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1.
Am J Public Health ; 112(11): 1599-1610, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065243

ABSTRACT

Objectives. To explore previous COVID-19 diagnosis and COVID-19 vaccination status among US essential worker groups. Methods. We analyzed the US Census Household Pulse Survey (May 26-July 5, 2021), a nationally representative sample of adults aged 18 years and older. We compared currently employed essential workers working outside the home with those working at home using adjusted prevalence ratios. We calculated proportion vaccinated and intention to be vaccinated, stratifying by essential worker and demographic groups for those who worked or volunteered outside the home since January 1, 2021. Results. The proportion of workers with previous COVID-19 diagnosis was highest among first responders (24.9%) working outside the home compared with workers who did not (13.3%). Workers in agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting had the lowest vaccination rates (67.5%) compared with all workers (77.8%). Those without health insurance were much less likely to be vaccinated across all worker groups. Conclusions. This study underscores the importance of improving surveillance to monitor COVID-19 and other infectious diseases among workers and identify and implement tailored risk mitigation strategies, including vaccination campaigns, for workplaces. (Am J Public Health. 2022;112(11):1599-1610. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2022.307010).


Subject(s)
AIDS Vaccines , COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines , SAIDS Vaccines , Adult , BCG Vaccine , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines , Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine , Humans , Intention , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine , Vaccination
2.
JCI Insight ; 7(19)2022 10 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2064378

ABSTRACT

Protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2 infection after COVID-19 vaccination may differ by variant. We enrolled vaccinated (n = 39) and unvaccinated (n = 11) individuals with acute, symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 Delta or Omicron infection and performed SARS-CoV-2 viral load quantification, whole-genome sequencing, and variant-specific antibody characterization at the time of acute illness and convalescence. Viral load at the time of infection was inversely correlated with antibody binding and neutralizing antibody responses. Across all variants tested, convalescent neutralization titers in unvaccinated individuals were markedly lower than in vaccinated individuals. Increases in antibody titers and neutralizing activity occurred at convalescence in a variant-specific manner. For example, among individuals infected with the Delta variant, neutralizing antibody responses were weakest against BA.2, whereas infection with Omicron BA.1 variant generated a broader response against all tested variants, including BA.2.


Subject(s)
AIDS Vaccines , COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines , SAIDS Vaccines , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , BCG Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Convalescence , Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine , Humans , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2
3.
J Clin Epidemiol ; 147: 11-20, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2061466

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Year-to-year variation in respiratory viruses may result in lower attack rates than expected. We aimed to illustrate the impact of year-to-year variation in attack rates on the likelihood of demonstrating vaccine efficacy (VE). STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We considered an individually randomized maternal vaccine trial against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-associated hospitalizations. For 10 RSV-associated hospitalizations per 1,000 infants, sample size to have 80% power for true VE of 50% and 70% was 9,846 and 4,424 participants. We reported power to show VE for varying attack rates, selected to reflect realistic year-to-year variation using observational studies. Eight scenarios including varying number of countries and seasons were developed to assess the influence of these trial parameters. RESULTS: Including up to three seasons decreased the width of the interquartile range for power. Including more seasons concentrated statistical power closer to 80%. Least powered trials had higher statistical power with more seasons. In all scenarios, at least half of the trials had <80% power. For three-season trials, increasing the sample size by 10% reduced the percentage of underpowered trials to less than one-quarter of trials. CONCLUSION: Year-to-year variation in RSV attack rates should be accounted for during trial design. Mitigation strategies include recruiting over more seasons, or adaptive trial designs.


Subject(s)
Clinical Trials as Topic , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines , Hospitalization , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Research Design , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/prevention & control , Seasons , Vaccine Efficacy
4.
J Physiol Pharmacol ; 73(2)2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2056910

ABSTRACT

Vaccination against COVID-19 is a highly debated subject that brings confusion due to contradictory information coming from the scientific community and the media. Our aim was to focus on a homogeneous group of students in the healthcare field to assess their intention to vaccinate and the drivers behind this decision. A cross-sectional study was performed in the spring of 2021 in a Medical University in Romania. 725 of the undergraduates that completed an online questionnaire regarding their intention to vaccinate against COVID-19 were included in the study. Univariable analysis and logistic regression were performed on several variables to analyze factors affecting the willingness to vaccinate against COVID-19. In our study sample, 93.1% of students presented a strong intention to vaccinate, out of which the highest proportion belonged to subjects studying general medicine (96%). On logistic regression, we identified the following predictor factors: previous infection with coronavirus, prior vaccination refusal, VAX score, scientifically oriented sources of information and preference for RNA-based technology. Medical students have an increased willingness towards vaccination. Even for them, a highly educated and informed group of subjects, the general attitude towards vaccinations has a strong impact on the choice of COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
AIDS Vaccines , COVID-19 , Haemophilus Vaccines , Influenza Vaccines , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines , SAIDS Vaccines , Students, Medical , Typhoid-Paratyphoid Vaccines , BCG Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diphtheria-Tetanus Vaccine , Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine , Hepatitis A Vaccines , Hepatitis B Vaccines , Humans , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine , RNA , Romania , Vaccines, Inactivated , Vaccines, Synthetic
5.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0275010, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043211

ABSTRACT

High vaccination rates are integral to reducing infection and severity rates of COVID-19 infections within a community. We examine the role of social expectations in COVID-19 vaccination take-ups and its interaction with potential government actions in Malaysia. We find that individuals' expectations of others in their social groups towards vaccination predicts those individuals' vaccination registrations. Using a vignette experiment, we examine the extent of normative expectations in normalizing pro-vaccination behavior beyond an individual's reference group. We find that unless moderated by a high level of public trust, individuals prefer punitive policies as a way to increase vaccination rates in their communities.


Subject(s)
AIDS Vaccines , COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines , SAIDS Vaccines , BCG Vaccine , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine , Government , Humans , Malaysia , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine , Motivation , Vaccination
6.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 28(6): E789-E794, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2018364

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite the disproportionate impact of COVID-19 on Latinos, there were disparities in vaccination, especially during the early phase of COVID-19 immunization rollout. METHODS: Leveraging a community-academic partnership established to expand access to SARS-CoV2 testing, we implemented community vaccination clinics with multifaceted outreach strategies and flexible appointments for limited English proficiency Latinos. RESULTS: Between February 26 and May 7 2021, 2250 individuals received the first dose of COVID-19 vaccination during 18 free community events. Among them, 92.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 91.2%-93.4%) self-identified as Hispanic, 88.7% (95% CI, 87.2%-89.9%) were limited English proficiency Spanish speakers, 23.1% (95% CI, 20.9%-25.2%) reported prior COVID-19 infection, 19.4% (95% CI, 16.9%-22.25%) had a body mass index of more than 35, 35.0% (95% CI, 32.2%-37.8%) had cardiovascular disease, and 21.6% (95% CI, 19.2%-24.0%) had diabetes. The timely second-dose completion rate was high (98.7%; 95% CI, 97.6%-99.2%) and did not vary by outreach method. CONCLUSION: A free community-based vaccination initiative expanded access for Latinos with limited English proficiency at high risk for COVID-19 during the early phase of the immunization program in the US.


Subject(s)
AIDS Vaccines , COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Limited English Proficiency , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines , SAIDS Vaccines , BCG Vaccine , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine , Hispanic or Latino , Humans , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
7.
Vaccine ; 40(37): 5459-5463, 2022 09 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2016160

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Pregnant individuals are frequently excluded from clinical trials. Yet, inclusion of Pregnant individuals is of interest in vaccinology including during health crisis. Promotion of clinical trials by midwives may facilitate the decision making of Pregnant individuals. Attitudes of midwives about pregnant individuals participation in a vaccine clinical trial have been little explored. METHODS: We conducted an anonymous survey from the 11th of September to the 11th of November 2020. Primary endpoint was the willingness to encourage Pregnant individuals to participate in a hypothetical respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccine clinical trial. RESULTS: Among 398 midwives who answered the questionnaire, 113 (28.3 %) were likely to encourage Pregnant individuals to participate in the vaccine clinical trial, this proportion ranged from 25 % in senior midwives to 34.5 % among the students. After adjustment on age, parenthood, previous personal attitudes of vaccine hesitancy, and psychological antecedents of vaccinations (5C-model), the only predictor of the promotion of the clinical trial was the experience of vaccine education (evaluated by a 20-point score) with an adjusted odds ratio of 1.09 (1.01-1.18, p = 0.027) for a one-point increase. Vaccine hesitancy and psychological antecedents of vaccinations were not associated with a lower promotion of pregnant individuals trial participation by midwives. CONCLUSION: Few respondents were likely to encourage Pregnant individuals to participate in a vaccine clinical trial. Midwives who considered themselves to have a good training about vaccines were more prone to encourage Pregnant individuals to participate in a RSV vaccine clinical trial.


Subject(s)
Midwifery , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Pregnancy , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination/psychology
8.
Clin Immunol ; 244: 109103, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2003937

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 1 (SARS-CoV-1) survivors are more likely to produce a potent immune response to SARS-CoV-2 after booster vaccination. We assessed humoral and T cell responses against SARS-CoV-2 in previously vaccinated SARS-CoV-1 survivors and naïve healthy individuals (NHIs) after a booster Ad5-nCoV dose. Boosted SARS-CoV-1 survivors had a high neutralization of SARS-CoV-2 Wuhan-Hu-1 (WA1), Beta, and Delta but is limited to Omicron subvariants (BA.1, BA.2, BA.2.12.1, and BA.4/BA.5). Most boosted SARS-CoV-1 survivors had robust SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses. While booster vaccination in NHIs elicited less or ineffective neutralization of WA1, Beta, and Delta, and none of them induced neutralizing antibodies against Omicron subvariants. However, they developed comparable SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell responses compared to boosted SARS-CoV-1 survivors. These findings suggest that boosted Ad5-nCoV would not elicit effective neutralizing antibodies against Omicron subvariants in SARS-CoV-1 survivors and NHIs but induced comparable robust T cell responses. Achieving a high antibody titer in SARS-CoV-1 survivors and NHIs is desirable to generate broad neutralization.


Subject(s)
AIDS Vaccines , COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines , SAIDS Vaccines , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , BCG Vaccine , COVID-19 Vaccines , Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine , Humans , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2 , Survivors
9.
J Med Virol ; 94(12): 5780-5789, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1981883

ABSTRACT

The humoral immune response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccination in patients with chronic inflammatory disease (CID) declines more rapidly with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) inhibition. Furthermore, the efficacy of current vaccines against Omicron variants of concern (VOC) including BA.2 is limited. Alterations within immune cell populations, changes in IgG affinity, and the ability to neutralize a pre-VOC strain and the BA.2 virus were investigated in these at-risk patients. Serum levels of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG, IgG avidity, and neutralizing antibodies (NA) were determined in anti-TNF-α patients (n = 10) and controls (n = 24 healthy individuals; n = 12 patients under other disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, oDMARD) before and after the second and third vaccination by ELISA, immunoblot and live virus neutralization assay. SARS-CoV-2-specific B- and T cell subsets were analysed by multicolor flow cytometry. Six months after the second vaccination, anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels, IgG avidity and anti-pre-VOC NA titres were significantly reduced in anti-TNF-α recipients compared to controls (healthy individuals: avidity: p ≤ 0.0001; NA: p = 0.0347; oDMARDs: avidity: p = 0.0012; NA: p = 0.0293). The number of plasma cells was increased in anti-TNF-α patients (Healthy individuals: p = 0.0344; oDMARDs: p = 0.0254), while the absolute number of SARS-CoV-2-specific plasma cells 7 days after 2nd vaccination were comparable. Even after a third vaccination, these patients had lower anti-BA.2 NA titres compared to both other groups. We show a reduced SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing capacity in patients under TNF-α blockade. In this cohort, the plasma cell response appears to be less specific and shows stronger bystander activation. While these effects were observable after the first two vaccinations and with older VOC, the differences in responses to BA.2 were enhanced.


Subject(s)
AIDS Vaccines , Antirheumatic Agents , COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines , SAIDS Vaccines , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , BCG Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , Diphtheria-Tetanus Vaccine , Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine , Humans , Immunity , Immunoglobulin G , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2 , Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Vaccination
10.
Vaccine ; 40(32): 4361-4370, 2022 07 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1977884

ABSTRACT

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading viral cause of acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRI), including bronchiolitis and pneumonia, in infants and children worldwide. Protection against RSV is primarily antibody mediated and passively acquired RSV neutralizing antibody can protect infants from RSV ALRI. Maternal immunization is an attractive strategy for the prevention of RSV in early infancy when immune responses to active immunization may be suboptimal and most severe RSV disease and death occur. However, several biologic factors have been shown to potentially attenuate or interfere with the transfer of protective naturally acquired antibodies from mother to fetus and could therefore also reduce vaccine effectiveness through impairment of transfer of vaccine-induced antibodies. Many of these factors are prevalent in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) which experience the greatest burden of RSV-associated mortality; more data are needed to understand these mechanisms in the context of RSV maternal immunization. This review will focus on what is currently known about biologic conditions that may impair RSV antibody transfer, including preterm delivery, low birthweight, maternal HIV infection, placental malaria, and hypergammaglobulinemia (high levels of maternal total IgG). Key data gaps and priority areas for research are highlighted and include improved understanding of the epidemiology of hypergammaglobulinemia and the mechanisms by which it may impair antibody transfer. Key considerations for ensuring optimal vaccine effectiveness in LMICs are also discussed.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Antibodies, Viral , Biological Factors , Child , Developing Countries , Female , Humans , Hypergammaglobulinemia , Immunization , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Placenta , Policy , Pregnancy , Research , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/prevention & control , Vaccination
11.
Exp Anim ; 71(4): 500-509, 2022 Nov 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1902702

ABSTRACT

Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is a major cause of lower respiratory tract infection in infants. The lack of ideal animal models is one of the major obstacles in evaluateing the efficacy of HRSV vaccines. In this study, HRSV-50 was obtained from Hep-2 cells at the 50th passage of the original Long strain (ATCC VR-26). BALB/c mice (6 weeks) were challenged with different titers of HRSV-50. Shockingly, all mice died after 4 days of challenge (6 × 106 PFU/mouse). Whole-genome sequencing revealed 7 amino acid mutations compared with the original Long strain. To verify whether the lethal model can be used to effectively evaluate the efficacy of HRSV candidate vaccines, we studied the protective effect of FRBD protein (Pre-F of HRSV and S receptor binding domain of SARS-CoV-2) with Adju-phos or MA103 adjuvant. All mice in the PBS group died after the HRSV-50 challenge, whereas Adju-phos provided partial protection. These results suggest that we have successfully established a lethal model of HRSV in BALB/c mice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Infant , Humans , Mice , Animals , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/genetics , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
12.
J Heart Lung Transplant ; 41(10): 1417-1425, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1899743

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The durability of the immune response following the 3-dose BNT162b2 vaccination is unknown. The complexity of the situation is enhanced by the threat that highly transmissible variants may further accelerate the decline in the protection afforded by mRNA vaccines. METHODS: One hundred and three 3-dose-vaccinated heart transplant recipients were longitudinally assessed for the kinetics of variant-specific neutralization (Cohort 1, n = 60) and SARS-CoV-2-specific-T-cell response (Cohort 2, n = 54) over 6 months. Neutralization and T-cell responses were compared between paired samples at 2 time points, using the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Dunn's multiple comparison test for continuous variables and McNemar's test for dichotomous variables. The Bonferroni method of p values adjustment for multiple comparison was applied. RESULTS: The third dose induced high neutralization of the wild-type virus and delta variant (geometric mean titer [GMT], 137.2 [95% CI, 84.8-221.9] and 80.6, [95% CI, 49.3-132.0], respectively), and to a lesser degree of the omicron variant (GMT, 10.3 [95% CI, 5.9-17.9]). At 6 months, serum neutralizing activity declined but was still high for the wild-type virus and for the delta variant (GMTs 38.1 [95% CI, 21.2-69.4], p = 0.011; and 28.9 [95% CI, 16.6-52.3], p = 0.022, respectively), but not for the omicron variant (GMT 5.9 [95% CI, 3.4-9.8], p = 0.463). The percentages of neutralizing sera against the wild-type virus, delta and omicron variants increased from 70%, 65%, and 38%, before the third dose, to 93% (p < 0.001), 88% (p < 0.001), and 48% (p = 0.021) at 3 weeks after, respectively; and remained high through the 6 months for the wild-type (80%, p = 0.06) and delta (77%, p = 0.102). The third dose induced the development of a sustained SARS-CoV-2-specific-T-cell population, which persisted through 6 months. CONCLUSIONS: The third BNT162b2 dose elicited a durable SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell response and induced effective and durable neutralization of the wild-type virus and the delta variant, and to a lesser degree of the omicron variant.


Subject(s)
AIDS Vaccines , COVID-19 , Heart Transplantation , Influenza Vaccines , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines , SAIDS Vaccines , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , BCG Vaccine , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine , Humans , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , SARS-CoV-2
13.
N Engl J Med ; 386(17): 1615-1626, 2022 04 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1815678

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), a major cause of illness and death in infants worldwide, could be prevented by vaccination during pregnancy. The efficacy, immunogenicity, and safety of a bivalent RSV prefusion F protein-based (RSVpreF) vaccine in pregnant women and their infants are uncertain. METHODS: In a phase 2b trial, we randomly assigned pregnant women, at 24 through 36 weeks' gestation, to receive either 120 or 240 µg of RSVpreF vaccine (with or without aluminum hydroxide) or placebo. The trial included safety end points and immunogenicity end points that, in this interim analysis, included 50% titers of RSV A, B, and combined A/B neutralizing antibodies in maternal serum at delivery and in umbilical-cord blood, as well as maternal-to-infant transplacental transfer ratios. RESULTS: This planned interim analysis included 406 women and 403 infants; 327 women (80.5%) received RSVpreF vaccine. Most postvaccination reactions were mild to moderate; the incidence of local reactions was higher among women who received RSVpreF vaccine containing aluminum hydroxide than among those who received RSVpreF vaccine without aluminum hydroxide. The incidences of adverse events in the women and infants were similar in the vaccine and placebo groups; the type and frequency of these events were consistent with the background incidences among pregnant women and infants. The geometric mean ratios of 50% neutralizing titers between the infants of vaccine recipients and those of placebo recipients ranged from 9.7 to 11.7 among those with RSV A neutralizing antibodies and from 13.6 to 16.8 among those with RSV B neutralizing antibodies. Transplacental neutralizing antibody transfer ratios ranged from 1.41 to 2.10 and were higher with nonaluminum formulations than with aluminum formulations. Across the range of assessed gestational ages, infants of women who were immunized had similar titers in umbilical-cord blood and similar transplacental transfer ratios. CONCLUSIONS: RSVpreF vaccine elicited neutralizing antibody responses with efficient transplacental transfer and without evident safety concerns. (Funded by Pfizer; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04032093.).


Subject(s)
Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Viral Fusion Proteins , Aluminum Hydroxide/adverse effects , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Female , Humans , Infant , Pregnancy , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/immunology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/prevention & control , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines/adverse effects , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines/immunology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines/therapeutic use , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/immunology , Vaccination , Viral Fusion Proteins/immunology
14.
Neuroendocrinology ; 112(11): 1046-1057, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1752953

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has precipitated a global health crisis of unprecedented proportions. Due to its severe impact, multiple COVID-19 vaccines are being developed, approved, and manufactured rapidly. However, some serious adverse events (AEs) were reported after the application of them, significantly increasing concerns about the safety and efficacy of the vaccines and doubts about the necessity of vaccination. Particularly, previous vaccination campaigns have shown us that partial vaccination can induce neurologic AEs. Herein, we discuss in depth the involvement of the nervous system during SARS-CoV-2 infection or after vaccination. On the one hand, COVID-19 could pose an enormous threat to human neurological health through direct infection and indirect neurotoxicity effects. On the other hand, our review indicated that only a few serious neurological AEs following vaccination occurred and among which headache was the most common. Moreover, some neurological AEs do not seem to be related to vaccination. Of course, the causal relationships between several vaccines and AEs are considered plausible, and it is not doubtful that these AEs should be taken seriously by clinicians in assessing the potential risks and benefits of vaccinations in special populations. Nevertheless, in the case of the rapid spread of COVID-19, the potential side effects of vaccination on the nervous system should be compared with adverse COVID-19 outcomes rather than being considered alone. Thus, it is obviously a wise option to be vaccinated instead of suffering from serious adverse symptoms of virus infection.


Subject(s)
AIDS Vaccines , COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines , SAIDS Vaccines , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , BCG Vaccine , Diphtheria-Tetanus Vaccine , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2 , Nervous System
16.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 12 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1591709

ABSTRACT

RSV is a leading cause of respiratory tract disease in infants and the elderly. RSV has limited therapeutic interventions and no FDA-approved vaccine. Gaps in our understanding of virus-host interactions and immunity contribute to the lack of biological countermeasures. This review updates the current understanding of RSV immunity and immunopathology with a focus on interferon responses, animal modeling, and correlates of protection.


Subject(s)
Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/immunology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/virology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/immunology , Adaptive Immunity , Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Interferons/immunology , Interferons/metabolism , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/prevention & control , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines/immunology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/physiology
17.
Curr Opin Virol ; 51: 216-223, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1507781

ABSTRACT

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections result in significant morbidity and mortality for young children worldwide. The development of preventive strategies for RSV has faced different challenges, including the legacy of the first vaccine attempt, and an incomplete understanding of the host immune response to the virus. However, promising preventive strategies against RSV are in the pipeline and their development has advanced rapidly in the past decade due in part to our improved knowledge about the structural conformation of key RSV proteins. These strategies include monoclonal antibodies and different vaccines platforms directed towards the main target populations.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/prevention & control , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , Child , Humans , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/immunology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/mortality , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/therapy , Viral Proteins/immunology , Viral Proteins/metabolism
19.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 09 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1481007

ABSTRACT

Nipah virus (NiV) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) possess two surface glycoproteins involved in cellular attachment and membrane fusion, both of which are potential targets for vaccines. The majority of vaccine development is focused on the attachment (G) protein of NiV, which is the immunodominant target. In contrast, the fusion (F) protein of RSV is the main target in vaccine development. Despite this, neutralising epitopes have been described in NiV F and RSV G, making them alternate targets for vaccine design. Through rational design, we have developed a vaccine strategy applicable to phylogenetically divergent NiV and RSV that comprises both the F and G proteins (FxG). In a mouse immunization model, we found that NiV FxG elicited an improved immune response capable of neutralising pseudotyped NiV and a NiV mutant that is able to escape neutralisation by two known F-specific antibodies. RSV FxG elicited an immune response against both F and G and was able to neutralise RSV; however, this was inferior to the immune response of F alone. Despite this, RSV FxG elicited a response against a known protective epitope within G that is conserved across RSV A and B subgroups, which may provide additional protection in vivo. We conclude that inclusion of F and G antigens within a single design provides a streamlined subunit vaccine strategy against both emerging and established pathogens, with the potential for broader protection against NiV.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Henipavirus Infections/prevention & control , Nipah Virus/immunology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/prevention & control , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines/immunology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/immunology , Viral Envelope Proteins/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Female , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Subunit/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Subunit/immunology , Viral Envelope Proteins/administration & dosage , Viral Envelope Proteins/genetics , Viral Fusion Proteins/immunology
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