aimed to investigate whether the use of NIV before intubation in pneumonia improves the mortality and intubation rates of respiratory failure as compared to no use of NIV in adults. METHODS: We searched three databases from inception to December 2019. We included studies, in which pneumonia patients were randomized initially into either NIV-treated or non-NIV-treated groups. Five full-text publications, including 121 patients, reported eligible data for statistical analysis. RESULTS: With NIV the overall hospital mortality rate seemed lower in patients with pneumonia-associated respiratory failure, but this was not significant [odds ratio (OR) = 0.39; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.13-1.14; P = 0.085]. In the intensive care unit, the mortality was significantly lower when NIV was applied compared to no NIV treatment (OR = 0.22; 95% CI: 0.07-0.75; P = 0.015). NIV also decreased mortality compared to no NIV in patient groups, which did not exclude patients with COPD (OR = 0.25; 95% CI: 0.08-0.74; P = 0.013). The need for intubation was significantly reduced in NIV-treated patients (OR = 0.22; 95% CI: 0.09-0.53; P = 0.001), which effect was more prominent in pneumonia patient groups not excluding patients with pre-existing COPD (OR = 0.13; 95% CI: 0.03-0.46; P = 0.002). CONCLUSION: NIV markedly decreases the death rate in the intensive care unit and reduces the need for intubation in patients with pneumonia-associated respiratory failure. The beneficial effects of NIV seem more pronounced in populations that include patients with COPD. Our findings suggest that NIV should be considered in the therapeutic guidelines of pneumonia, given that future clinical trials confirm the results of our meta-analysis. AVAILABILITY OF DATA AND MATERIALS: All data and materials generated during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.


Subject(s)
Noninvasive Ventilation , Pneumonia , Respiratory Insufficiency , Adult , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Noninvasive Ventilation/methods , Pneumonia/complications , Pneumonia/therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy
8.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(3)2022 Mar 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1769849

ABSTRACT

A female in her late 40s presented to the emergency department during the COVID-19 pandemic with shortness of breath, fever and productive cough following a recent diagnosis of bilateral non-massive pulmonary emboli. She had elevated inflammatory markers and her chest X-ray revealed bilateral infiltrates. Her SARS-CoV-2 PCR was negative, and she was treated for community-acquired pneumonia. However, despite treatment she rapidly deteriorated and developed severe respiratory failure, requiring mechanical ventilation.On further investigation, she tested positive for anti-Jo-1 antibodies and a diagnosis of antisynthetase syndrome sine myositis was made. This led to successful treatment with high dose corticosteroids and intravenous immunoglobulin.This case highlights an uncommon presentation of a rare condition, as well as the benefits of working in a multidisciplinary team on the intensive care unit.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myositis , Respiratory Insufficiency , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , Myositis/complications , Myositis/diagnosis , Myositis/drug therapy , Pandemics , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Crit Care ; 26(1): 83, 2022 03 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765459

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In severe cases, SARS-CoV-2 infection leads to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), often treated by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). During ECMO therapy, anticoagulation is crucial to prevent device-associated thrombosis and device failure, however, it is associated with bleeding complications. In COVID-19, additional pathologies, such as endotheliitis, may further increase the risk of bleeding complications. To assess the frequency of bleeding events, we analyzed data from the German COVID-19 autopsy registry (DeRegCOVID). METHODS: The electronic registry uses a web-based electronic case report form. In November 2021, the registry included N = 1129 confirmed COVID-19 autopsy cases, with data on 63 ECMO autopsy cases and 1066 non-ECMO autopsy cases, contributed from 29 German sites. FINDINGS: The registry data showed that ECMO was used in younger male patients and bleeding events occurred much more frequently in ECMO cases compared to non-ECMO cases (56% and 9%, respectively). Similarly, intracranial bleeding (ICB) was documented in 21% of ECMO cases and 3% of non-ECMO cases and was classified as the immediate or underlying cause of death in 78% of ECMO cases and 37% of non-ECMO cases. In ECMO cases, the three most common immediate causes of death were multi-organ failure, ARDS and ICB, and in non-ECMO cases ARDS, multi-organ failure and pulmonary bacterial ± fungal superinfection, ordered by descending frequency. INTERPRETATION: Our study suggests the potential value of autopsies and a joint interdisciplinary multicenter (national) approach in addressing fatal complications in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Respiratory Insufficiency , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/adverse effects , Humans , Intracranial Hemorrhages/complications , Intracranial Hemorrhages/epidemiology , Male , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Anesthesiology ; 136(5): 732-748, 2022 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764668

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite expanding use, knowledge on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support during the COVID-19 pandemic remains limited. The objective was to report characteristics, management, and outcomes of patients receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation with a diagnosis of COVID-19 in France and to identify pre-extracorporeal membrane oxygenation factors associated with in-hospital mortality. A hypothesis of similar mortality rates and risk factors for COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 patients on venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was made. METHODS: The Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for Respiratory Failure and/or Heart failure related to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus 2 (ECMOSARS) registry included COVID-19 patients supported by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in France. This study analyzed patients included in this registry up to October 25, 2020, and supported by venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for respiratory failure with a minimum follow-up of 28 days after cannulation. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Risk factors for in-hospital mortality were analyzed. RESULTS: Among 494 extracorporeal membrane oxygenation patients included in the registry, 429 were initially supported by venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and followed for at least 28 days. The median (interquartile range) age was 54 yr (46 to 60 yr), and 338 of 429 (79%) were men. Management before extracorporeal membrane oxygenation cannulation included prone positioning for 411 of 429 (96%), neuromuscular blockage for 419 of 427 (98%), and NO for 161 of 401 (40%). A total of 192 of 429 (45%) patients were cannulated by a mobile extracorporeal membrane oxygenation unit. In-hospital mortality was 219 of 429 (51%), with a median follow-up of 49 days (33 to 70 days). Among pre-extracorporeal membrane oxygenation modifiable exposure variables, neuromuscular blockage use (hazard ratio, 0.286; 95% CI, 0.101 to 0.81) and duration of ventilation (more than 7 days compared to less than 2 days; hazard ratio, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.07 to 2.83) were independently associated with in-hospital mortality. Both age (per 10-yr increase; hazard ratio, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.50) and total bilirubin at cannulation (6.0 mg/dl or more compared to less than 1.2 mg/dl; hazard ratio, 2.65; 95% CI, 1.09 to 6.5) were confounders significantly associated with in-hospital mortality. CONCLUSIONS: In-hospital mortality was higher than recently reported, but nearly half of the patients survived. A high proportion of patients were cannulated by a mobile extracorporeal membrane oxygenation unit. Several factors associated with mortality were identified. Venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support should be considered early within the first week of mechanical ventilation initiation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Respiratory Insufficiency , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/adverse effects , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Retrospective Studies
12.
Respir Res ; 23(1): 68, 2022 Mar 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759751

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patient hospitalized for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pulmonary infection can have sequelae such as impaired exercise capacity. We aimed to determine the frequency of long-term exercise capacity limitation in survivors of severe COVID-19 pulmonary infection and the factors associated with this limitation. METHODS: Patients with severe COVID-19 pulmonary infection were enrolled 3 months after hospital discharge in COVulnerability, a prospective cohort. They underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing, pulmonary function test, echocardiography, and skeletal muscle mass evaluation. RESULTS: Among 105 patients included, 35% had a reduced exercise capacity (VO2peak < 80% of predicted). Compared to patients with a normal exercise capacity, patients with reduced exercise capacity were more often men (89.2% vs. 67.6%, p = 0.015), with diabetes (45.9% vs. 17.6%, p = 0.002) and renal dysfunction (21.6% vs. 17.6%, p = 0.006), but did not differ in terms of initial acute disease severity. An altered exercise capacity was associated with an impaired respiratory function as assessed by a decrease in forced vital capacity (p < 0.0001), FEV1 (p < 0.0001), total lung capacity (p < 0.0001) and DLCO (p = 0.015). Moreover, we uncovered a decrease of muscular mass index and grip test in the reduced exercise capacity group (p = 0.001 and p = 0.047 respectively), whilst 38.9% of patients with low exercise capacity had a sarcopenia, compared to 10.9% in those with normal exercise capacity (p = 0.001). Myocardial function was normal with similar systolic and diastolic parameters between groups whilst reduced exercise capacity was associated with a slightly shorter pulmonary acceleration time, despite no pulmonary hypertension. CONCLUSION: Three months after a severe COVID-19 pulmonary infection, more than one third of patients had an impairment of exercise capacity which was associated with a reduced pulmonary function, a reduced skeletal muscle mass and function but without any significant impairment in cardiac function.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Exercise Tolerance/physiology , Pneumonia/physiopathology , Aged , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cohort Studies , Echocardiography/methods , Echocardiography/statistics & numerical data , Exercise Test/methods , Exercise Test/statistics & numerical data , Exercise Tolerance/immunology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , France , Humans , Lung/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia/etiology , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , Respiratory Function Tests/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/physiopathology
13.
Monaldi Arch Chest Dis ; 92(1)2021 Aug 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1744832

ABSTRACT

A pandemic caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 was declared in 2020. Severe cases were characterized by the development of acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (AHRF) requiring advanced respiratory support. However, intensive care units (ICU) were saturated, and many patients had to be treated out of ICU. This case describes a 75-year-old man affected by AHRF due to Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), hospitalized in a high-dependency unit, with PaO2/FiO2 <100 for 28 consecutive days. An experienced team with respiratory physiotherapists was in charge of the noninvasive ventilatory support (NIVS). The patient required permanent NIVS with continuous positive airway pressure, non-invasive ventilation, high flow nasal oxygen and body positioning. He was weaned from NIVS after 37 days and started exercise training afterwards. The patient was discharged at home with low-flow oxygen therapy. This case represents an example of a successful treatment of AHRF with the still controversial noninvasive respiratory support in one patient with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noninvasive Ventilation , Respiratory Insufficiency , Aged , Humans , Male , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Pandemics , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy
14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(5)2022 Feb 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715353

ABSTRACT

The use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in patients with respiratory failure in the course of COVID-19 indicates its limited efficacy and high mortality rates. It seems that one of the conditions for the success of veno-venous ECMO (VV ECMO) in obese patients with COVID-19 is the correct qualification and rapid implementation of this method. We present two cases of obese patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) as a result of SARS-CoV-2 infection with the successful use of ECMO. Two 41-year-old obese patients (Case 1: BMI 31.5 kg/m2 and Case 2: 44.5 kg/m2), with pneumonia and severe respiratory failure in the course of COVID-19, underwent ECMO therapy. The Extracorporeal Life Support Organization (ELSO) guidelines were used to qualify the patients. Due to the persistence of PaO2/FiO2 rate <80 for 6 h, a decision was made to implement VV ECMO. Both patients were discharged from the intensive care unit (Case 1: on day 35; Case 2: on day 22). Rapid implementation of VV ECMO in middle-aged, obese patients with ARDS in the course of COVID-19 showed a positive outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Obesity , Respiratory Insufficiency , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Middle Aged , Obesity/complications , Obesity/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy
15.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(2)2022 Feb 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714386

ABSTRACT

COVID-19-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has challenged medical providers. In severe cases, patients present with poor lung compliance, requiring not only lung protective mechanical ventilation strategies, but also extracorporeal support. Due to the nature of the pandemic, the extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal device called Hemolung Respiratory Assist System became available under the Food and Drug Administration Emergency Use Authorization for patients with COVID-19-induced ARDS. This allowed application of the device to treat patients with recrudescent ARDS following an acute aspiration pneumonia following two previous veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxidation treatment series, in the setting of hypercapnic respiratory acidosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Respiratory Insufficiency , Carbon Dioxide , Humans , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
16.
JAMA ; 327(6): 546-558, 2022 02 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1711978

ABSTRACT

Importance: Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and high-flow nasal oxygen (HFNO) have been recommended for acute hypoxemic respiratory failure in patients with COVID-19. Uncertainty exists regarding the effectiveness and safety of these noninvasive respiratory strategies. Objective: To determine whether either CPAP or HFNO, compared with conventional oxygen therapy, improves clinical outcomes in hospitalized patients with COVID-19-related acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. Design, Setting, and Participants: A parallel group, adaptive, randomized clinical trial of 1273 hospitalized adults with COVID-19-related acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. The trial was conducted between April 6, 2020, and May 3, 2021, across 48 acute care hospitals in the UK and Jersey. Final follow-up occurred on June 20, 2021. Interventions: Adult patients were randomized to receive CPAP (n = 380), HFNO (n = 418), or conventional oxygen therapy (n = 475). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was a composite of tracheal intubation or mortality within 30 days. Results: The trial was stopped prematurely due to declining COVID-19 case numbers in the UK and the end of the funded recruitment period. Of the 1273 randomized patients (mean age, 57.4 [95% CI, 56.7 to 58.1] years; 66% male; 65% White race), primary outcome data were available for 1260. Crossover between interventions occurred in 17.1% of participants (15.3% in the CPAP group, 11.5% in the HFNO group, and 23.6% in the conventional oxygen therapy group). The requirement for tracheal intubation or mortality within 30 days was significantly lower with CPAP (36.3%; 137 of 377 participants) vs conventional oxygen therapy (44.4%; 158 of 356 participants) (absolute difference, -8% [95% CI, -15% to -1%], P = .03), but was not significantly different with HFNO (44.3%; 184 of 415 participants) vs conventional oxygen therapy (45.1%; 166 of 368 participants) (absolute difference, -1% [95% CI, -8% to 6%], P = .83). Adverse events occurred in 34.2% (130/380) of participants in the CPAP group, 20.6% (86/418) in the HFNO group, and 13.9% (66/475) in the conventional oxygen therapy group. Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure due to COVID-19, an initial strategy of CPAP significantly reduced the risk of tracheal intubation or mortality compared with conventional oxygen therapy, but there was no significant difference between an initial strategy of HFNO compared with conventional oxygen therapy. The study may have been underpowered for the comparison of HFNO vs conventional oxygen therapy, and early study termination and crossover among the groups should be considered when interpreting the findings. Trial Registration: isrctn.org Identifier: ISRCTN16912075.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Intubation, Intratracheal , Noninvasive Ventilation/methods , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Adult , COVID-19/mortality , Cannula , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology
17.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0264009, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1703850

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Populations seem to respond differently to the global pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Recent studies show individual variability in both susceptibility and clinical response to COVID-19 infection. People with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) constitute one of COVID-19 risk groups, being already associated with a poor prognosis upon infection. This study aims contributing to unveil the underlying reasons for such prognosis in people with COPD and the variability in the response observed across worldwide populations, by looking at the genetic background as a possible answer to COVID-19 infection response heterogeneity. METHODS: SNPs already associated with susceptibility to COVID-19 infection (rs286914 and rs12329760) and severe COVID-19 with respiratory failure (rs657152 and rs11385942) were assessed and their allelic frequencies used to calculate the probability of having multiple risk alleles. This was performed on a Portuguese case-control COPD cohort, previously clinically characterized and genotyped from saliva samples, and also on worldwide populations (European, Spanish, Italian, African, American and Asian), using publicly available frequencies data. A polygenic risk analysis was also conducted on the Portuguese COPD cohort for the two mentioned phenotypes, and also for hospitalization and survival to COVID-19 infection. FINDINGS: No differences in genetic risk for COVID-19 susceptibility, hospitalization, severity or survival were found between people with COPD and the control group (all p-values > 0.01), either considering risk alleles individually, allelic combinations or polygenic risk scores. All populations, even those with European ancestry (Portuguese, Spanish and Italian), showed significant differences from the European population in genetic risk for both COVID-19 susceptibility and severity (all p-values < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Our results indicate a low genetic contribution for COVID-19 infection predisposition or worse outcomes observed in people with COPD. Also, our study unveiled a high genetic heterogeneity across major world populations for the same alleles, even within European sub-populations, demonstrating the need to build a higher resolution European genetic map, so that differences in the distribution of relevant alleles can be easily accessed and used to better manage diseases, ultimately, safeguarding populations with higher genetic predisposition to such diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Aged , Alleles , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Gene Frequency , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genotype , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Phenotype , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Portugal , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis , /genetics
18.
Crit Care Med ; 50(2): 256-263, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1691786

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of adult patients with coronavirus disease 2019 requiring weaning from prolonged mechanical ventilation. DESIGN: Observational cohort study of patients admitted to two long-term acute care hospitals from April 1, 2020, to March 31, 2021. SETTING: Two long-term acute care hospitals specialized in weaning from prolonged mechanical ventilation in the Chicagoland area, Illinois, United States. PATIENTS: Adult (≥ 18 yr old) ICU survivors of respiratory failure caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 pneumonia receiving prolonged mechanical ventilation. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: During the study period, 158 consecutive patients were transferred to the long-term acute care hospitals for weaning from prolonged ventilation. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were collected and analyzed. Final date of follow-up was June 1, 2021. Prior to long-term acute care hospital transfer, median length of stay at the acute care hospital was 41.0 days and median number of ventilator days was 35. Median age was 60.0 years, 34.8% of patients were women, 91.8% had a least one comorbidity, most commonly hypertension (65.8%) and diabetes (53.2%). The percentage of weaning success was 70.9%. The median duration of successful weaning was 8 days. Mortality was 9.6%. As of June 1, 2021, 19.0% of patients had been discharged home, 70.3% had been discharged to other facilities, and 1.3% were still in the long-term acute care hospitals. CONCLUSIONS: Most patients with coronavirus disease 2019 transferred to two Chicago-area long-term acute care hospitals successfully weaned from prolonged mechanical ventilation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Hospitals, Special , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Ventilator Weaning , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Chicago/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Discharge , Patient Transfer , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Treatment Outcome
19.
Panminerva Med ; 63(4): 529-538, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1689607

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has changed bronchoscopy practices worldwide. Bronchoscopy is a high-risk aerosol-generating procedure with a potential for direct SARS-CoV-2 exposure and hospital-acquired infection. Current guidelines about personal protective equipment and environment considerations represent key competencies to minimize droplets dispersion and reduce the risk of transmission. Different measures should be put in field based on setting, patient's clinical characteristics, urgency and indications of bronchoscopy. The use of this technique in SARS-CoV-2 patients is reported primarily for removal of airway plugs and for obtaining microbiological culture samples. In mechanically ventilated patients with SARS-CoV-2, bronchoscopy is commonly used to manage complications such as hemoptysis, atelectasis or lung collapse when prone positioning, physiotherapy or recruitment maneuvers have failed. Further indications are represented by assistance during percutaneous tracheostomy. Continuous positive airway pressure, non-invasive ventilation support and high flow nasal cannula oxygen are frequently used in patient affected by Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): management of patients' airways and ventilation strategies differs from bronchoscopy indications, patient's clinical status and in course or required ventilatory support. Sedation is usually administered by the pulmonologist (performing the bronchoscopy) or by the anesthetist depending on the complexity of the procedure and the level of sedation required. Lastly, elective bronchoscopy for diagnostic indications during COVID-19 pandemic should be carried on respecting rigid standards which allow to minimize potential viral transmission, independently from patient's COVID-19 status. This narrative review aims to evaluate the indications, procedural measures and ventilatory strategies of bronchoscopy performed in different settings during COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Bronchoscopy/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Noninvasive Ventilation , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Tracheostomy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cannula , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Humans , Pandemics , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , SARS-CoV-2
20.
MedEdPORTAL ; 18: 11214, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1675348

ABSTRACT

Introduction: During COVID-19 surges, medical trainees may perform patient care outside typical clinical responsibilities. While respiratory failure in pediatric patients secondary to COVID-19 is rare, it is critical that providers can effectively care for these children while protecting the health care team. Simulation is an important tool for giving learners a safe environment in which to learn and practice these new skills. Methods: In this simulation, learners provided care to a 13-year-old male with obesity, COVID-19 pneumonia, status asthmaticus, and respiratory failure. Target learners were pediatric emergency medicine fellows and emergency medicine residents. Providers were expected to identify the signs and symptoms of status asthmaticus, pneumonia, and respiratory failure and demonstrate appropriate evaluation and management while minimizing COVID-19 exposure. Participants completed a postsimulation survey on their satisfaction and confidence in performing the objectives. Results: Twenty-eight PGY 1-PGY 6 learners participated in this simulation. The postsimulation survey showed that most learners felt the simulation was effective in teaching the evaluation and management of respiratory failure due to COVID-19 (M = 5.0; 95% CI, 4.9-5.0) and was relevant to their work (M = 5.0; 95% CI, 5.0-5.0). Discussion: Learners felt that the case was effective in teaching the skills needed to care for a child with COVID-19 pneumonia, status asthmaticus, and respiratory failure. Future directions include updating the case with new COVID-19 knowledge and personal protective equipment practices gained over time, using hybrid telesimulation to increase learners' exposure to the case, and adapting the case for other health care providers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emergency Medicine , Respiratory Insufficiency , Status Asthmaticus , Adolescent , Child , Humans , Male , Respiratory Insufficiency/diagnosis , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL