Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 35
Filter
1.
Pediatr Emerg Care ; 38(1): e398-e403, 2022 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1767003

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in pediatric patients has been associated with low risk of concomitant bacterial infection. However, in children with severe disease, it occurs in 22% to 50% of patients. As viral testing becomes routine, bacterial codetections are increasingly identified in patients with non-RSV viruses. We hypothesized, among patients intubated for respiratory failure secondary to suspected infection, there are similar rates of codetection between RSV and non-RSV viral detections. METHODS: This retrospective chart review, conducted over a 5-year period, included all patients younger than 2 years who required intubation secondary to respiratory failure from an infectious etiology in a single pediatric emergency department. Patients intubated for noninfectious causes were excluded. RESULTS: We reviewed 274 patients, of which 181 had positive viral testing. Of these, 48% were RSV-positive and 52% were positive for viruses other than RSV. Codetection of bacteria was found in 76% (n = 65; 95% confidence interval [CI], 66%, 84%) of RSV-positive patients and 66% (n = 63, 95% CI: 57%, 76%) of patients positive with non-RSV viruses. Among patients with negative viral testing, 33% had bacterial growth on lower respiratory culture. Male sex was the only patient-related factor associated with increased odds of codetection (odds ratio [OR], 2.2; 95% CI, 1.08-4.38). The odds of codetection between RSV-positive patients and non-RSV viruses were not significantly different (OR, 1.3; 95% CI, 0.62-2.71). CONCLUSIONS: Bacterial codetection is common and not associated with anticipated patient-related factors or with a specific virus. These results suggest consideration of empiric antibiotics in infants with respiratory illness requiring intubation.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Bacteria , Child , Humans , Infant , Male , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/complications , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
2.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 76(Suppl 3): iii33-iii49, 2021 09 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1664107

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: It is unclear whether real-time (rt)-PCR cycle threshold (Ct) values can be utilized to guide clinical and infection-control decisions. This systematic review assesses the association between respiratory pathogen rt-PCR Ct values and clinical presentation or outcomes. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane library databases on 14-17 January 2020 for studies reporting the presence or absence of an association between Ct values and clinical presentation or outcomes, excluding animal studies, reviews, meta-analyses, and non-English language studies. RESULTS: Among 33 studies identified (reporting on between 9 and 4918 participants by pathogen), influenza (n = 11 studies; 4918 participants), human rhinovirus (HRV, n = 11; 2012) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, n = 8; 3290) were the most-studied pathogens. Low influenza Ct values were associated with mortality in 1/3 studies, with increased disease severity/duration or ICU admission in 3/9, and with increased hospitalization or length of hospital stay (LOS) in 1/6. Low HRV Ct values were associated with increased disease severity/duration or ICU admission in 3/10 studies, and with increased hospitalization or LOS in 1/3. Low RSV Ct values were associated with increased disease severity/duration or ICU admission in 3/6 studies, and with increased hospitalization or LOS in 4/4. Contradictory associations were also identified for other respiratory pathogens. CONCLUSIONS: Respiratory infection Ct values may inform clinical and infection-control decisions. However, the study heterogeneity observed in this review highlights the need for standardized workflows to utilize Ct values as a proxy of genomic load and confirm their value for respiratory infection management.


Subject(s)
Influenza, Human , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/genetics
3.
J Med Virol ; 93(8): 4748-4755, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1610624

ABSTRACT

Respiratory infections are one of the most frequent reasons for medical consultations in children. In low resource settings such as in Lao People's Democratic Republic, knowledge gaps and the dearth of laboratory capacity to support differential diagnosis may contribute to antibiotic overuse. We studied the etiology, temporal trends, and genetic diversity of viral respiratory infections in children to provide evidence for prevention and treatment guidelines. From September 2014 to October 2015, throat swabs and nasopharyngeal aspirates from 445 children under 10 years old with symptoms of acute respiratory infection were collected at the Children Hospital in Vientiane. Rapid antigen tests were performed for influenza A and B and respiratory syncytial virus. Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCRs) were performed to detect 16 viruses. Influenza infections were detected with a higher sensitivity using PCR than with the rapid antigen test. By RT-PCR screening, at least one pathogen could be identified for 71.7% of cases. Human rhinoviruses were most frequently detected (29.9%), followed by influenza A and B viruses combined (15.9%). We identify and discuss the seasonality of some of the infections. Altogether these data provide a detailed characterization of respiratory pathogens in Lao children and we provide recommendations for vaccination and further studies.


Subject(s)
Coinfection/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Viruses/genetics , Acute Disease/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Coinfection/virology , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/virology , Laos/epidemiology , Male , Prevalence , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/virology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Viruses/classification , Viruses/isolation & purification
5.
Lancet Glob Health ; 10(2): e269-e277, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625222

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of acute lower respiratory tract infections and a key driver of childhood mortality. Previous RSV burden of disease estimates used hospital-based surveillance data and modelled, rather than directly measured, community deaths. Given this uncertainty, we conducted a 3-year post-mortem prevalence study among young infants at a busy morgue in Lusaka, Zambia-the Zambia Pertussis RSV Infant Mortality Estimation (ZPRIME) study. METHODS: Infants were eligible for inclusion if they were aged between 4 days and less than 6 months and were enrolled within 48 h of death. Enrolment occurred mainly at the University Teaching Hospital of the University of Zambia Medical School (Lusaka, Zambia), the largest teaching hospital in Zambia. We extracted demographic and clinical data from medical charts and official death certificates, and we conducted verbal autopsies with the guardian or next of kin. RSV was identified using reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR and stratified by age, time of year, and setting (community vs facility deaths). By combining the PCR prevalence data with syndromic presentation, we estimated the proportion of all infant deaths that were due to RSV. FINDINGS: The ZPRIME study ran from Aug 31, 2017, to Aug 31, 2020, except for from April 1 to May 6, 2020, during which data were not collected due to restrictions on human research at this time (linked to COVID-19). We enrolled 2286 deceased infants, representing 79% of total infant deaths in Lusaka. RSV was detected in 162 (7%) of 2286 deceased infants. RSV was detected in 102 (9%) of 1176 community deaths, compared with 10 (4%) of 236 early facility deaths (<48 h from admission) and 36 (5%) of 737 late facility deaths (≥48 h from admission). RSV deaths were concentrated in infants younger than 3 months (116 [72%] of 162 infants), and were clustered in the first half of each year and in the poorest and most densely populated Lusaka townships. RSV caused at least 2·8% (95% CI 1·0-4·6) of all infant deaths and 4·7% (1·3-8·1) of community deaths. INTERPRETATION: RSV was a major seasonal cause of overall infant mortality, particularly among infants younger than 3 months of age. Because most RSV deaths occurred in the community and would have been missed through hospital-based surveillance, the global burden of fatal RSV has probably been underestimated. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.


Subject(s)
Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/mortality , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Public Health Surveillance/methods , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/drug therapy , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Zambia/epidemiology
6.
J Med Virol ; 94(5): 1990-1997, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608766

ABSTRACT

A variety of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) have been implemented to control the transmission of COVID-19 in China. The effect of NPIs on other common respiratory viruses in children of different age groups has not been examined thus far. Respiratory specimens of children were collected to detect common childhood respiratory viruses, including influenza A (FluA), influenza B (FluB), adenovirus, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), at the Children's Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine from January 1, 2019 to December 31, 2020. The epidemiological characteristics of the respiratory viruses in 2020 were compared with those in 2019. From January 2019 to December 2020, 165 622 specimens were collected. The proportion of infants aged 0-28 days (683, 2.24% vs. 1295, 0.96%, p = 0.000) and 1-12 months (8560, 28.12% vs. 20 875, 15.43%, p = 0.000) in 2020 increased significantly compared with that in 2019. There were two obvious increases in April and September in the number of specimens in children aged 4-6 years and >7 years. FluA, FluB, and RSV's age distribution patterns were surprisingly consistent with each other in 2020, and the positive rates of children aged 1-12 months were the highest in all age groups (FluA: 4.45%, FluB: 3.30%, RSV: 7.35%). Our study further confirms that the NPIs significantly decreased the transmission of common childhood respiratory viruses. The change in circulation characteristics of common respiratory viruses of children in different age groups varied. Therefore, we recommend that different protection strategies should be introduced for children of different age groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Viruses , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Pandemics , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Young Adult
7.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262258, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1606499

ABSTRACT

Although patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), influenza A, influenza B and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) show comparable or very similar manifestations, the therapeutic approaches of these respiratory viral infections are different, which requires an accurate diagnosis. Recently, the novel multiplex real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay AMPLIQUICK® Respiratory Triplex (BioSynex SA, Illkirch-Graffenstaden, France) allows simultaneous detection and differentiation of SARS-CoV-2, influenza A, influenza B, and RSV in respiratory tract samples. We herein evaluated the performance of the AMPLIQUICK® Respiratory Triplex for the detection of the four viruses in respiratory specimens, using Allplex™ Respiratory Panel 1 and 2019-nCoV assays (Seegene, Seoul, Korea) as reference comparator assays. A total of 359 archived predetermined respiratory samples, including 83, 145, 19 and 95 positive specimens for SARS-CoV-2, influenza A, influenza B and RSV respectively, were included. The AMPLIQUICK® Respiratory Triplex showed high concordance with the reference assays, with an overall agreement for SARS-CoV-2, influenza A, influenza B, and RSV at 97.6%, 98.8%, 98.3% and 100.0%, respectively, and high κ values ranging from 0.93 to 1.00, indicating an almost perfect agreement between assays. Furthermore, high correlations of cycle threshold (Ct) values were observed for positive samples of the four viruses between the AMPLIQUICK® Respiratory Triplex and comparator assays, with an overall high agreement between Ct values assessed by Bland-Altman analyses. In conclusion, these observations demonstrate that the multiplex AMPLIQUICK® Respiratory Triplex is a reliable assay for the qualitative detection and differentiation of SARS-CoV-2, influenza A, influenza B, and RSV in respiratory specimens, which may prove useful for streamlining diagnostics during the winter influenza-seasons.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Influenza, Human/virology , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Nasopharynx/virology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/virology , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity
8.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 11(2): 69-72, 2022 Feb 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1592478

ABSTRACT

We observed an unusual pattern of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in children under 5 years in Catalonia (Spain). We observed a near absence of RSV during winter months and a subsequent surge during the late spring. Primary care electronic health records combined with hospital RSV laboratory confirmation could be used to monitor trends of respiratory pathogens.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Pandemics , Primary Health Care , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology
9.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(23): 24931-24942, 2021 12 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1573020

ABSTRACT

Since the Coronavirus 19 (COVID-19) pandemic, several SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (SARS-CoV-2 VOC) have been reported. The B.1.1.7 variant has been associated with increased mortality and transmission risk. Furthermore, cluster and possible co-infection cases could occur in the next influenza season or COVID-19 pandemic wave, warranting efficient diagnosis and treatment decision making. Here, we aimed to detect SARS-CoV-2 and other common respiratory viruses using multiplex RT-PCR developed on the LabTurbo AIO 48 open system. We performed a multicenter study to evaluate the performance and analytical sensitivity of the LabTurbo AIO 48 system for SARS-CoV-2, influenza A/B, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) using 652 nasopharyngeal swab clinical samples from patients. The LabTurbo AIO 48 system demonstrated a sensitivity of 9.4 copies/per PCR for N2 of SARS-CoV-2; 24 copies/per PCR for M of influenza A and B; and 24 copies/per PCR for N of RSV. The assay presented consistent performance in the multicenter study. The multiplex RT-PCR applied on the LabTurbo AIO 48 open platform provided highly sensitive, robust, and accurate results and enabled high-throughput detection of B.1.1.7, influenza A/B, and RSV with short turnaround times. Therefore, this automated molecular diagnostic assay could enable streamlined testing if COVID-19 becomes a seasonal disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/diagnosis , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Influenza A virus/genetics , Influenza A virus/isolation & purification , Influenza, Human/virology , Influenzavirus B/genetics , Influenzavirus B/isolation & purification , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/virology , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses/genetics , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity , Young Adult
10.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(48): e328, 2021 Dec 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572278

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic era, the simultaneous detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), influenza virus (Flu), and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is important in the rapid differential diagnosis in patients with respiratory symptoms. Three multiplex real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) assays have been recently developed commercially in Korea: PowerChek™ SARS-CoV-2, Influenza A&B Multiplex Real-time PCR Kit (PowerChek; KogeneBiotech); STANDARD™ M Flu/SARS-CoV-2 Real-time Detection Kit (STANDARD M; SD BioSensor); and Allplex™ SARS-CoV-2/FluA/FluB/RSV Assay (Allplex; Seegene). We evaluated the analytical and clinical performances of these kits. METHODS: A limit of detection tests were performed and cross-reactivity analysis was executed using clinical respiratory samples. Ninety-seven SARS-CoV-2-positive, 201 SARS-CoV-2-negative, 71 influenza A-positive, 50 influenza B-positive, 78 RSV-positive, and 207 other respiratory virus-positive nasopharyngeal swabs were tested using the three assays. The AdvanSure™ respiratory viruses rRT-PCR assay (AdvanSure; LG Life Sciences) was used as a comparator assay for RSV. RESULTS: Except in influenza B, in SARS-CoV-2 and influenza A, there were no significant differences in detecting specific genes of the viruses among the three assays. All three kits did not cross-react with common respiratory viruses. All three kits had greater than 92% positive percent agreement and negative percent agreement and ≥ 0.95 kappa value in the detection of SARS-CoV-2 and flu A/B. Allplex detected RSV more sensitively than AdvanSure. CONCLUSION: The overall performance of three multiplex rRT-PCR assays for the concurrent detection of SARS-CoV-2, influenza A/B, and RSV was comparable. These kits will promote prompt differential diagnosis of COVID-19, influenza, and RSV infection in the COVID-19 pandemic era.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Nasopharynx/virology , RNA, Viral/analysis , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Cross Reactions , Humans , Influenza A virus/genetics , Influenza A virus/isolation & purification , Influenza B virus/genetics , Influenza B virus/isolation & purification , Influenza, Human/virology , Limit of Detection , Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Polyproteins/genetics , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , Republic of Korea , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/virology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/genetics , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viral Matrix Proteins/genetics , Viral Proteins/genetics
11.
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis ; 102(2): 115575, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1536508

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 symptomology may overlap with other circulating respiratory viruses that may also cause severe disease and for which there are specific and potentially life-saving treatments. The Abbott Alinity m Resp-4-Plex assay is a multiplex PCR assay that simultaneously detects and differentiates infection with SARS-CoV-2, influenza A, influenza B, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). We characterized its accuracy, precision, and analytical sensitivity. All were found to be robust for measures examined. In the context of sample-to-answer, near random access automation on the Alinity m platform, we believe that the Resp-4-Plex assay offers significant utility in addressing the current needs of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and future needs during anticipated endemic circulation of SARS-CoV-2 with other respiratory viruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Influenza A virus/genetics , Influenza B virus/genetics , Limit of Detection , Male , Middle Aged , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity
13.
Med Microbiol Immunol ; 210(5-6): 277-282, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1449965

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has forced the implementation of unprecedented public health measures strategies which might also have a significant impact on the spreading of other viral pathogens such as influenza and Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) . The present study compares the incidences of the most relevant respiratory viruses before and during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in emergency room patients. We analyzed the results of in total 14,946 polymerase chain reaction point-of-care tests (POCT-PCR) for Influenza A, Influenza B, RSV and SARS-CoV-2 in an adult and a pediatric emergency room between December 1, 2018 and March 31, 2021. Despite a fivefold increase in the number of tests performed, the positivity rate for Influenza A dropped from 19.32% (165 positives of 854 tests in 2018/19), 14.57% (149 positives of 1023 in 2019-20) to 0% (0 positives of 4915 tests) in 2020/21. In analogy, the positivity rate for Influenza B and RSV dropped from 0.35 to 1.47%, respectively, 10.65-21.08% to 0% for both in 2020/21. The positivity rate for SARS-CoV2 reached 9.74% (110 of 1129 tests performed) during the so-called second wave in December 2020. Compared to the two previous years, seasonal influenza and RSV incidence was eliminated during the COVID-19 pandemic. Corona-related measures and human behavior patterns could lead to a significant decline or even complete suppression of other respiratory viruses such as influenza and RSV.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Point-of-Care Testing/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Hospitals/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Incidence , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/virology , Orthomyxoviridae/genetics , Orthomyxoviridae/isolation & purification , Orthomyxoviridae/physiology , Pandemics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/virology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/genetics , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/isolation & purification , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/physiology , Retrospective Studies
15.
J Virol Methods ; 298: 114304, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440233

ABSTRACT

The potential co-circulation of SARS-CoV-2, influenza, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) could pose an unprecedented challenge to healthcare systems worldwide. Here, we compared the performance of the PowerChek SARS-CoV-2, Influenza A&B, RSV Multiplex Real-time PCR Kit (PowerChek) for simultaneous detection of SARS-CoV-2, influenza A and B, and respiratory syncytial virus with that of BioFire Respiratory Panel 2.1 (RP2.1) using 175 nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) specimens. Positive percent agreement and negative percent agreement of the PowerChek assay compared to RP2.1 were as follows: 100 % (40/40) and 100 % (135/135) for SARS-CoV-2; 100 % (39/39) and 100 % (136/136) for influenza A; 100 % (35/35) and 100 % (140/140) for influenza B; and 93.1 % (27/29) and 100 % (146/146) for RSV, respectively. The limit of detection (LOD) was accessed using RNA standards for each virus, and the LOD values of the PowerChek assay for SARS-CoV-2, influenza A and B, and RSV were 0.36, 1.24, 0.09, and 0.63 copies/µL, respectively. Our results demonstrate that the PowerChek assay is sensitive and accurate for detection of SARS-CoV-2, influenza A and B, and RSV, suggesting that this assay can be a valuable diagnostic tool when SARS-CoV-2, influenza, and RSV are co-circulating.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Humans , Influenza B virus/genetics , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Nasopharynx , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
16.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 57(1): 49-56, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1437078

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Few studies have explored the clinical features in children infected with SARS-CoV-2 and other common respiratory viruses, including respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), Influenza virus (IV), and adenovirus (ADV). Herein, we reported the clinical characteristics and cytokine profiling in children with COVID-19 or other acute respiratory tract infections (ARTI). METHODS: We enrolled 20 hospitalized children confirmed as COVID-19 positive, 58 patients with ARTI, and 20 age and sex-matched healthy children. The clinical information and blood test results were collected. A total of 27 cytokines and chemokines were measured and analyzed. RESULTS: The median age in the COVID-19 positive group was 14.5 years, which was higher than that of the ARTI groups. Around one-third of patients in the COVID-19 group experienced moderate fever, with a peak temperature of 38.27°C. None of the patients displayed wheezing or dyspnea. In addition, patients in the COVID-19 group had lower white blood cells, platelet counts as well as a neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio. Lower serum concentrations of 14 out of 27 cytokines were observed in the COVID-19 group than in healthy individuals. Seven cytokines (IL-1Ra, IL-1ß, IL-9, IL-10, TNF-α, MIP-1α, and VEGF) changed serum concentration in COVID-19 compared with other ARTI groups. CONCLUSION: Patients with COVID-19 were older and showed milder symptoms and a favorable prognosis than ARTI caused by RSV, IV, and ADV. There was a low grade or constrained innate immune reaction in children with mild COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Adolescent , China/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2
17.
J Med Virol ; 93(10): 5798-5804, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1432412

ABSTRACT

Rapid diagnostics for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are paramount for reducing the spread of the current pandemic. During additional seasonal epidemics with influenza A/B and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), the clinical signs and symptoms cannot be distinguished easily from SARS-CoV-2. Therefore, a new assay combining four targets in the form of the new Xpert Xpress SARS-CoV-2/Flu/RSV assay was evaluated. The assay was compared to the Xpert Xpress SARS-CoV-2, Xpert Xpress Flu/RSV, Seegene Flu/RSV, influenza A/B r-gene® and RSV/hMPV r-gene®. A total of 295 nasopharyngeal and throat swabs were tested at four institutes throughout Europe including 72 samples positive for SARS-CoV-2, 65 for influenza A, 47 for influenza B, and 77 for RSV. The sensitivity of the new assay was above 95% for all targets, with the highest for SARS-CoV-2 (97.2%). The overall correlation of SARS-CoV-2 Ct values between Xpert Xpress SARS-CoV-2 assay and Xpert Xpress SARS-CoV-2/Flu/RSV assay was high. The agreement between Ct values above 30 showed the multiplex giving higher Ct values for SARS-CoV-2 on average than the singleplex assay. In conclusion, the new assay is a rapid and reliable alternative with less hands-on time for the detection of not one, but four upper respiratory tract pathogens that may circulate at the same time.


Subject(s)
Influenza A virus/isolation & purification , Influenza B virus/isolation & purification , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/isolation & purification , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Europe/epidemiology , Humans , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Nasopharynx/virology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity
18.
Arch Dis Child ; 107(3): e7, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1373947

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Following a relative absence in winter 2020, a large resurgence of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) detections occurred during the 2020/2021 summer in Western Australia. This seasonal shift was linked to SARS-CoV-2 public health measures. We examine the epidemiology and RSV testing of respiratory-coded admissions, and compare clinical phenotype of RSV-positive admissions between 2019 and 2020. METHOD: At a single tertiary paediatric centre, International Classification of Diseases, 10th edition Australian Modification-coded respiratory admissions longer than 12 hours were combined with laboratory data from 1 January 2019 to 31 December 2020. Data were grouped into bronchiolitis, other acute lower respiratory infection (OALRI) and wheeze, to assess RSV testing practices. For RSV-positive admissions, demographics and clinical features were compared between 2019 and 2020. RESULTS: RSV-positive admissions peaked in early summer 2020, following an absent winter season. Testing was higher in 2020: bronchiolitis, 94.8% vs 89.2% (p=0.01); OALRI, 88.6% vs 82.6% (p=0.02); and wheeze, 62.8% vs 25.5% (p<0.001). The 2020 peak month, December, contributed almost 75% of RSV-positive admissions, 2.5 times the 2019 peak. The median age in 2020 was twice that observed in 2019 (16.4 vs 8.1 months, p<0.001). The proportion of RSV-positive OALRI admissions was greater in 2020 (32.6% vs 24.9%, p=0.01). There were no clinically meaningful differences in length of stay or disease severity. INTERPRETATION: The 2020 RSV season was in summer, with a larger than expected peak. There was an increase in RSV-positive non-bronchiolitis admissions, consistent with infection in older RSV-naïve children. This resurgence raises concern for regions experiencing longer and more stringent SARS-CoV-2 public health measures.


Subject(s)
Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Seasons , Bronchiolitis/epidemiology , Bronchiolitis/virology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant , Male , Pandemics , Respiratory Sounds/etiology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Western Australia/epidemiology
20.
Euro Surveill ; 26(29)2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323058

ABSTRACT

BackgroundIn South Africa, COVID-19 control measures to prevent SARS-CoV-2 spread were initiated on 16 March 2020. Such measures may also impact the spread of other pathogens, including influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) with implications for future annual epidemics and expectations for the subsequent northern hemisphere winter.MethodsWe assessed the detection of influenza and RSV through facility-based syndromic surveillance of adults and children with mild or severe respiratory illness in South Africa from January to October 2020, and compared this with surveillance data from 2013 to 2019.ResultsFacility-based surveillance revealed a decline in influenza virus detection during the regular season compared with previous years. This was observed throughout the implementation of COVID-19 control measures. RSV detection decreased soon after the most stringent COVID-19 control measures commenced; however, an increase in RSV detection was observed after the typical season, following the re-opening of schools and the easing of measures.ConclusionCOVID-19 non-pharmaceutical interventions led to reduced circulation of influenza and RSV in South Africa. This has limited the country's ability to provide influenza virus strains for the selection of the annual influenza vaccine. Delayed increases in RSV case numbers may reflect the easing of COVID-19 control measures. An increase in influenza virus detection was not observed, suggesting that the measures may have impacted the two pathogens differently. The impact that lowered and/or delayed influenza and RSV circulation in 2020 will have on the intensity and severity of subsequent annual epidemics is unknown and warrants close monitoring.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Adult , Child , Humans , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , South Africa/epidemiology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL