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Viruses ; 14(5)2022 Apr 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1810330


RNA viruses like SARS-CoV-2, influenza virus, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are dependent on host genes for replication. We investigated if probenecid, an FDA-approved and safe urate-lowering drug that inhibits organic anion transporters (OATs) has prophylactic or therapeutic efficacy to inhibit RSV replication in three epithelial cell lines used in RSV studies, i.e., Vero E6 cells, HEp-2 cells, and in primary normal human bronchoepithelial (NHBE) cells, and in BALB/c mice. The studies showed that nanomolar concentrations of all probenecid regimens prevent RSV strain A and B replication in vitro and RSV strain A in vivo, representing a potential prophylactic and chemotherapeutic for RSV.

COVID-19 , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Animals , Mice , Probenecid/pharmacology , Probenecid/therapeutic use , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/drug therapy , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/metabolism , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/prevention & control , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Replication
Front Immunol ; 12: 650331, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1156125


Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection represents a global health crisis. Immune cell activation via pattern recognition receptors has been implicated as a driver of the hyperinflammatory response seen in COVID-19. However, our understanding of the specific immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 remains limited. Mast cells (MCs) and eosinophils are innate immune cells that play pathogenic roles in many inflammatory responses. Here we report MC-derived proteases and eosinophil-associated mediators are elevated in COVID-19 patient sera and lung tissues. Stimulation of viral-sensing toll-like receptors in vitro and administration of synthetic viral RNA in vivo induced features of hyperinflammation, including cytokine elevation, immune cell airway infiltration, and MC-protease production-effects suppressed by an anti-Siglec-8 monoclonal antibody which selectively inhibits MCs and depletes eosinophils. Similarly, anti-Siglec-8 treatment reduced disease severity and airway inflammation in a respiratory viral infection model. These results suggest that MC and eosinophil activation are associated with COVID-19 inflammation and anti-Siglec-8 antibodies are a potential therapeutic approach for attenuating excessive inflammation during viral infections.

Antigens, CD/immunology , Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Eosinophils/immunology , Lectins/immunology , Mast Cells/immunology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/immunology , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Toll-Like Receptors/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/pharmacology , Antigens, CD/genetics , Antigens, CD/metabolism , Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte/genetics , Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Cytokines/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Eosinophils/drug effects , Eosinophils/metabolism , Eosinophils/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Lectins/antagonists & inhibitors , Lectins/genetics , Lectins/metabolism , Mast Cells/drug effects , Mast Cells/metabolism , Mast Cells/virology , Mice, Transgenic , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/metabolism , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/prevention & control , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/virology , Toll-Like Receptors/metabolism
Thorax ; 76(1): 64-72, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-978826


INTRODUCTION: Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is a common cause of respiratory tract infections (RTIs) globally and is one of the most fatal infectious diseases for infants in developing countries. Of those infected, 25%-40% aged ≤1 year develop severe lower RTIs leading to pneumonia and bronchiolitis, with ~10% requiring hospitalisation. Evidence also suggests that HRSV infection early in life is a major cause of adult asthma. There is no HRSV vaccine, and the only clinically approved treatment is immunoprophylaxis that is expensive and only moderately effective. New anti-HRSV therapeutic strategies are therefore urgently required. METHODS: It is now established that viruses require cellular ion channel functionality to infect cells. Here, we infected human lung epithelial cell lines and ex vivo human lung slices with HRSV in the presence of a defined panel of chloride (Cl-) channel modulators to investigate their role during the HRSV life-cycle. RESULTS: We demonstrate the requirement for TMEM16A, a calcium-activated Cl- channel, for HRSV infection. Time-of-addition assays revealed that the TMEM16A blockers inhibit HRSV at a postentry stage of the virus life-cycle, showing activity as a postexposure prophylaxis. Another important negative-sense RNA respiratory pathogen influenza virus was also inhibited by the TMEM16A-specific inhibitor T16Ainh-A01. DISCUSSION: These findings reveal TMEM16A as an exciting target for future host-directed antiviral therapeutics.

Anoctamin-1/pharmacology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Neoplasm Proteins/pharmacology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/drug therapy , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/immunology , Cells, Cultured , Humans , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/metabolism , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/virology