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1.
Front Immunol ; 11: 575074, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256374

ABSTRACT

Combined cellular and humoral host immune response determine the clinical course of a viral infection and effectiveness of vaccination, but currently the cellular immune response cannot be measured on simple blood samples. As functional activity of immune cells is determined by coordinated activity of signaling pathways, we developed mRNA-based JAK-STAT signaling pathway activity assays to quantitatively measure the cellular immune response on Affymetrix expression microarray data of various types of blood samples from virally infected patients (influenza, RSV, dengue, yellow fever, rotavirus) or vaccinated individuals, and to determine vaccine immunogenicity. JAK-STAT1/2 pathway activity was increased in blood samples of patients with viral, but not bacterial, infection and was higher in influenza compared to RSV-infected patients, reflecting known differences in immunogenicity. High JAK-STAT3 pathway activity was associated with more severe RSV infection. In contrast to inactivated influenza virus vaccine, live yellow fever vaccine did induce JAK-STAT1/2 pathway activity in blood samples, indicating superior immunogenicity. Normal (healthy) JAK-STAT1/2 pathway activity was established, enabling assay interpretation without the need for a reference sample. The JAK-STAT pathway assays enable measurement of cellular immune response for prognosis, therapy stratification, vaccine development, and clinical testing.


Subject(s)
Dengue Virus/immunology , Immunity, Cellular , Orthomyxoviridae/immunology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/immunology , Rotavirus/immunology , Viral Vaccines/therapeutic use , Virus Diseases/immunology , Yellow fever virus/immunology , Biomarkers/blood , Dengue/blood , Dengue/immunology , Dengue/prevention & control , Dengue/virology , Dengue Vaccines/therapeutic use , Dengue Virus/pathogenicity , Diagnosis, Differential , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Influenza Vaccines/therapeutic use , Influenza, Human/blood , Influenza, Human/immunology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Influenza, Human/virology , Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis , Orthomyxoviridae/pathogenicity , Predictive Value of Tests , RNA, Messenger/blood , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/blood , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/immunology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/prevention & control , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/virology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/pathogenicity , Rotavirus/pathogenicity , Rotavirus Infections/blood , Rotavirus Infections/immunology , Rotavirus Infections/prevention & control , Rotavirus Infections/virology , Rotavirus Vaccines , Signal Transduction/genetics , Virus Diseases/blood , Virus Diseases/prevention & control , Virus Diseases/virology , Yellow Fever/blood , Yellow Fever/immunology , Yellow Fever/prevention & control , Yellow Fever/virology , Yellow Fever Vaccine/therapeutic use , Yellow fever virus/pathogenicity
2.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e929783, 2021 Jan 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1005108

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND This retrospective study aimed to investigate co-infections with common respiratory pathogens and SARS-CoV-2 and laboratory biochemistry findings in patients with COVID-19 in the Zhuzhou area of China, in order to provide a reference for the disease assessment and clinical treatment of COVID-19. MATERIAL AND METHODS The clinical data of COVID-19 patients admitted to the hospital of Zhuzhou City from January 28 to March 15, 2020, as well as laboratory test results for respiratory pathogens and biochemical indicators, were collected to conduct correlation analyses. All patients were diagnosed based on fluorescence-based PCR assay for SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS Eleven of the 78 patients (14.1%) were co-infected with other respiratory pathogens, among which Mycoplasma pneumoniae (n=5, 45.5%) and respiratory syncytial virus (n=4, 36.4%) were the most frequent. There were 8 patients co-infected with 1 other pathogen and 3 patients co-infected with 2 other pathogens. Compared with mono-infected COVID-19 patients, patients with co-infections had significantly higher levels of procalcitonin (P=0.002). CONCLUSIONS The findings showed that Mycoplasma pneumonia and respiratory syncytial virus were the most common co-infections in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. Increased levels of PCT in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia were associated with co-infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Pandemics , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Biomarkers , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Creatine Kinase/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/blood , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/epidemiology , Procalcitonin/blood , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/blood , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/drug therapy , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/blood , Respiratory Tract Infections/microbiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
3.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol ; 31(7): 755-766, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-382014

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Bronchiolitis is the leading cause of infant hospitalizations in the United States. Growing evidence supports the heterogeneity of bronchiolitis. However, little is known about the interrelationships between major respiratory viruses (and their species), host systemic metabolism, and disease pathobiology. METHODS: In an ongoing multicenter prospective cohort study, we profiled the serum metabolome in 113 infants (63 RSV-only, 21 RV-A, and 29 RV-C) hospitalized with bronchiolitis. We identified serum metabolites that are most discriminatory in the RSV-RV-A and RSV-RV-C comparisons using sparse partial least squares discriminant analysis. We then investigated the association between discriminatory metabolites with acute and chronic outcomes. RESULTS: In 113 infants with bronchiolitis, we measured 639 metabolites. Serum metabolomic profiles differed in both comparisons (Ppermutation  < 0.05). In the RSV-RV-A comparison, we identified 30 discriminatory metabolites, predominantly in lipid metabolism pathways (eg, sphingolipids and carnitines). In multivariable models, these metabolites were significantly associated with the risk of clinical outcomes (eg, tricosanoyl sphingomyelin, OR for recurrent wheezing at age of 3 years = 1.50; 95% CI: 1.05-2.15). In the RSV-RV-C comparison, the discriminatory metabolites were also primarily involved in lipid metabolism (eg, glycerophosphocholines [GPCs], 12,13-diHome). These metabolites were also significantly associated with the risk of outcomes (eg, 1-stearoyl-2-linoleoyl-GPC, OR for positive pressure ventilation use during hospitalization = 0.47; 95% CI: 0.28-0.78). CONCLUSION: Respiratory viruses and their species had distinct serum metabolomic signatures that are associated with differential risks of acute and chronic morbidities of bronchiolitis. Our findings advance research into the complex interrelations between viruses, host systemic response, and bronchiolitis pathobiology.


Subject(s)
Bronchiolitis/blood , Bronchiolitis/virology , Metabolome , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/virology , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses/isolation & purification , Bronchiolitis/pathology , Carnitine/blood , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant , Lipid Metabolism , Male , Metabolomics , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Sounds/etiology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/blood , Rhinovirus , Risk Factors , Sphingolipids/blood
4.
J Infect ; 81(1): 115-120, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-88437

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The study was aimed at investigating the characteristics of peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets and serum cytokines in children with 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) pneumonia. METHODS: Children with 2019-nCoV pneumonia or with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) pneumonia were included. Data including lymphocyte subsets and serum cytokines were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: 56 patients were included in the study, 40 children with 2019-nCoV pneumonia and 16 children with RSV pneumonia. Compared with children with RSV pneumonia, patients with 2019-nCoV pneumonia had higher count of CD3+8+ lymphocyte, higher percentages of CD3+, CD3+8+ lymphocytes and a lower percentage of CD19+ lymphocyte. The serum IL-10 level was significantly higher in children with RSV pneumonia. One 2019-nCoV pneumonia child who was with an obvious increase of IL-10 developed severe pneumonia. CONCLUSIONS: Immune response played a very important role in the development of 2019-nCoV pneumonia. The effective CD8+ T cell response might influence the severity of 2019-nCoV pneumonia. The adaptable change in IL-10 level might contribute to the relatively mild pneumonia symptoms in children with 2019-nCoV pneumonia and bacterial co-infection might be a risk factor of severe 2019-nCoV pneumonia.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Cytokines/blood , Lymphocyte Count , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , T-Lymphocyte Subsets , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/blood , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/immunology , SARS-CoV-2
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