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2.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5416-5424, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363679

ABSTRACT

The kinetics of IgG antibodies after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remain poorly understood. We investigated factors influencing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) IgG antibody levels and time to seronegativation during the follow-up of severe and critically ill patients. We retrospectively reviewed serological evaluations drawn during the follow-up of severe or critical laboratory-proven COVID-19 patients hospitalized at a large academic hospital. Specific IgG titers were measured using a chemiluminescent assay targeting anti-spike and anti-nucleocapsid protein IgG. The influence of time, demographic factors, clinical and paraclinical characteristics, and COVID-19 therapeutics on IgG levels were assessed through linear regression using a mixed-effect model, and delay until IgG negativation through a Weibull regression model. The cohort included 116 patients with a total of 154 IgG measurements drawn at a median of 79 days after diagnosis. IgG antibodies were increased with age (p = 0.005) and decreased significantly over time (p = 0.0002). Using elapsed time and age as covariates, we demonstrated higher IgG levels in patients with a higher body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.0026) and lower IgG levels in immunocompromised patients (p = 0.032). A high BMI was further found to delay and immunodeficiency to hasten significantly seronegativation, whereas no significant effect was observed with corticosteroids. These data highlight the waning over time of IgG antibodies after severe or critical COVID-19. Age, BMI, and immunosuppression also appear to influence the IgG kinetics, while short-term corticotherapy does not. Those data improve the understanding of SARS-CoV-2 serology while further research should determine the determinants of long-term seroprotection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Immunocompromised Host , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Respiratory Insufficiency/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Aged , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Convalescence , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Insufficiency/blood , Respiratory Insufficiency/diagnosis , Respiratory Insufficiency/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors
3.
Front Immunol ; 12: 708101, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1365543

ABSTRACT

Background: Plasma levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), induced by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) triggering COVID-19, can rise surprisingly high. The increase of the CRP concentration as well as a certain threshold concentration of CRP are indicative of clinical deterioration to artificial ventilation. In COVID-19, virus-induced lung injury and the subsequent massive onset of inflammation often drives pulmonary fibrosis. Fibrosis of the lung usually proceeds as sequela to a severe course of COVID-19 and its consequences only show months later. CRP-mediated complement- and macrophage activation is suspected to be the main driver of pulmonary fibrosis and subsequent organ failure in COVID-19. Recently, CRP apheresis was introduced to selectively remove CRP from human blood plasma. Case Report: A 53-year-old, SARS-CoV-2 positive, male patient with the risk factor diabetes type 2 was referred with dyspnea, fever and fulminant increase of CRP. The patient's lungs already showed a pattern enhancement as an early sign of incipient pneumonia. The oxygen saturation of the blood was ≤ 89%. CRP apheresis using the selective CRP adsorber (PentraSorb® CRP) was started immediately. CRP apheresis was performed via peripheral venous access on 4 successive days. CRP concentrations before CRP apheresis ranged from 47 to 133 mg/l. The removal of CRP was very effective with up to 79% depletion within one apheresis session and 1.2 to 2.14 plasma volumes were processed in each session. No apheresis-associated side effects were observed. It was at no point necessary to transfer the patient to the Intensive Care Unit or to intubate him due to respiratory failure. 10 days after the first positive SARS-CoV-2 test, CRP levels stayed below 20 mg/l and the patient no longer exhibited fever. Fourteen days after the first positive SARS-CoV-2 test, the lungs showed no sign of pneumonia on X-ray. Conclusion: This is the first report on CRP apheresis in an early COVID-19 patient with fulminant CRP increase. Despite a poor prognosis due to his diabetes and biomarker profile, the patient was not ventilated, and the onset of pneumonia was reverted.


Subject(s)
Blood Component Removal/methods , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/prevention & control , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , C-Reactive Protein/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Insufficiency/immunology , Respiratory Insufficiency/pathology , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Treatment Outcome
4.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 321(2): L485-L489, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1299247

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, the disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, can progress to multisystem organ failure and viral sepsis characterized by respiratory failure, arrhythmias, thromboembolic complications, and shock with high mortality. Autopsy and preclinical evidence implicate aberrant complement activation in endothelial injury and organ failure. Erythrocytes express complement receptors and are capable of binding immune complexes; therefore, we investigated complement activation in patients with COVID-19 using erythrocytes as a tool to diagnose complement activation. We discovered enhanced C3b and C4d deposition on erythrocytes in COVID-19 sepsis patients and non-COVID sepsis patients compared with healthy controls, supporting the role of complement in sepsis-associated organ injury. Our data suggest that erythrocytes may contribute to a precision medicine approach to sepsis and have diagnostic value in monitoring complement dysregulation in COVID-19-sepsis and non-COVID sepsis and identifying patients who may benefit from complement targeted therapies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Complement Activation/immunology , Complement C3b/immunology , Complement C4b/immunology , Erythrocytes/immunology , Peptide Fragments/immunology , Respiratory Insufficiency/diagnosis , Sepsis/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Complement C3b/metabolism , Complement C4b/metabolism , Erythrocytes/metabolism , Erythrocytes/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Peptide Fragments/metabolism , Respiratory Insufficiency/immunology , Respiratory Insufficiency/metabolism , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sepsis/immunology , Sepsis/metabolism , Sepsis/virology
5.
Immunity ; 54(7): 1594-1610.e11, 2021 07 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281436

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 can cause severe neurological symptoms, but the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are unclear. Here, we interrogated the brain stems and olfactory bulbs in postmortem patients who had COVID-19 using imaging mass cytometry to understand the local immune response at a spatially resolved, high-dimensional, single-cell level and compared their immune map to non-COVID respiratory failure, multiple sclerosis, and control patients. We observed substantial immune activation in the central nervous system with pronounced neuropathology (astrocytosis, axonal damage, and blood-brain-barrier leakage) and detected viral antigen in ACE2-receptor-positive cells enriched in the vascular compartment. Microglial nodules and the perivascular compartment represented COVID-19-specific, microanatomic-immune niches with context-specific cellular interactions enriched for activated CD8+ T cells. Altered brain T-cell-microglial interactions were linked to clinical measures of systemic inflammation and disturbed hemostasis. This study identifies profound neuroinflammation with activation of innate and adaptive immune cells as correlates of COVID-19 neuropathology, with implications for potential therapeutic strategies.


Subject(s)
Brain/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Microglia/immunology , Blood-Brain Barrier/immunology , Blood-Brain Barrier/metabolism , Blood-Brain Barrier/pathology , Brain/metabolism , Brain/pathology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Cell Communication , Central Nervous System/immunology , Central Nervous System/metabolism , Central Nervous System/pathology , Humans , Immune Checkpoint Proteins/metabolism , Inflammation , Lymphocyte Activation , Multiple Sclerosis/immunology , Multiple Sclerosis/pathology , Olfactory Bulb/immunology , Olfactory Bulb/metabolism , Olfactory Bulb/pathology , Respiratory Insufficiency/immunology , Respiratory Insufficiency/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/metabolism
6.
Trials ; 22(1): 71, 2021 Jan 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067260

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, enters the cells through a mechanism dependent on its binding to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a protein highly expressed in the lungs. The putative viral-induced inhibition of ACE2 could result in the defective degradation of bradykinin, a potent inflammatory substance. We hypothesize that increased bradykinin in the lungs is an important mechanism driving the development of pneumonia and respiratory failure in COVID-19. METHODS: This is a phase II, single-center, three-armed parallel-group, open-label, active control superiority randomized clinical trial. One hundred eighty eligible patients will be randomly assigned in a 1:1:1 ratio to receive either the inhibitor of C1e/kallikrein 20 U/kg intravenously on day 1 and day 4 plus standard care; or icatibant 30 mg subcutaneously, three doses/day for 4 days plus standard care; or standard care alone, as recommended in the clinical trials published to date, which includes supplemental oxygen, non-invasive and invasive ventilation, antibiotic agents, anti-inflammatory agents, prophylactic antithrombotic therapy, vasopressor support, and renal replacement therapy. DISCUSSION: Accumulation of bradykinin in the lungs is a common side effect of ACE inhibitors leading to cough. In animal models, the inactivation of ACE2 leads to severe acute pneumonitis in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and the inhibition of bradykinin almost completely restores the lung structure. We believe that inhibition of bradykinin in severe COVID-19 patients could reduce the lung inflammatory response, impacting positively on the severity of disease and mortality rates. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Brazilian Clinical Trials Registry Universal Trial Number (UTN) U1111-1250-1843. Registered on May/5/2020.


Subject(s)
Bradykinin/analogs & derivatives , COVID-19/drug therapy , Complement C1 Inhibitor Protein/administration & dosage , Respiratory Insufficiency/drug therapy , Adult , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Bradykinin/administration & dosage , Bradykinin/adverse effects , Bradykinin/antagonists & inhibitors , Bradykinin/immunology , Bradykinin/metabolism , Bradykinin B2 Receptor Antagonists/administration & dosage , Bradykinin B2 Receptor Antagonists/adverse effects , Brazil , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic , Complement C1 Inhibitor Protein/adverse effects , Drug Administration Schedule , Drug Therapy, Combination/adverse effects , Drug Therapy, Combination/methods , Humans , Injections, Intravenous , Injections, Subcutaneous , Kallikreins/antagonists & inhibitors , Kallikreins/metabolism , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Respiratory Insufficiency/immunology , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
7.
Rom J Intern Med ; 58(4): 259-263, 2020 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1024487

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of COVID-19 has presented several diagnostic challenges in both recognition of acute disease and also the temporal presentation of disease convalescence with return to normal activity. We present a case of delayed clinical progression of COVID-19 associated respiratory failure on day 25 after initial symptom onset and, notably, after initial full resolution of symptoms and negative RT-PCR nasopharyngeal testing. The patient's delayed presentation of exertional dyspnea and the utilization of specific characteristics of chest radiography in confirmation with laboratory cytokine measurement allowed for clinical re-categorization of the patient's status to active COVID-19 clinical disease and changed acute management. COVID-19 positive patients should be advised to continue to monitor for respiratory deterioration for a greatly extended period of time, even if RT-PCR testing is negative and initial clinical symptoms have resolved. Frontline healthcare workers, including first responders and primary care providers, also need to be aware to monitor for and recognize this delayed presentation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/blood , Disease Progression , Dyspnea/virology , Humans , Radiography , Respiratory Insufficiency/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory Insufficiency/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors
9.
Mol Med ; 26(1): 95, 2020 10 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-873932

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary fibrosis arises from the repeated epithelial mild injuries and insufficient repair lead to over activation of fibroblasts and excessive deposition of extracellular matrix, which result in a mechanical stretched niche. However, increasing mechanical stress likely exists before the establishment of fibrosis since early micro injuries increase local vascular permeability and prompt cytoskeletal remodeling which alter cellular mechanical forces. It is noteworthy that COVID-19 patients with severe hypoxemia will receive mechanical ventilation as supportive treatment and subsequent pathology studies indicate lung fibrosis pattern. At advanced stages, mechanical stress originates mainly from the stiff matrix since boundaries between stiff and compliant parts of the tissue could generate mechanical stress. Therefore, mechanical stress has a significant role in the whole development process of pulmonary fibrosis. The alveoli are covered by abundant capillaries and function as the main gas exchange unit. Constantly subject to variety of damages, the alveolar epithelium injuries were recently recognized to play a vital role in the onset and development of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. In this review, we summarize the literature regarding the effects of mechanical stress on the fundamental cells constituting the alveoli in the process of pulmonary fibrosis, particularly on epithelial cells, capillary endothelial cells, fibroblasts, mast cells, macrophages and stem cells. Finally, we briefly review this issue from a more comprehensive perspective: the metabolic and epigenetic regulation.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Epigenesis, Genetic/immunology , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/immunology , Mechanotransduction, Cellular/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pulmonary Embolism/immunology , Respiratory Insufficiency/immunology , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/immunology , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/pathology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Biomechanical Phenomena , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/immunology , Endothelial Cells/immunology , Endothelial Cells/pathology , Fibroblasts/immunology , Fibroblasts/pathology , Humans , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/genetics , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/pathology , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/virology , Lung/blood supply , Lung/immunology , Lung/pathology , Macrophages/immunology , Macrophages/pathology , Mechanotransduction, Cellular/genetics , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Pulmonary Embolism/genetics , Pulmonary Embolism/pathology , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , Respiratory Insufficiency/genetics , Respiratory Insufficiency/pathology , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Mechanical
10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(40): 25018-25025, 2020 10 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-780138

ABSTRACT

Respiratory failure in the acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic is hypothesized to be driven by an overreacting innate immune response, where the complement system is a key player. In this prospective cohort study of 39 hospitalized coronavirus disease COVID-19 patients, we describe systemic complement activation and its association with development of respiratory failure. Clinical data and biological samples were obtained at admission, days 3 to 5, and days 7 to 10. Respiratory failure was defined as PO2/FiO2 ratio of ≤40 kPa. Complement activation products covering the classical/lectin (C4d), alternative (C3bBbP) and common pathway (C3bc, C5a, and sC5b-9), the lectin pathway recognition molecule MBL, and antibody serology were analyzed by enzyme-immunoassays; viral load by PCR. Controls comprised healthy blood donors. Consistently increased systemic complement activation was observed in the majority of COVID-19 patients during hospital stay. At admission, sC5b-9 and C4d were significantly higher in patients with than without respiratory failure (P = 0.008 and P = 0.034). Logistic regression showed increasing odds of respiratory failure with sC5b-9 (odds ratio 31.9, 95% CI 1.4 to 746, P = 0.03) and need for oxygen therapy with C4d (11.7, 1.1 to 130, P = 0.045). Admission sC5b-9 and C4d correlated significantly to ferritin (r = 0.64, P < 0.001; r = 0.69, P < 0.001). C4d, sC5b-9, and C5a correlated with antiviral antibodies, but not with viral load. Systemic complement activation is associated with respiratory failure in COVID-19 patients and provides a rationale for investigating complement inhibitors in future clinical trials.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Complement Activation , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Respiratory Insufficiency/immunology , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Female , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Male , Mannose-Binding Lectin/blood , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Load
11.
Anesth Analg ; 131(4): 993-999, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-760675

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The cellular immune system is of pivotal importance with regard to the response to severe infections. Monocytes/macrophages are considered key immune cells in infections and downregulation of the surface expression of monocytic human leukocyte antigen-DR (mHLA-DR) within the major histocompatibility complex class II reflects a state of immunosuppression, also referred to as injury-associated immunosuppression. As the role of immunosuppression in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is currently unclear, we seek to explore the level of mHLA-DR expression in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: In a preliminary prospective monocentric observational study, 16 COVID-19-positive patients (75% male, median age: 68 [interquartile range 59-75]) requiring hospitalization were included. The median Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation-II (APACHE-II) score in 9 intensive care unit (ICU) patients with acute respiratory failure was 30 (interquartile range 25-32). Standardized quantitative assessment of HLA-DR on monocytes (cluster of differentiation 14+ cells) was performed using calibrated flow cytometry at baseline (ICU/hospital admission) and at days 3 and 5 after ICU admission. Baseline data were compared to hospitalized noncritically ill COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: While normal mHLA-DR expression was observed in all hospitalized noncritically ill patients (n = 7), 89% (8 of 9) critically ill patients with COVID-19-induced acute respiratory failure showed signs of downregulation of mHLA-DR at ICU admission. mHLA-DR expression at admission was significantly lower in critically ill patients (median, [quartiles]: 9280 antibodies/cell [6114, 16,567]) as compared to the noncritically ill patients (30,900 antibodies/cell [26,777, 52,251]), with a median difference of 21,508 antibodies/cell (95% confidence interval [CI], 14,118-42,971), P = .002. Reduced mHLA-DR expression was observed to persist until day 5 after ICU admission. CONCLUSIONS: When compared to noncritically ill hospitalized COVID-19 patients, ICU patients with severe COVID-19 disease showed reduced mHLA-DR expression on circulating CD14+ monocytes at ICU admission, indicating a dysfunctional immune response. This immunosuppressive (monocytic) phenotype remained unchanged over the ensuing days after ICU admission. Strategies aiming for immunomodulation in this population of critically ill patients should be guided by an immune-monitoring program in an effort to determine who might benefit best from a given immunological intervention.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Critical Illness , HLA-DR Antigens/biosynthesis , HLA-DR Antigens/immunology , Immune Tolerance/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , APACHE , Aged , Antibodies/analysis , Antibodies/immunology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Critical Care , Down-Regulation/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunotherapy , Lipopolysaccharide Receptors/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Monocytes/immunology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Insufficiency/immunology , Respiratory Insufficiency/physiopathology
12.
Clin Immunol ; 220: 108591, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-753773

ABSTRACT

Most severe cases with COVID-19, especially those with pulmonary failure, are not a consequence of viral burden and/or failure of the 'adaptive' immune response to subdue the pathogen by utilizing an adequate 'adaptive' immune defense. Rather it is a consequence of immunopathology, resulting from imbalanced innate immune response, which may not be linked to pathogen burden at all. In fact, it might be described as an autoinflammatory disease. The Kawasaki-like disease seen in children with SARS-CoV-2 exposure might be another example of similar mechanism.


Subject(s)
Autoimmunity/genetics , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Respiratory Insufficiency/immunology , Acute Disease , Adaptive Immunity , Betacoronavirus/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/pathology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/pathology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/genetics , Cytokine Release Syndrome/physiopathology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Lymphocyte Activation , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/genetics , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/immunology , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/physiopathology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Respiratory Insufficiency/genetics , Respiratory Insufficiency/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
14.
Cell Host Microbe ; 27(6): 992-1000.e3, 2020 06 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-735030

ABSTRACT

Proper management of COVID-19 mandates better understanding of disease pathogenesis. The sudden clinical deterioration 7-8 days after initial symptom onset suggests that severe respiratory failure (SRF) in COVID-19 is driven by a unique pattern of immune dysfunction. We studied immune responses of 54 COVID-19 patients, 28 of whom had SRF. All patients with SRF displayed either macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) or very low human leukocyte antigen D related (HLA-DR) expression accompanied by profound depletion of CD4 lymphocytes, CD19 lymphocytes, and natural killer (NK) cells. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) production by circulating monocytes was sustained, a pattern distinct from bacterial sepsis or influenza. SARS-CoV-2 patient plasma inhibited HLA-DR expression, and this was partially restored by the IL-6 blocker Tocilizumab; off-label Tocilizumab treatment of patients was accompanied by increase in circulating lymphocytes. Thus, the unique pattern of immune dysregulation in severe COVID-19 is characterized by IL-6-mediated low HLA-DR expression and lymphopenia, associated with sustained cytokine production and hyper-inflammation.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Respiratory Insufficiency/immunology , Aged , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Female , HLA-DR Antigens/immunology , Humans , Inflammation/pathology , Interleukin-6/immunology , Killer Cells, Natural/pathology , Lymphopenia/pathology , Macrophage Activation , Male , Monocytes/pathology , Pandemics
15.
Clin Rheumatol ; 39(11): 3171-3175, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-730357

ABSTRACT

We treated two patients with severe respiratory failure due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Case 1 was a 73-year-old woman, and Case 2 was a 65-year-old-man. Neither of them had a history of autoimmune disease. Chest computed tomography scans before the antiviral therapy showed bilateral multiple patchy ground-glass opacities (GGO) consistent with COVID-19 pneumonia. The GGO regressed over the course of the antiviral treatment; however, new non-segmental patchy consolidations emerged, which resembled those of interstitial lung disease (ILD), specifically collagen vascular disease-associated ILD. We tested the patients' sera for autoantibodies and discovered that both patients had high anti-SSA/Ro antibody titers. In Case 1, the patient recovered with antiviral therapy alone. However, in Case 2, the patient did not improve with antiviral therapy alone but responded well to corticosteroid therapy (methylprednisolone) and made a full recovery. The relationship between some immunological responses and COVID-19 pneumonia exacerbation has been discussed previously; our discovery of the elevation of anti-SSA/Ro antibodies suggests a contribution from autoimmunity functions of the immune system. Although it is unclear whether the elevation of anti-SSA/Ro antibodies was a cause or an outcome of aggravated COVID-19 pneumonia, we hypothesize that both patients developed aggravated the COVID-19 pneumonia due to an autoimmune response. In COVID-19 lung injury, there may be a presence of autoimmunity factors in addition to the known effects of cytokine storms. In patients with COVID-19, a high level of anti-SSA/Ro52 antibodies may be a surrogate marker of pneumonia severity and poor prognosis.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Antinuclear/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Respiratory Insufficiency/immunology , Aged , Amides/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Benzamidines , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Female , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Guanidines/therapeutic use , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/diagnostic imaging , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/drug therapy , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/etiology , Male , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pregnenediones/therapeutic use , Pyrazines/therapeutic use , Recovery of Function , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
16.
Sci Adv ; 6(31)2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-725277

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the highly contagious and deadly severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), also known as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has posed a serious threat to public health across the globe, calling for the development of effective diagnostic markers and therapeutics. Here, we report a highly reliable severity diagnostic biomarker, acetylated 676th lysine transforming growth factor-beta-induced protein (TGFBIp K676Ac). TGFBIp K676Ac was consistently elevated in the blood of patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia (n = 113), especially in patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) compared to non-ICU patients. Patients' blood samples showed increased cytokines and lymphopenia, which are exemplary indicators of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. Treatment with TGFBIp neutralizing antibodies suppressed the cytokine storm. The increased level of TGFBIp K676Ac in ICU patients suggests the promise of this protein as a reliable severity diagnostic biomarker for severe SARS-CoV-2 disease.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Cytokine Release Syndrome/diagnosis , Extracellular Matrix Proteins/immunology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , Respiratory Insufficiency/diagnosis , Transforming Growth Factor beta/immunology , Acetylation , Antibodies, Neutralizing/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Extracellular Matrix Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Extracellular Matrix Proteins/genetics , Gene Expression , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Leukocyte Count , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/drug effects , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/pathology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/virology , Lung/blood supply , Lung/drug effects , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Lysine/metabolism , NF-kappa B/genetics , NF-kappa B/immunology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Primary Cell Culture , Prognosis , Respiratory Insufficiency/blood , Respiratory Insufficiency/immunology , Respiratory Insufficiency/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Transforming Growth Factor beta/antagonists & inhibitors , Transforming Growth Factor beta/genetics
17.
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 125(5): 600-602, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-693736
18.
Clin Immunol ; 220: 108545, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-670405

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 rapidly turned to a global pandemic posing lethal threats to overwhelming health care capabilities, despite its relatively low mortality rate. The clinical respiratory symptoms include dry cough, fever, anosmia, breathing difficulties, and subsequent respiratory failure. No known cure is available for COVID-19. Apart from the anti-viral strategy, the supports of immune effectors and modulation of immunosuppressive mechanisms is the rationale immunomodulation approach in COVID-19 management. Diet and nutrition are essential for healthy immunity. However, a group of micronutrients plays a dominant role in immunomodulation. The deficiency of most nutrients increases the individual susceptibility to virus infection with a tendency for severe clinical presentation. Despite a shred of evidence, the supplementation of a single nutrient is not promising in the general population. Individuals at high-risk for specific nutrient deficiencies likely benefit from supplementation. The individual dietary and nutritional status assessments are critical for determining the comprehensive actions in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/diet therapy , Cough/diet therapy , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Micronutrients/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diet therapy , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Cough/diagnosis , Cough/immunology , Cough/pathology , Disease Management , Fever/diagnosis , Fever/diet therapy , Fever/immunology , Fever/pathology , Humans , Immunity, Cellular/drug effects , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/diet therapy , Olfaction Disorders/immunology , Olfaction Disorders/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Respiratory Insufficiency/diagnosis , Respiratory Insufficiency/diet therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/immunology , Respiratory Insufficiency/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Trace Elements/therapeutic use , Vitamins/therapeutic use
19.
Adv Biol Regul ; 77: 100737, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-597242

ABSTRACT

Natural killer (NK) cells are pivotal effectors of the innate immunity protecting an individual from microbes. They are the first line of defense against invading viruses, given their substantial ability to directly target infected cells without the need for specific antigen presentation. By establishing cellular networks with a variety of cell types such as dendritic cells, NK cells can also amplify and modulate antiviral adaptive immune responses. In this review, we will examine the role of NK cells in SARS-COV2 infections causing the ongoing COVID19 pandemic, keeping in mind the controversial role of NK cells specifically in viral respiratory infections and in inflammatory-driven lung damage. We discuss lessons learnt from previous coronavirus outbreaks in humans (caused by SARS-CoV-1 and MERS-COV).


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/epidemiology , Acute Disease , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Gene Expression Regulation , Immunity, Innate , Interferon-gamma/genetics , Interferon-gamma/immunology , Interleukins/genetics , Interleukins/immunology , Killer Cells, Natural/pathology , Killer Cells, Natural/virology , Lung/immunology , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Lymphocyte Activation , Lysosomal-Associated Membrane Protein 1/genetics , Lysosomal-Associated Membrane Protein 1/immunology , NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily C/genetics , NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily C/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Respiratory Insufficiency/complications , Respiratory Insufficiency/diagnosis , Respiratory Insufficiency/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/genetics , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/immunology
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