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1.
Front Immunol ; 12: 708101, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1365543

ABSTRACT

Background: Plasma levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), induced by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) triggering COVID-19, can rise surprisingly high. The increase of the CRP concentration as well as a certain threshold concentration of CRP are indicative of clinical deterioration to artificial ventilation. In COVID-19, virus-induced lung injury and the subsequent massive onset of inflammation often drives pulmonary fibrosis. Fibrosis of the lung usually proceeds as sequela to a severe course of COVID-19 and its consequences only show months later. CRP-mediated complement- and macrophage activation is suspected to be the main driver of pulmonary fibrosis and subsequent organ failure in COVID-19. Recently, CRP apheresis was introduced to selectively remove CRP from human blood plasma. Case Report: A 53-year-old, SARS-CoV-2 positive, male patient with the risk factor diabetes type 2 was referred with dyspnea, fever and fulminant increase of CRP. The patient's lungs already showed a pattern enhancement as an early sign of incipient pneumonia. The oxygen saturation of the blood was ≤ 89%. CRP apheresis using the selective CRP adsorber (PentraSorb® CRP) was started immediately. CRP apheresis was performed via peripheral venous access on 4 successive days. CRP concentrations before CRP apheresis ranged from 47 to 133 mg/l. The removal of CRP was very effective with up to 79% depletion within one apheresis session and 1.2 to 2.14 plasma volumes were processed in each session. No apheresis-associated side effects were observed. It was at no point necessary to transfer the patient to the Intensive Care Unit or to intubate him due to respiratory failure. 10 days after the first positive SARS-CoV-2 test, CRP levels stayed below 20 mg/l and the patient no longer exhibited fever. Fourteen days after the first positive SARS-CoV-2 test, the lungs showed no sign of pneumonia on X-ray. Conclusion: This is the first report on CRP apheresis in an early COVID-19 patient with fulminant CRP increase. Despite a poor prognosis due to his diabetes and biomarker profile, the patient was not ventilated, and the onset of pneumonia was reverted.


Subject(s)
Blood Component Removal/methods , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/prevention & control , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , C-Reactive Protein/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Insufficiency/immunology , Respiratory Insufficiency/pathology , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Treatment Outcome
2.
Molecules ; 25(19)2020 Sep 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1302391

ABSTRACT

There is a vast practice of using antimalarial drugs, RAS inhibitors, serine protease inhibitors, inhibitors of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of the virus and immunosuppressants for the treatment of the severe form of COVID-19, which often occurs in patients with chronic diseases and older persons. Currently, the clinical efficacy of these drugs for COVID-19 has not been proven yet. Side effects of antimalarial drugs can worsen the condition of patients and increase the likelihood of death. Peptides, given their physiological mechanism of action, have virtually no side effects. Many of them are geroprotectors and can be used in patients with chronic diseases. Peptides may be able to prevent the development of the pathological process during COVID-19 by inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 virus proteins, thereby having immuno- and bronchoprotective effects on lung cells, and normalizing the state of the hemostasis system. Immunomodulators (RKDVY, EW, KE, AEDG), possessing a physiological mechanism of action at low concentrations, appear to be the most promising group among the peptides. They normalize the cytokines' synthesis and have an anti-inflammatory effect, thereby preventing the development of disseminated intravascular coagulation, acute respiratory distress syndrome and multiple organ failure.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Peptides/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Respiratory System Agents/therapeutic use , Acute Disease , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemical synthesis , Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/growth & development , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/diagnosis , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/complications , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/diagnosis , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/drug therapy , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Humans , Immunologic Factors/chemical synthesis , Lung/blood supply , Lung/drug effects , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Pandemics , Peptides/chemical synthesis , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Respiratory Insufficiency/complications , Respiratory Insufficiency/diagnosis , Respiratory Insufficiency/prevention & control , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , Respiratory System Agents/chemical synthesis , SARS-CoV-2 , Structure-Activity Relationship
3.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 209, 2021 06 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269884

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The effect of awake prone positioning on intubation rates is not established. The aim of this trial was to investigate if a protocol for awake prone positioning reduces the rate of endotracheal intubation compared with standard care among patients with moderate to severe hypoxemic respiratory failure due to COVID-19. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter randomized clinical trial. Adult patients with confirmed COVID-19, high-flow nasal oxygen or noninvasive ventilation for respiratory support and a PaO2/FiO2 ratio ≤ 20 kPa were randomly assigned to a protocol targeting 16 h prone positioning per day or standard care. The primary endpoint was intubation within 30 days. Secondary endpoints included duration of awake prone positioning, 30-day mortality, ventilator-free days, hospital and intensive care unit length of stay, use of noninvasive ventilation, organ support and adverse events. The trial was terminated early due to futility. RESULTS: Of 141 patients assessed for eligibility, 75 were randomized of whom 39 were allocated to the control group and 36 to the prone group. Within 30 days after enrollment, 13 patients (33%) were intubated in the control group versus 12 patients (33%) in the prone group (HR 1.01 (95% CI 0.46-2.21), P = 0.99). Median prone duration was 3.4 h [IQR 1.8-8.4] in the control group compared with 9.0 h per day [IQR 4.4-10.6] in the prone group (P = 0.014). Nine patients (23%) in the control group had pressure sores compared with two patients (6%) in the prone group (difference - 18% (95% CI - 2 to - 33%); P = 0.032). There were no other differences in secondary outcomes between groups. CONCLUSIONS: The implemented protocol for awake prone positioning increased duration of prone positioning, but did not reduce the rate of intubation in patients with hypoxemic respiratory failure due to COVID-19 compared to standard care. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN54917435. Registered 15 June 2020 ( https://doi.org/10.1186/ISRCTN54917435 ).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods , Patient Positioning/methods , Prone Position , Respiratory Insufficiency/prevention & control , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Wakefulness
4.
J Med Virol ; 93(1): 491-498, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206796

ABSTRACT

Respiratory failure in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection appears related to cytokine release syndrome that often results in mechanical ventilation (MV). We investigated the role of tocilizumab (TCZ) on interleukin-6 (IL-6) trends and MV in patients with SARS-CoV-2. In this longitudinal observational study, 112 patients were evaluated from 1 February to 31 May 2020. TCZ was administered followed by methylprednisolone to patients with >3L oxygen requirement and pneumonia severity index score ≤130 with computed tomography scan changes. IL-6, C-reactive protein (CRP), ferritin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), D-dimer, and procalcitonin were monitored on days 0, 3, and 6 of therapy. Statistical analyses were performed with significance ≤0.05. Eighty out of 112 SARS-CoV-2-positive patients (45 males, 56.96%; 34 females, 43.04%) were included in this study. Seven patients expired (8.75%) and nine patients required MV (11.25%). Median IL-6 levels pre-administration of TCZ was 342.50 (78.25-666.25) pg/mL compared with post-administration on day 3 (563; 162-783) pg/mL (P < .00001). On day 6, the median dropped to 545 (333.50-678.50) pg/mL compared with day 3 (P = .709). CRP, ferritin, LDH, and D-dimer levels were reduced after TCZ therapy. Early use of TCZ may reduce the need for MV and decrease CRP, ferritin, LDH, and D-dimer levels. The sequential use of methylprednisolone for 72 hours seems to potentiate the effect and prolong the suppression of the cytokine storm. IL-6 levels may be helpful as a prognostic tool.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Respiratory Insufficiency/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , Drug Administration Schedule , Female , Humans , Interleukin-6/blood , Male , Middle Aged
5.
Elife ; 102021 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1121691

ABSTRACT

Background: It was studied if early suPAR-guided anakinra treatment can prevent severe respiratory failure (SRF) of COVID-19. Methods: A total of 130 patients with suPAR ≥6 ng/ml were assigned to subcutaneous anakinra 100 mg once daily for 10 days. Primary outcome was SRF incidence by day 14 defined as any respiratory ratio below 150 mmHg necessitating mechanical or non-invasive ventilation. Main secondary outcomes were 30-day mortality and inflammatory mediators; 28-day WHO-CPS was explored. Propensity-matched standard-of care comparators were studied. Results: 22.3% with anakinra treatment and 59.2% comparators (hazard ratio, 0.30; 95% CI, 0.20-0.46) progressed into SRF; 30-day mortality was 11.5% and 22.3% respectively (hazard ratio 0.49; 95% CI 0.25-0.97). Anakinra was associated with decrease in circulating interleukin (IL)-6, sCD163 and sIL2-R; IL-10/IL-6 ratio on day 7 was inversely associated with SOFA score; patients were allocated to less severe WHO-CPS strata. Conclusions: Early suPAR-guided anakinra decreased SRF and restored the pro-/anti-inflammatory balance. Funding: This study was funded by the Hellenic Institute for the Study of Sepsis, Technomar Shipping Inc, Swedish Orphan Biovitrum, and the Horizon 2020 Framework Programme. Clinical trial number: NCT04357366.


People infected with the SARS-CoV-2 virus, which causes COVID-19, can develop severe respiratory failure and require a ventilator to keep breathing, but this does not happen to every infected individual. Measuring a blood protein called suPAR (soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor) may help identify patients at the greatest risk of developing severe respiratory failure and requiring a ventilator. Previous investigations have suggested that measuring suPAR can identify pneumonia patients at highest risk for developing respiratory failure. The protein can be measured by taking a blood sample, and its levels provide a snapshot of how the body's immune system is reacting to infection, and of how it may respond to treatment. Anakinra is a drug that forms part of a class of medications called interleukin antagonists. It is commonly prescribed alone or in combination with other medications to reduce pain and swelling associated with rheumatoid arthritis. Kyriazopoulou et al. investigated whether treating COVID-19 patients who had developed pneumonia with anakinra could prevent the use of a ventilator and lower the risk of death. The findings show that treating COVID-19 patients with an injection of 100 milligrams of anakinra for ten days may be an effective approach because the drug combats inflammation. Kyriazopoulou et al. examined various markers of the immune response and discovered that anakinra was able to improve immune function, protecting a significant number of patients from going on a ventilator. The drug was also found to be safe and cause no significant adverse side effects. Administering anakinra decreased of the risk of progression into severe respiratory failure by 70%, and reduced death rates significantly. These results suggest that it may be beneficial to use suPAR as an early biomarker for identifying those individuals at highest risk for severe respiratory failure, and then treat them with anakinra. While the findings are promising, they must be validated in larger studies.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/administration & dosage , Respiratory Insufficiency/prevention & control , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antigens, CD/blood , Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Humans , Incidence , Injections, Subcutaneous , Interleukin-10/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Receptors, Cell Surface/blood , Receptors, Urokinase Plasminogen Activator/blood , Receptors, Urokinase Plasminogen Activator/metabolism , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Insufficiency/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Standard of Care , Treatment Outcome
6.
Am J Case Rep ; 22: e928421, 2021 Feb 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1068018

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND High-frequency percussive ventilation (HFPV) is a method that combines mechanical ventilation with high-frequency oscillatory ventilation. This report describes 3 cases of patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia who received intermittent adjunctive treatment with HFPV at a single center without requiring admission to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). CASE REPORT Case 1 was a 60-year-old woman admitted to the hospital 14 days after the onset of SARS-CoV-2 infection symptoms, and cases 2 and 3 were men aged 65 and 72 years who were admitted to the hospital 10 days after the onset of SARS-CoV-2 infection symptoms. All 3 patients presented with clinical deterioration accompanied by worsening lung lesions on computed tomography (CT) scans after 21 days from the onset of symptoms. SARS-CoV-2 infection was confirmed in all patients by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay from nasal swabs. All 3 patients had impending respiratory failure when non-invasive intermittent HFPV therapy was initiated. After therapy, the patients had significant clinical improvement and visibly decreased lung lesions on followup CT scans performed 4-6 days later. CONCLUSIONS The 3 cases described in this report showed that the use of intermittent adjunctive treatment with HFPV in patients with severe pneumonia due to infection with SARS-CoV-2 improved lung function and may have prevented clinical deterioration. However, recommendations on the use of intermittent HFPV as an adjunctive treatment in COVID-19 pneumonia requires large-scale controlled clinical studies. In the pandemic context, with a shortage of ICU beds, avoiding ICU admission by using adjunctive therapies on the ward is a useful option.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , High-Frequency Ventilation , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Clinical Deterioration , Cough/therapy , Cough/virology , Dyspnea/therapy , Dyspnea/virology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/prevention & control , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
7.
Trials ; 22(1): 116, 2021 Feb 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067266

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Baricitinib is supposed to have a double effect on SARS-CoV2 infection. Firstly, it reduces the inflammatory response through the inhibition of the Januse-Kinase signalling transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) pathway. Moreover, it reduces the receptor mediated viral endocytosis by AP2-associated protein kinase 1 (AAK1) inhibition. We propose the use of baricinitib to prevent the progression of the respiratory insufficiency in SARS-CoV2 pneumonia in onco-haematological patients. In this phase Ib/II study, the primary objective in the safety cohort is to describe the incidence of severe adverse events associated with baricitinib administration. The primary objective of the randomized phase (baricitinib cohort versus standard of care cohort) is to evaluate the number of patients who did not require mechanical oxygen support since start of therapy until day +14 or discharge (whichever it comes first). The secondary objectives of the study (only randomized phase of the study) are represented by the comparison between the two arms of the study in terms of mortality and toxicity at day+30. Moreover, a description of the immunological related changes between the two arms of the study will be reported. TRIAL DESIGN: The trial is a phase I/II study with a safety run-in cohort (phase 1) followed by an open label phase II randomized controlled trial with an experimental arm compared to a standard of care arm. PARTICIPANTS: The study will be performed at the Institut Català d'Oncologia, a tertiary level oncological referral center in the Catalonia region (Spain). The eligibility criteria are: patients > 18 years affected by oncological diseases; ECOG performance status < 2 (Karnofsky score > 60%); a laboratory confirmed infection with SARS-CoV-2 by means of real -time PCR; radiological signs of low respiratory tract disease; absence of organ dysfunction (a total bilirubin within normal institutional limits, AST/ALT≤2.5 X institutional upper limit of normal, alkaline phosphatase ≤2.5 X institutional upper limit of normal, coagulation within normal institutional limits, creatinine clearance >30 mL/min/1.73 m2 for patients with creatinine levels above institutional normal); absence of HIV infection; no active or latent HBV or HCV infection. The exclusion criteria are: patients with oncological diseases who are not candidates to receive any active oncological treatment; hemodynamic instability at time of study enrollment; impossibility to receive oral medication; medical history of recent or active pulmonary embolism or deep venous thrombosis or patients at high-risk of suffering them (surgical intervention, immobilization); multi organ failure, rapid worsening of respiratory function with requirement of fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) > 50% or high-flow nasal cannula before initiation of study treatment; uncontrolled intercurrent illness (ongoing or severe active infection, symptomatic congestive heart failure, unstable angina pectoris, cardiac arrhythmia, or psychiatric illness/social situations that would limit compliance with study requirements); allergy to one or more of study treatments; pregnant or breastfeeding women; positive pregnancy test in a pre-dose examination. Patients should have the ability to understand, and the willingness to sign, a written informed consent document; the willingness to accept randomization to any assigned treatment arm; and must agree not to enroll in another study of an investigational agent prior to completion of Day +28 of study. An electronic Case Report Form in the Research Electronic Data Capture (REDCap) platform will be used to collect the data of the trial. Removal from the study will apply in case of unacceptable adverse event(s), development of an intercurrent illness, condition or procedural complication, which could interfere with the patient's continued participation and voluntary patient withdrawal from study treatment (all patients are free to withdraw from participation in this study at any time, for any reasons, specified or unspecified, and without prejudice). INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Treatment will be administered on an inpatient basis. We will compare the experimental treatment with baricitinib plus the institutional standard of care compared with the standard of care alone. During the phase I, we will define the dose-limiting toxicity of baricitinib and the dose to be used in the phase 2 part of the study. The starting baricitinib dose will be an oral tablet 4 mg-once daily which can be reduced to 2 mg depending on the observed toxicity. The minimum duration of therapy will be 5 days and it can be extended to 7 days. The standard of care will include the following therapies. Antibiotics will be individualized based on clinical suspicion, including the management of febrile neutropenia. Prophylaxis of thromboembolic disease will be administered to all participants. Remdesivir administration will be considered only in patients with severe pneumonia (SatO2 <94%) with less than 7 days of onset of symptoms and with supplemental oxygen requirements but not using high-flow nasal cannula, non-invasive or invasive mechanical ventilation or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). In the randomized phase, tocilizumab or interferon will not be allowed in the experimental arm. Tocilizumab can be used in patients in the standard of care arm at the discretion of the investigator. If it is prescribed it will be used according to the following criteria: patients who, according to his baseline clinical condition, would be an ICU tributary, interstitial pneumonia with severe respiratory failure, patients who are not on mechanical ventilation or ECMO and who are still progressing with corticoid treatment or if they are not candidates for corticosteroids. Mild ARDS (PAFI <300 mmHg) with radiological or blood gases deterioration that meets at least one of the following criteria: CRP >100mg/L D-Dimer >1,000µg/L LDH >400U/L Ferritin >700ng/ml Interleukin 6 ≥40ng/L. The use of tocilizumab is not recommended if there are AST/ALT values greater than 10 times the upper limit of normal, neutrophils <500 cells/mm3, sepsis due to other pathogens other than SARS-CoV-2, presence of comorbidity that can lead to a poor prognosis, complicated diverticulitis or intestinal perforation, ongoing skin infection. The dose will be that recommended by the Spanish Medicine Agency in patients ≥75Kg: 600mg dose whereas in patients <75kg: 400mg dose. Exceptionally, a second infusion can be assessed 12 hours after the first in those patients who experience a worsening of laboratory parameters after a first favourable response. The use of corticosteroids will be recommended in patients who have had symptoms for more than 7 days and who meet all the following criteria: need for oxygen support, non-invasive or invasive mechanical ventilation, acute respiratory failure or rapid deterioration of gas exchange, appearance or worsening of bilateral alveolar-interstitial infiltrates at the radiological level. In case of indication, it is recommended: dexamethasone 6mg/d p.o. or iv for 10 days or methylprednisolone 32mg/d orally or 30mg iv for 10 days or prednisone 40mg day p.o. for 10 days. MAIN OUTCOMES: Phase 1 part: to describe the toxicity profile of baricitinib in COVID19 oncological patients during the 5-7 day treatment period and until day +14 or discharge (whichever it comes first). Phase 2 part: to describe the number of patients in the experimental arm that will not require mechanical oxygen support compared to the standard of care arm until day +14 or discharge (whichever it comes first). RANDOMISATION: For the phase 2 of the study, the allocation ratio will be 1:1. Randomization process will be carried out electronically through the REDcap platform ( https://www.project-redcap.org/ ) BLINDING (MASKING): This is an open label study. No blinding will be performed. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): The first part of the study (safety run-in cohort) will consist in the enrollment of 6 to 12 patients. In this population, we will test the toxicity of the experimental treatment. An incidence of severe adverse events grade 3-4 (graded by Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v.5.0) inferior than 33% will be considered sufficient to follow with the next part of the study. The second part of the study we will perform an interim analysis of efficacy at first 64 assessed patients and a definitive one will analyze 128 assessed patients. Interim and definitive tests will be performed considering in both cases an alpha error of 0.05. We consider for the control arm this rate is expected to be 0.60 and for the experimental arm of 0.80. Considering this data, a superiority test to prove a difference of 0.20 with an overall alpha error of 0.10 and a beta error of 0.2 will be performed. Considering a 5% of dropout rate, it is expected that a total of 136 patients, 68 for each study arm, will be required to complete study accrual. TRIAL STATUS: Version 5.0. 14th October 2020 Recruitment started on the 16th of December 2020. Expected end of recruitment is June 2021. TRIAL REGISTRATION: AEMPs: 20-0356 EudraCT: 2020-001789-12, https://www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu/ctr-search/search (Not publically available as Phase I trial) Clinical trials: BARCOVID19, https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ (In progress) FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol."


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Azetidines/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Purines/adverse effects , Pyrazoles/adverse effects , Respiratory Insufficiency/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sulfonamides/adverse effects , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Clinical Trials, Phase I as Topic , Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic , Cohort Studies , Female , Hematologic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Hematologic Neoplasms/mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Respiratory Insufficiency/epidemiology , Spain/epidemiology , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
8.
N Engl J Med ; 384(7): 610-618, 2021 02 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1012716

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Therapies to interrupt the progression of early coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) remain elusive. Among them, convalescent plasma administered to hospitalized patients has been unsuccessful, perhaps because antibodies should be administered earlier in the course of illness. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of convalescent plasma with high IgG titers against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in older adult patients within 72 hours after the onset of mild Covid-19 symptoms. The primary end point was severe respiratory disease, defined as a respiratory rate of 30 breaths per minute or more, an oxygen saturation of less than 93% while the patient was breathing ambient air, or both. The trial was stopped early at 76% of its projected sample size because cases of Covid-19 in the trial region decreased considerably and steady enrollment of trial patients became virtually impossible. RESULTS: A total of 160 patients underwent randomization. In the intention-to-treat population, severe respiratory disease developed in 13 of 80 patients (16%) who received convalescent plasma and 25 of 80 patients (31%) who received placebo (relative risk, 0.52; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.29 to 0.94; P = 0.03), with a relative risk reduction of 48%. A modified intention-to-treat analysis that excluded 6 patients who had a primary end-point event before infusion of convalescent plasma or placebo showed a larger effect size (relative risk, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.20 to 0.81). No solicited adverse events were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Early administration of high-titer convalescent plasma against SARS-CoV-2 to mildly ill infected older adults reduced the progression of Covid-19. (Funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and the Fundación INFANT Pandemic Fund; Dirección de Sangre y Medicina Transfusional del Ministerio de Salud number, PAEPCC19, Plataforma de Registro Informatizado de Investigaciones en Salud number, 1421, and ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04479163.).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Respiratory Insufficiency/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Component Transfusion , COVID-19/complications , Disease Progression , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Intention to Treat Analysis , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Severity of Illness Index
10.
Tuberk Toraks ; 68(3): 331-336, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-934593

ABSTRACT

Prone positioning is a well-known supportive maneuver to improve oxygenation for patients with moderate to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Although this technique is usually performed to sedated patients on invasive mechanical ventilation, it has been used in non-intubated patients frequently during the coronavirus diseases-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Favorable outcomes have been reported mainly in combining the prone positioning with high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) or non-invasive ventilation (NIV). Due to limited data, a standard approach for the awake prone positioning has not yet been defined. In this manuscript, we reviewed the literature data about prone positioning in non-intubated patients with COVID-19. According to available literature data, we concluded that prone positioning in non-intubated COVID-19 patients may improve oxygenation and prevent the need for invasive mechanical ventilation. But the efficacy is still controversial in the early stage of the disease due to pulmonary mechanics. Further studies are needed to the defined optimal approach of awake prone positioning in COVID-19 patients with hypoxemic respiratory failure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Hypoxia/prevention & control , Patient Positioning/methods , Prone Position/physiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Male , Noninvasive Ventilation , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiratory Insufficiency/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Acad Emerg Med ; 27(12): 1249-1259, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-892178

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Awake prone positioning has been widely used in patients with COVID-19 respiratory failure to avoid intubation despite limited evidence. Our objective was to evaluate if prone positioning is associated with a reduced intubation rate when compared to usual care. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study in the emergency department of a large quaternary hospital in Sao Paulo. We retrieved data from all admitted patients in need of oxygen supplementation (>3 L/min) and tachypnea (>24 ipm) from March 1 to April 30, 2020, excluding those who had any contraindication to the prone position or who had an immediate need for intubation. The primary endpoint was endotracheal intubation up to 15 days. Secondary outcomes included a 6-point clinical outcome ordinal scale, mechanical ventilation-free days, admission to the intensive care unit, and need of hemodialysis and of vasoactive drugs, all assessed at or up to 15 days. We analyzed unadjusted and adjusted effect estimates with Cox proportional hazards models, logistic regression, quantile regression, and sensitivity analyses using propensity score models. RESULTS: Of 925 suspected COVID-19 patients admitted off mechanical ventilation, 166 patients fulfilled inclusion and exclusion criteria: 57 were exposed to prone positioning and 109 to usual care. In the intervention group, 33 (58%) were intubated versus 53 (49%) in the control group. We observed no difference in intubation rates in the univariate analysis (hazard ratio = 1.21, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.78 to 1.88, p = 0.39) nor in the adjusted analysis (hazard ratio = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.55 to 1.49, p = 0.69). Results were robust to the sensitivity analyses. Secondary outcomes did not differ between groups. CONCLUSIONS: Awake prone positioning was not associated with lower intubation rates. Caution is necessary before widespread adoption of this technique, pending results of clinical trials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects , Prone Position , Respiratory Insufficiency/prevention & control , Wakefulness , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen/administration & dosage , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Bioessays ; 42(11): e2000094, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-723430

ABSTRACT

More than 15 million people have been affected by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and it has caused 640 016 deaths as of July 26, 2020. Currently, no effective treatment option is available for COVID-19 patients. Though many drugs have been proposed, none of them has shown particular efficacy in clinical trials. In this article, the relationship between the Adrenergic system and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is focused in COVID-19 and a vicious circle consisting of the Adrenergic system-RAAS-Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) (which is referred to as the "ARAS loop") is proposed. Hyperactivation of the ARAS loop may be the underlying pathophysiological mechanism in COVID-19, and beta-adrenergic blockers are proposed as a potential treatment option. Beta-adrenergic blockers may decrease the SARS-CoV-2 cellular entry by decreasing ACE2 receptors expression and cluster of differentiation 147 (CD147) in various cells in the body. Beta-adrenergic blockers may decrease the morbidity and mortality in COVID-19 patients by preventing or reducing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and other complications. Retrospective and prospective clinical trials should be conducted to check the validity of the hypothesis. Also see the video abstract here https://youtu.be/uLoy7do5ROo.


Subject(s)
Adrenergic beta-Antagonists/pharmacology , Adrenergic beta-Antagonists/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Carvedilol/pharmacology , Carvedilol/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases , Drug Repositioning/methods , Humans , Inflammasomes/drug effects , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Pandemics , Papain/antagonists & inhibitors , Papain/metabolism , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/drug effects , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Pulmonary Embolism/prevention & control , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Shock, Septic/prevention & control , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Virus Internalization/drug effects
14.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 445, 2020 07 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-655347

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is an emerging disease that can manifest itself as asymptomatic or mild respiratory tract infection in the majority of individuals, but in some, it can progress into severe pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Inflammation is known to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of severe infections and ARDS and evidence is emerging that the IL-1/IL-6 pathway is highly upregulated in patients with severe disease. These findings open new avenues for host-directed therapies in patients with symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection and might in addition to antiviral treatment be enough to curb the currently unacceptably high morbidity and mortality associated with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Interleukin-1/antagonists & inhibitors , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/prevention & control , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Humans , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(13)2020 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-635461

ABSTRACT

By attaching to the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) protein on lung and intestinal cells, Sudden Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV-2) can cause respiratory and homeostatic difficulties leading to sepsis. The progression from acute respiratory failure to sepsis has been correlated with the release of high-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1). Lack of effective conventional treatment of this septic state has spiked an interest in alternative medicine. This review of herbal extracts has identified multiple candidates which can target the release of HMGB1 and potentially reduce mortality by preventing progression from respiratory distress to sepsis. Some of the identified mixtures have also been shown to interfere with viral attachment. Due to the wide variability in chemical superstructure of the components of assorted herbal extracts, common motifs have been identified. Looking at the most active compounds in each extract it becomes evident that as a group, phenolic compounds have a broad enzyme inhibiting function. They have been shown to act against the priming of SARS-CoV-2 attachment proteins by host and viral enzymes, and the release of HMGB1 by host immune cells. An argument for the value in a nonspecific inhibitory action has been drawn. Hopefully these findings can drive future drug development and clinical procedures.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , HMGB1 Protein/metabolism , Respiratory Insufficiency/pathology , Sepsis/pathology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , HMGB1 Protein/antagonists & inhibitors , Humans , Macrophages/cytology , Macrophages/metabolism , Macrophages/virology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/chemistry , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Plant Exudates/chemistry , Plant Exudates/pharmacology , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Plants, Medicinal/metabolism , Respiratory Insufficiency/metabolism , Respiratory Insufficiency/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Sepsis/metabolism , Sepsis/prevention & control , Virus Internalization/drug effects
16.
Pneumologie ; 74(8): 496-504, 2020 Aug.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-616865

ABSTRACT

The German Respiratory Society (DGP) has commissioned Assembly 12 "Rehabilitation, Prevention and Tobacco Control" to develop recommendations for the implementation of pulmonary rehabilitation in COVID-19 patients. This position paper is based on the current state of knowledge, which develops daily. This position paper describes the health consequences in COVID-19 as well as the indications for pulmonary rehabilitation. Rehabilitative therapies in COVID-19 are already indicated on the ward or intensive care unit, continue as early pulmonary rehabilitation in the acute hospital and as pulmonary rehabilitation in pulmonary rehabilitation centers. The main focus of this position paper is to propose recommendations for the content-related implementation of a multimodal, interdisciplinary pulmonary rehabilitation in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/rehabilitation , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/rehabilitation , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Respiratory Therapy/standards , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Lung/physiopathology , Lung/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Societies, Medical
17.
Pneumologie ; 74(6): 337-357, 2020 Jun.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-611131

ABSTRACT

Against the background of the pandemic caused by infection with the SARS-CoV-2, the German Society for Pneumology and Respiratory Medicine (DGP e.V.), in cooperation with other associations, has designated a team of experts in order to answer the currently pressing questions about therapy strategies in dealing with COVID-19 patients suffering from acute respiratory insufficiency (ARI).The position paper is based on the current knowledge that is evolving daily. Many of the published and cited studies require further review, also because many of them did not undergo standard review processes.Therefore, this position paper is also subject to a continuous review process and will be further developed in cooperation with the other professional societies.This position paper is structured into the following five topics:1. Pathophysiology of acute respiratory insufficiency in patients without immunity infected with SARS-CoV-22. Temporal course and prognosis of acute respiratory insufficiency during the course of the disease3. Oxygen insufflation, high-flow oxygen, non-invasive ventilation and invasive ventilation with special consideration of infectious aerosol formation4. Non-invasive ventilation in ARI5. Supply continuum for the treatment of ARIKey points have been highlighted as core statements and significant observations. Regarding the pathophysiological aspects of acute respiratory insufficiency (ARI), the pulmonary infection with SARS-CoV-2 COVID-19 runs through three phases: early infection, pulmonary manifestation and severe hyperinflammatory phase.There are differences between advanced COVID-19-induced lung damage and those changes seen in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndromes (ARDS) as defined by the Berlin criteria. In a pathophysiologically plausible - but currently not yet histopathologically substantiated - model, two types (L-type and H-type) are distinguished, which correspond to an early and late phase. This distinction can be taken into consideration in the differential instrumentation in the therapy of ARI.The assessment of the extent of ARI should be carried out by an arterial or capillary blood gas analysis under room air conditions and must include the calculation of the oxygen supply (measured from the variables of oxygen saturation, the Hb value, the corrected values of the Hüfner number and the cardiac output). In principle, aerosols can cause transmission of infectious viral particles. Open systems or leakage systems (so-called vented masks) can prevent the release of respirable particles. Procedures in which the invasive ventilation system must be opened, and endotracheal intubation must be carried out are associated with an increased risk of infection.The protection of personnel with personal protective equipment should have very high priority because fear of contagion must not be a primary reason for intubation. If the specifications for protective equipment (eye protection, FFP2 or FFP-3 mask, gown) are adhered to, inhalation therapy, nasal high-flow (NHF) therapy, CPAP therapy or NIV can be carried out according to the current state of knowledge without increased risk of infection to the staff. A significant proportion of patients with respiratory failure presents with relevant hypoxemia, often also caused by a high inspiratory oxygen fraction (FiO2) including NHF, and this hypoxemia cannot be not completely corrected. In this situation, CPAP/NIV therapy can be administered under use of a mouth and nose mask or a respiratory helmet as therapy escalation, as long as the criteria for endotracheal intubation are not fulfilled.In acute hypoxemic respiratory insufficiency, NIV should be performed in an intensive care unit or in a comparable unit by personnel with appropriate expertise. Under CPAP/NIV, a patient can deteriorate rapidly. For this reason, continuous monitoring with readiness to carry out intubation must be ensured at all times. If CPAP/NIV leads to further progression of ARI, intubation and subsequent invasive ventilation should be carried out without delay if no DNI order is in place.In the case of patients in whom invasive ventilation, after exhausting all guideline-based measures, is not sufficient, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation procedure (ECMO) should be considered to ensure sufficient oxygen supply and to remove CO2.


Subject(s)
Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Noninvasive Ventilation/methods , Positive-Pressure Respiration , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Pulmonary Edema/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Berlin , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure/standards , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal , Lung/physiopathology , Lung/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pulmonary Edema/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Societies, Medical
18.
Cell Host Microbe ; 28(1): 117-123.e1, 2020 07 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-260325

ABSTRACT

Dysregulation of inflammation is hypothesized to play a crucial role in the severe complications of COVID-19, with the IL-1/IL-6 pathway being central. Here, we report on the treatment of eight severe COVID-19 pneumonia patients-seven hospitalized in intensive care units (ICUs) in Greece and one non-ICU patient in the Netherlands-with the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist Anakinra. All patients scored positive for the hemophagocytosis score (HScore) and were diagnosed with secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistocytosis (sHLH) characterized by pancytopenia, hyper-coagulation, acute kidney injury, and hepatobiliary dysfunction. At the end of treatment, ICU patients had less need for vasopressors, significantly improved respiratory function, and lower HScore. Although three patients died, the mortality was lower than historical series of patients with sHLH in sepsis. These data suggest that administration of Anakinra may be beneficial for treating severe COVID-19 patients with sHLH as determined by the HScore, and they support the need for larger clinical studies to validate this concept.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Off-Label Use , Oxygen/blood , Pandemics , Respiratory Insufficiency/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi ; 43(6): 490-495, 2020 Jun 12.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-66194

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is mainly transmitted through respiratory droplets, close unprotected contact, and intense aerosols-generating procedures. Sleep study and non-invasive positive airway pressure (NIPAP) therapy can increase the risk of exposure and transmission of new coronaviruses to medical staff and patients. China's national epidemic control has entered a critical stage of overall prevention and control together with the restoration of normal medical care delivery. Based on the characteristics of sleep-disordered breathing, this consensus elaborates on the recommendations from the following four aspects that include patient and medical staff education, optimization of diagnostic and treatment protocols, sterilization of medical devices and the environment, and control of hospital-acquired infection. It is emphasized that the indications for sleep study and NIPAP should be strictly defined according to the local epidemic situation. Portable home sleep study and auto-titration positive airway pressure is recommended. The applications of disposable nasal pressure transducer for sleep study and disposable or personal masks and ventilator tubing for NIPAP are strongly suggested. Moreover, it is necessary to standardize the procedure of NIPAP, to separate the functional divisions in sleep lab, to comply with the protection regulations for medical personnel, and to strengthen the cleaning and disinfection management.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus , Noninvasive Ventilation/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/prevention & control , Sleep/physiology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China , Consensus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
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