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4.
PLoS Genet ; 18(3): e1010042, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793655

ABSTRACT

In November 2021, the COVID-19 pandemic death toll surpassed five million individuals. We applied Mendelian randomization including >3,000 blood proteins as exposures to identify potential biomarkers that may indicate risk for hospitalization or need for respiratory support or death due to COVID-19, respectively. After multiple testing correction, using genetic instruments and under the assumptions of Mendelian Randomization, our results were consistent with higher blood levels of five proteins GCNT4, CD207, RAB14, C1GALT1C1, and ABO being causally associated with an increased risk of hospitalization or respiratory support/death due to COVID-19 (ORs = 1.12-1.35). Higher levels of FAAH2 were solely associated with an increased risk of hospitalization (OR = 1.19). On the contrary, higher levels of SELL, SELE, and PECAM-1 decrease risk of hospitalization or need for respiratory support/death (ORs = 0.80-0.91). Higher levels of LCTL, SFTPD, KEL, and ATP2A3 were solely associated with a decreased risk of hospitalization (ORs = 0.86-0.93), whilst higher levels of ICAM-1 were solely associated with a decreased risk of respiratory support/death of COVID-19 (OR = 0.84). Our findings implicate blood group markers and binding proteins in both hospitalization and need for respiratory support/death. They, additionally, suggest that higher levels of endocannabinoid enzymes may increase the risk of hospitalization. Our research replicates findings of blood markers previously associated with COVID-19 and prioritises additional blood markers for risk prediction of severe forms of COVID-19. Furthermore, we pinpoint druggable targets potentially implicated in disease pathology.


Subject(s)
Blood Proteins/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/pathology , Biomarkers/analysis , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Proteins/analysis , Blood Proteins/genetics , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Causality , Genome-Wide Association Study , Hospitalization , Humans , Mendelian Randomization Analysis , Mortality , Pandemics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Prognosis , Proteome/analysis , Proteome/genetics , Proteome/metabolism , Respiratory Insufficiency/blood , Respiratory Insufficiency/diagnosis , Respiratory Insufficiency/mortality , Respiratory Insufficiency/pathology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index
5.
Respir Physiol Neurobiol ; 298: 103842, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1655093

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) and High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) are the main forms of treatment for acute respiratory failure. This study aimed to evaluate the effect, safety, and applicability of the NIV and HFNC in patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (AHRF) caused by COVID-19. METHODS: In this retrospective study, we monitored the effect of NIV and HFNC on the SpO2 and respiratory rate before, during, and after treatment, length of stay, rates of endotracheal intubation, and mortality in patients with AHRF caused by COVID-19. Additionally, data regarding RT-PCR from physiotherapists who were directly involved in assisting COVID-19 patients and non-COVID-19. RESULTS: 62.2 % of patients were treated with HFNC. ROX index increased during and after NIV and HFNC treatment (P < 0.05). SpO2 increased during NIV treatment (P < 0.05), but was not maintained after treatment (P = 0.17). In addition, there was no difference in the respiratory rate during or after the NIV (P = 0.95) or HFNC (P = 0.60) treatment. The mortality rate was 35.7 % for NIV vs 21.4 % for HFNC (P = 0.45), while the total endotracheal intubation rate was 57.1 % for NIV vs 69.6 % for HFNC (P = 0.49). Two adverse events occurred during treatment with NIV and eight occurred during treatment with HFNC. There was no difference in the physiotherapists who tested positive for SARS-COV-2 directly involved in assisting COVID-19 patients and non-COVID-19 ones (P = 0.81). CONCLUSION: The application of NIV and HFNC in the critical care unit is feasible and associated with favorable outcomes. In addition, there was no increase in the infection of physiotherapists with SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Cannula , Intubation, Intratracheal , Noninvasive Ventilation , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Oxygen/administration & dosage , Positive-Pressure Respiration , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Respiratory Rate/drug effects , Acute Disease , Administration, Inhalation , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brazil , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Cannula/adverse effects , Cannula/standards , Cannula/statistics & numerical data , Feasibility Studies , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Intubation, Intratracheal/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Noninvasive Ventilation/adverse effects , Noninvasive Ventilation/methods , Noninvasive Ventilation/standards , Noninvasive Ventilation/statistics & numerical data , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Physical Therapists , Positive-Pressure Respiration/adverse effects , Positive-Pressure Respiration/standards , Positive-Pressure Respiration/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/mortality , Retrospective Studies
6.
JAMA ; 326(21): 2161-2171, 2021 Dec 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1596653

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE: The effect of high-flow oxygen therapy vs conventional oxygen therapy has not been established in the setting of severe COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of high-flow oxygen therapy through a nasal cannula compared with conventional oxygen therapy on need for endotracheal intubation and clinical recovery in severe COVID-19. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Randomized, open-label clinical trial conducted in emergency and intensive care units in 3 hospitals in Colombia. A total of 220 adults with respiratory distress and a ratio of partial pressure of arterial oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen of less than 200 due to COVID-19 were randomized from August 2020 to January 2021, with last follow-up on February 10, 2021. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were randomly assigned to receive high-flow oxygen through a nasal cannula (n = 109) or conventional oxygen therapy (n = 111). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The co-primary outcomes were need for intubation and time to clinical recovery until day 28 as assessed by a 7-category ordinal scale (range, 1-7, with higher scores indicating a worse condition). Effects of treatments were calculated with a Cox proportional hazards model adjusted for hypoxemia severity, age, and comorbidities. RESULTS: Among 220 randomized patients, 199 were included in the analysis (median age, 60 years; n = 65 women [32.7%]). Intubation occurred in 34 (34.3%) randomized to high-flow oxygen therapy and in 51 (51.0%) randomized to conventional oxygen therapy (hazard ratio, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.39-0.96; P = .03). The median time to clinical recovery within 28 days was 11 (IQR, 9-14) days in patients randomized to high-flow oxygen therapy vs 14 (IQR, 11-19) days in those randomized to conventional oxygen therapy (hazard ratio, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.00-1.92; P = .047). Suspected bacterial pneumonia occurred in 13 patients (13.1%) randomized to high-flow oxygen and in 17 (17.0%) of those randomized to conventional oxygen therapy, while bacteremia was detected in 7 (7.1%) vs 11 (11.0%), respectively. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Among patients with severe COVID-19, use of high-flow oxygen through a nasal cannula significantly decreased need for mechanical ventilation support and time to clinical recovery compared with conventional low-flow oxygen therapy. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04609462.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Intubation, Intratracheal/statistics & numerical data , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods , Oxygen/therapeutic use , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Illness/mortality , Critical Illness/therapy , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/instrumentation , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
7.
J Endocrinol Invest ; 45(4): 753-762, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1520532

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Hypogonadism was described in high number of male subjects with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. In this study, we investigated whether low testosterone (T) values may influence the clinical presentation and outcome of SARS-CoV-2-related pneumonia in a large population of adult males with coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19). METHODS: Two hundred twenty one adult males hospitalized for COVID-19 at the IRCCS Humanitas Research Hospital, Rozzano-Milan (Italy) were consecutively evaluated for arterial partial pressure oxygen (PaO2)/fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) ratio, serum T and inflammatory parameters at study entry, need of ventilation during hospital stay and in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: Subjects low T values (< 8 nmol/L; 176 cases) were significantly older (P = 0.001) and had higher serum interleukin-6 (P = 0.001), C-reactive protein (P < 0.001), lactate dehydrogenase (P < 0.001), ferritin (P = 0.012), lower P/F ratio (P = 0.001), increased prevalence of low T3 syndrome (P = 0.041), acute respiratory insufficiency (P < 0.001), more frequently need of ventilation (P < 0.001) and higher mortality rate (P = 0.009) compared to subjects with higher T values. In the multivariable regression analyses, T values maintained significant associations with acute respiratory insufficiency (odds ratio [OR] 0.85, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.79-0.94; P < 0.001 and in-hospital mortality (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.69-0.95; P = 0.009), independently of age, comorbidities, thyroid function and inflammation. CONCLUSION: Low T levels values are associated with unfavorable outcome of COVID-19. Prospective studies are needed to evaluate the long-term outcomes of hypogonadism related to COVID-19 and the clinical impact of T replacement during and after acute illness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Testosterone/blood , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Insufficiency/blood , Respiratory Insufficiency/mortality , Survival Rate
8.
Eur J Med Res ; 26(1): 117, 2021 Oct 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1448444

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Interleukin-6 receptor antagonists (IL-6RAs) and steroids are emerging immunomodulatory therapies for severe and critical coronavirus disease (COVID-19). In this preliminary report, we aim to describe the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of adult critically ill COVID-19 patients, requiring invasive mechanical ventilation (iMV), and receiving IL-6RA and steroids therapy over the last 11 months. MATERIALS AND METHODS: International, multicenter, cohort study derived from Viral Infection and Respiratory Illness University Study registry and conducted through Discovery Network, Society of Critical Care Medicine. Data were collected between March 01, 2020, and January 10, 2021. RESULTS: Of 860 patients who met eligibility criteria, 589 received steroids, 170 IL-6RAs, and 101 combinations. Patients who received IL-6RAs were younger (median age of 57.5 years vs. 61.1 and 61.8 years in the steroids and combination groups, respectively). The median C-reactive protein level was > 75 mg/L, indicating a hyperinflammatory phenotype. The median daily steroid dose was 7.5 mg dexamethasone or equivalent (interquartile range: 6-14 mg); 80.8% and 19.2% received low-dose and high-dose steroids, respectively. Of the patients who received IL-6RAs, the majority received one dose of tocilizumab and sarilumab (dose range of 600-800 mg for tocilizumab and 200-400 mg for sarilumab). Regarding the timing of administration, we observed that steroid and IL-6RA administration on day 0 of ICU admission was only 55.6% and 39.5%, respectively. By day 28, when compared with steroid use alone, IL-6RA use was associated with an adjusted incidence rate ratio (aIRR) of 1.12 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.88, 1.4) for ventilator-free days, while combination therapy was associated with an aIRR of 0.83 (95% CI 0.6, 1.14). IL-6RA use was associated with an adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of 0.68 (95% CI 0.44, 1.07) for the 28-day mortality rate, while combination therapy was associated with an aOR of 1.07 (95% CI 0.67, 1.70). Liver dysfunction was higher in IL-6RA group (p = 0.04), while the bacteremia rate did not differ among groups. CONCLUSIONS: Discordance was observed between the registry utilization patterns (i.e., timing of steroids and IL-6RA administration) and new evidence from the recent randomized controlled trials and guideline recommendations. These data will help us to identify areas of improvement in prescribing patterns and enhance our understanding of IL-6RA safety with different steroid regimens. Further studies are needed to evaluate the drivers of hospital-level variation and their impact on clinical outcomes. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04486521. Registered on July 2020.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Receptors, Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Registries/statistics & numerical data , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiratory Insufficiency/mortality , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Critical Illness , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , International Agencies , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Respiratory Insufficiency/epidemiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , Survival Rate , Young Adult
9.
JAMA ; 326(11): 1013-1023, 2021 09 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1441906

ABSTRACT

Importance: In patients who require mechanical ventilation for acute hypoxemic respiratory failure, further reduction in tidal volumes, compared with conventional low tidal volume ventilation, may improve outcomes. Objective: To determine whether lower tidal volume mechanical ventilation using extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal improves outcomes in patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. Design, Setting, and Participants: This multicenter, randomized, allocation-concealed, open-label, pragmatic clinical trial enrolled 412 adult patients receiving mechanical ventilation for acute hypoxemic respiratory failure, of a planned sample size of 1120, between May 2016 and December 2019 from 51 intensive care units in the UK. Follow-up ended on March 11, 2020. Interventions: Participants were randomized to receive lower tidal volume ventilation facilitated by extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal for at least 48 hours (n = 202) or standard care with conventional low tidal volume ventilation (n = 210). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was all-cause mortality 90 days after randomization. Prespecified secondary outcomes included ventilator-free days at day 28 and adverse event rates. Results: Among 412 patients who were randomized (mean age, 59 years; 143 [35%] women), 405 (98%) completed the trial. The trial was stopped early because of futility and feasibility following recommendations from the data monitoring and ethics committee. The 90-day mortality rate was 41.5% in the lower tidal volume ventilation with extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal group vs 39.5% in the standard care group (risk ratio, 1.05 [95% CI, 0.83-1.33]; difference, 2.0% [95% CI, -7.6% to 11.5%]; P = .68). There were significantly fewer mean ventilator-free days in the extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal group compared with the standard care group (7.1 [95% CI, 5.9-8.3] vs 9.2 [95% CI, 7.9-10.4] days; mean difference, -2.1 [95% CI, -3.8 to -0.3]; P = .02). Serious adverse events were reported for 62 patients (31%) in the extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal group and 18 (9%) in the standard care group, including intracranial hemorrhage in 9 patients (4.5%) vs 0 (0%) and bleeding at other sites in 6 (3.0%) vs 1 (0.5%) in the extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal group vs the control group. Overall, 21 patients experienced 22 serious adverse events related to the study device. Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure, the use of extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal to facilitate lower tidal volume mechanical ventilation, compared with conventional low tidal volume mechanical ventilation, did not significantly reduce 90-day mortality. However, due to early termination, the study may have been underpowered to detect a clinically important difference. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02654327.


Subject(s)
Carbon Dioxide/blood , Extracorporeal Circulation , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Aged , Early Termination of Clinical Trials , Extracorporeal Circulation/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/mortality , Tidal Volume
10.
Balkan Med J ; 38(5): 296-303, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438838

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are limited data on the long-term outcomes of COVID-19 from different parts of the world. AIMS: To determine risk factors of 90-day mortality in critically ill patients in Turkish intensive care units (ICUs), with respiratory failure. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective, observational cohort. METHODS: Patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 and who had been followed up in the ICUs with respiratory failure for more than 24 hours were included in the study. Their demographics, clinical characteristics, laboratory variables, treatment protocols, and survival data were recorded. RESULTS: A total of 421 patients were included. The median age was 67 (IQR: 57-76) years, and 251 patients (59.6%) were men. The 90-day mortality rate was 55.1%. The factors independently associated with 90-day mortality were invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) (HR 4.09 [95% CI: [2.20-7.63], P < .001), lactate level >2 mmol/L (2.78 [1.93-4.01], P < .001), age ≥60 years (2.45 [1.48-4.06)], P < .001), cardiac arrhythmia during ICU stay (2.01 [1.27-3.20], P = .003), vasopressor treatment (1.94 [1.32-2.84], P = .001), positive fluid balance of ≥600 mL/day (1.68 [1.21-2.34], P = .002), PaO2/FiO2 ratio of ≤150 mmHg (1.66 [1.18-2.32], P = .003), and ECOG score ≥1 (1.42 [1.00-2.02], P = .050). CONCLUSION: Long-term mortality was high in critically ill patients with COVID-19 hospitalized in intensive care units in Turkey. Invasive mechanical ventilation, lactate level, age, cardiac arrhythmia, vasopressor therapy, positive fluid balance, severe hypoxemia and ECOG score were the independent risk factors for 90-day mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Respiratory Insufficiency/mortality , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care , Critical Illness , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Respiratory Insufficiency/diagnosis , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Survival Analysis , Turkey/epidemiology
12.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 318-326, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1404586

ABSTRACT

When hospitals first encountered coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), there was a dearth of therapeutic options and nearly 1 in 3 patients died from the disease. By the summer of 2020, as deaths from the disease declined nationally, multiple single-center studies began to report declining mortality of patients with COVID-19. To evaluate the effect of COVID-19 on hospital-based mortality, we searched the Vizient Clinical Data Base for outcomes data from approximately 600 participating hospitals, including 130 academic medical centers, from January 2017 through December 2020. More than 32 million hospital admissions were included in the analysis. After an initial spike, mortality from COVID-19 declined in all regions of the country to under 10% by June 2020 and remained constant for the remainder of the year. Despite this, inpatient, all-cause mortality has increased since the beginning of the pandemic, even those without respiratory failure. Inpatient mortality has particularly increased in elderly patients and in those requiring intubation for respiratory failure. Since June 2020, COVID-19 kills one in every 10 patients admitted to the hospital with this diagnosis. The addition of this new disease has raised overall hospital mortality especially those who require intubation for respiratory failure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Hospital Mortality/trends , Respiratory Insufficiency/mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Inpatients/statistics & numerical data , Intubation/statistics & numerical data , Respiration, Artificial/mortality , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(9): 989-998, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1392669

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although COVID-19 has greatly affected many low-income and middle-income countries, detailed information about patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) is still scarce. Our aim was to examine ventilation characteristics and outcomes in invasively ventilated patients with COVID-19 in Argentina, an upper middle-income country. METHODS: In this prospective, multicentre cohort study (SATICOVID), we enrolled patients aged 18 years or older with RT-PCR-confirmed COVID-19 who were on invasive mechanical ventilation and admitted to one of 63 ICUs in Argentina. Patient demographics and clinical, laboratory, and general management variables were collected on day 1 (ICU admission); physiological respiratory and ventilation variables were collected on days 1, 3, and 7. The primary outcome was all-cause in-hospital mortality. All patients were followed until death in hospital or hospital discharge, whichever occurred first. Secondary outcomes were ICU mortality, identification of independent predictors of mortality, duration of invasive mechanical ventilation, and patterns of change in physiological respiratory and mechanical ventilation variables. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04611269, and is complete. FINDINGS: Between March 20, 2020, and Oct 31, 2020, we enrolled 1909 invasively ventilated patients with COVID-19, with a median age of 62 years [IQR 52-70]. 1294 (67·8%) were men, hypertension and obesity were the main comorbidities, and 939 (49·2%) patients required vasopressors. Lung-protective ventilation was widely used and median duration of ventilation was 13 days (IQR 7-22). Median tidal volume was 6·1 mL/kg predicted bodyweight (IQR 6·0-7·0) on day 1, and the value increased significantly up to day 7; positive end-expiratory pressure was 10 cm H2O (8-12) on day 1, with a slight but significant decrease to day 7. Ratio of partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2) to fractional inspired oxygen (FiO2) was 160 (IQR 111-218), respiratory system compliance 36 mL/cm H2O (29-44), driving pressure 12 cm H2O (10-14), and FiO2 0·60 (0·45-0·80) on day 1. Acute respiratory distress syndrome developed in 1672 (87·6%) of patients; 1176 (61·6%) received prone positioning. In-hospital mortality was 57·7% (1101/1909 patients) and ICU mortality was 57·0% (1088/1909 patients); 462 (43·8%) patients died of refractory hypoxaemia, frequently overlapping with septic shock (n=174). Cox regression identified age (hazard ratio 1·02 [95% CI 1·01-1·03]), Charlson score (1·16 [1·11-1·23]), endotracheal intubation outside of the ICU (ie, before ICU admission; 1·37 [1·10-1·71]), vasopressor use on day 1 (1·29 [1·07-1·55]), D-dimer concentration (1·02 [1·01-1·03]), PaO2/FiO2 on day 1 (0·998 [0·997-0·999]), arterial pH on day 1 (1·01 [1·00-1·01]), driving pressure on day 1 (1·05 [1·03-1·08]), acute kidney injury (1·66 [1·36-2·03]), and month of admission (1·10 [1·03-1·18]) as independent predictors of mortality. INTERPRETATION: In patients with COVID-19 who required invasive mechanical ventilation, lung-protective ventilation was widely used but mortality was high. Predictors of mortality in our study broadly agreed with those identified in studies of invasively ventilated patients in high-income countries. The sustained burden of COVID-19 on scarce health-care personnel might have contributed to high mortality over the course of our study in Argentina. These data might help to identify points for improvement in the management of patients in middle-income countries and elsewhere. FUNDING: None. TRANSLATION: For the Spanish translation of the Summary see Supplementary Materials section.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Adult , Aged , Argentina/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Intubation, Intratracheal/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiratory Insufficiency/diagnosis , Respiratory Insufficiency/mortality , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Tidal Volume , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
14.
Transplantation ; 105(6): 1381-1387, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364868

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in >72 million cases and 1.6 million deaths. End-stage lung disease from COVID-19 is a new and growing entity that may benefit from lung transplant; however, there are limited data on the patient selection, perioperative management, and expected outcomes of transplantation for this indication. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was performed with searches of MEDLINE and Web of Science databases as well as the gray literature. All manuscripts, editorials, commentaries, and gray literature reports of lung transplantation for COVID-related respiratory failure were included. A case from the University of Virginia is described and included in the review. RESULTS: A total of 27 studies were included: 11 manuscripts, 5 commentaries, and 11 gray literature reports. The total number of transplantations for COVID-related lung disease was 21. The mean age was 55±12 years, 16 (76%) were male individuals, and the acuity was high, with 85% on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation preoperatively. There was a 95% early survival rate, with 1 additional late death. There is growing histopathologic evidence for permanent structural damage with no replicating virus at the time of transplantation. CONCLUSIONS: Bilateral lung transplantation is an effective treatment option with reasonable short-term outcomes for patients with end-stage lung failure secondary to COVID-19. However, specific considerations in this new population require a multidisciplinary approach. As we move into the second wave of the COVID-19 global pandemic, lung transplantation will likely have a growing role in management of these complex patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Lung Transplantation/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Combined Modality Therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Humans , Lung Transplantation/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Insufficiency/mortality , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Survival Rate , Treatment Outcome
15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14407, 2021 07 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309466

ABSTRACT

Prone position (PP) is known to improve oxygenation and reduce mortality in COVID-19 patients. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine the effects of PP on respiratory parameters and outcomes. PubMed, EMBASE, ProQuest, SCOPUS, Web of Sciences, Cochrane library, and Google Scholar were searched up to 1st January 2021. Twenty-eight studies were included. The Cochran's Q-test and I2 statistic were assessed heterogeneity, the random-effects model was estimated the pooled mean difference (PMD), and a meta-regression method has utilized the factors affecting heterogeneity between studies. PMD with 95% confidence interval (CI) of PaO2/FIO2 Ratio in before-after design, quasi-experimental design and in overall was 55.74, 56.38, and 56.20 mmHg. These values for Spo2 (Sao2) were 3.38, 17.03, and 7.58. PP in COVID-19 patients lead to significantly decrease of the Paco2 (PMD: - 8.69; 95% CI - 14.69 to - 2.69 mmHg) but significantly increase the PaO2 (PMD: 37.74; 95% CI 7.16-68.33 mmHg). PP has no significant effect on the respiratory rate. Based on meta-regression, the study design has a significant effect on the heterogeneity of Spo2 (Sao2) (Coefficient: 12.80; p < 0.001). No significant associations were observed for other respiratory parameters with sample size and study design. The pooled estimate for death rate and intubation rates were 19.03 (8.19-32.61) and 30.68 (21.39-40.75). The prone positioning was associated with improved oxygenation parameters and reduced mortality and intubation rate in COVID-19 related respiratory failure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , Prone Position/physiology , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal/statistics & numerical data , Models, Theoretical , Respiratory Insufficiency/mortality , Respiratory Insufficiency/physiopathology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy
16.
Respir Res ; 22(1): 195, 2021 Jul 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1296608

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Quality of life following extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) therapy is an important health issue. We aimed to describe the characteristics of patients who developed chronic respiratory disease (CRD) following ECMO therapy, and investigate the association between newly diagnosed post-ECMO CRDs and 5-year all-cause mortality among ECMO survivors. METHODS: We analyzed data from the National Health Insurance Service in South Korea. All adult patients who underwent ECMO therapy in the intensive care unit between 2006 and 2014 were included. ECMO survivors were defined as those who survived for 365 days after ECMO therapy. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, interstitial lung disease, lung cancer, lung disease due to external agents, obstructive sleep apnea, and lung tuberculosis were considered as CRDs. RESULTS: A total of 3055 ECMO survivors were included, and 345 (11.3%) were newly diagnosed with CRDs 365 days after ECMO therapy. The prevalence of asthma was the highest at 6.1% (185). In the multivariate logistic regression, ECMO survivors who underwent ECMO therapy for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) or respiratory failure had a 2.00-fold increase in post-ECMO CRD (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.39 to 2.89; P < 0.001). In the multivariate Cox regression, newly diagnosed post-ECMO CRD was associated with a 1.47-fold (95% CI: 1.17 to 1.86; P = 0.001) higher 5-year all-cause mortality. CONCLUSIONS: At 12 months after ECMO therapy, 11.3% of ECMO survivors were newly diagnosed with CRDs. Patients who underwent ECMO therapy for ARDS or respiratory failure were associated with a higher incidence of newly diagnosed post-ECMO CRD compared to those who underwent ECMO for other causes. Additionally, post-ECMO CRDs were associated with a higher 5-year all-cause mortality. Our results suggest that ECMO survivors with newly diagnosed post-ECMO CRD might be a high-risk group requiring dedicated interventions.


Subject(s)
Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/mortality , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/mortality , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Adult , Aged , Chronic Disease , Cohort Studies , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/trends , Humans , Middle Aged , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Respiratory Insufficiency/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate/trends
17.
Mycoses ; 64(10): 1223-1229, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1280362

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An increasing number of reports have described the COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) as being a further contributing factor to mortality. Based on a recent consensus statement supported by international medical mycology societies, it has been proposed to define CAPA as possible, probable, or proven on the basis of sample validity and thus diagnostic certainty. Considering current challenges associated with proven diagnoses, there is pressing need to study the epidemiology of proven CAPA. METHODS: We report the incidence of histologically diagnosed CAPA in a series of 45 consecutive COVID-19 laboratory-confirmed autopsies, performed at Padova University Hospital during the first and second wave of the pandemic. Clinical data, laboratory data and radiological features were also collected for each case. RESULTS: Proven CAPA was detected in 9 (20%) cases, mainly in the second wave of the pandemic (7/17 vs. 2/28 of the first wave). The population of CAPA patients consisted of seven males and two females, with a median age of 74 years. Seven patients were admitted to the intensive care unit. All patients had at least two comorbidities, and concomitant lung diseases were detected in three cases. CONCLUSION: We found a high frequency of proven CAPA among patients with severe COVID-19 thus confirming at least in part the alarming epidemiological data of this important complication recently reported as probable CAPA.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/epidemiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/mortality , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aspergillus , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/mortality , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Insufficiency/microbiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/pathology , SARS-CoV-2
18.
J Surg Res ; 266: 361-365, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275539

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tracheostomy improves outcomes for critically ill patients requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation. Data are limited on the use and benefit of tracheostomies for intubated, critically ill coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. During the surge in COVID 19 infections in metropolitan New York/New Jersey, our hospital cared for many COVID-19 patients who required prolonged intubation. This study describes the outcomes in COVID-19 patients who underwent tracheostomy. METHODS: We present a case series of patients with COVID-19 who underwent tracheostomy at a single institution. Tracheostomies were performed on patients with prolonged mechanical ventilation beyond 3 wk. Patient demographics, medical comorbidities, and ventilator settings prior to tracheostomy were reviewed. Primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes included time on mechanical ventilation, length of ICU and hospital stay, and discharge disposition. RESULTS: Fifteen COVID-19 patients underwent tracheostomy at an average of 31 d post intubation. Two patients (13%) died. Half of our cohort was liberated from the ventilator (8 patients, 53%), with an average time to liberation of 14 ± 6 d after tracheostomy. Among patients off mechanical ventilation, 5 (63%) had their tracheostomies removed prior to discharge. The average intensive care length of stay was 47 ± 13 d (range 29-74 d) and the average hospital stay was 59 ± 16 d (range 34-103 d). CONCLUSIONS: This study reports promising outcomes in COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory failure and need for prolonged ventilation who undergo tracheostomy during their hospitalization. Further research is warranted to establish appropriate indications for tracheostomy in COVID-19 and confirm outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Intubation, Intratracheal/statistics & numerical data , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Tracheostomy/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care/methods , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Critical Illness , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/mortality , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Tracheostomy/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome , Ventilator Weaning/statistics & numerical data
19.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 98: 107874, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1267706

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Following positive experience on the use of blood ozonation in SARS-CoV-2, the CORMOR randomized trial was designed to evaluate the adjuvant role of oxygen/ozone therapy in mild to moderate SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. METHODS: The trial (ClinicalTrial.gov NCT04388514) was conducted in four different Italian centers (April-October 2020). Patients were treated according to best available standard of care (SoC) therapy, with or without O3-autohemotherapy (O3-AHT). RESULTS: A total of 92 patients were enrolled: SoC + O3-AHT (48 patients) were compared to the SoC treatment (44 patients). The two groups differed in steroids therapy administration (72.7% in SoC arm vs. 50.0% in O3-AHT arm; p = 0.044). Steroid therapy was routinely started when it was subsequently deemed as effective for the treatment of COVID-19 disease. No significant differences in mortality rates, length of hospital stay, mechanical ventilation requirement and ICU admission were observed. Clinical improvement in patients with pneumonia was assessed according to a specifically designed score (decrease in SIMEU class, improvement in radiology imaging, improvement in PaO2/FiO2, reduction in LDH and requirement of oxygen therapy ≤ 5 days). Score assessment was performed on day-3 (T3) and day-7 (TEnd) of O3-AHT treatment. A significant increase in the score was reported at TEnd, in the O3-AHT treatment arm (0 [0-1] in the SoC arm vs. 2 [1-3] the O3-AHT arm; p = 0.018). No adverse events related O3-AHT treatment was observed. CONCLUSION: In mild-to-moderate pneumonia due to SARS-CoV-2, adjuvant oxygen/ozone therapy did not show any effect on mortality, or mechanical intubation but show a clinical improvement a day 7 from randomization in a composite clinical endpoint. Larger Randomized prospective studies alone or in combination with steroids are needed to confirm our results.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Lung/physiopathology , Ozone/administration & dosage , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Italy , Length of Stay , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Ozone/adverse effects , Ozone/blood , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Insufficiency/blood , Respiratory Insufficiency/mortality , Respiratory Insufficiency/physiopathology , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
20.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 45(9): 2028-2037, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1265937

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with obesity are at increased risk of severe COVID-19, requiring mechanical ventilation due to acute respiratory failure. However, conflicting data are obtained for intensive care unit (ICU) mortality. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the relationship between obesity and in-hospital mortality of ICU patients with COVID-19. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Patients admitted to the ICU for COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) were included retrospectively. The following data were collected: comorbidities, body mass index (BMI), the severity of ARDS assessed with PaO2/FiO2 (P/F) ratios, disease severity measured by the Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (SAPS II), management and outcomes. RESULTS: For a total of 222 patients, there were 34 patients (15.3%) with normal BMI, 92 patients (41.4%) who were overweight, 80 patients (36%) with moderate obesity (BMI:30-39.9 kg/m2), and 16 patients (7.2%) with severe obesity (BMI ≥ 40 kg/m2). Overall in-hospital mortality was 20.3%. Patients with moderate obesity had a lower mortality rate (13.8%) than patients with normal weight, overweight or severe obesity (17.6%, 21.7%, and 50%, respectively; P = 0.011. Logistic regression showed that patients with a BMI ≤ 29 kg/m2 (odds ratio [OR] 3.64, 95% CI 1.38-9.60) and those with a BMI > 39 kg/m2 (OR 10.04, 95% CI 2.45-41.09) had a higher risk of mortality than those with a BMI from 29 to 39 kg/m2. The number of comorbidities (≥2), SAPS II score, and P/F < 100 mmHg were also independent predictors for in-hospital mortality. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 patients admitted to the ICU with moderate obesity had a lower risk of death than the other patients, suggesting a possible obesity paradox.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Obesity/complications , Respiratory Insufficiency/mortality , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/complications , Critical Illness , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Overweight/complications , Respiratory Insufficiency/complications , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
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