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1.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(21): e172, 2022 May 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875393

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, non-pharmacological interventions (NPIs) such as extensive and comprehensive hand hygiene, mask-wearing, and social distancing have been implemented globally. This study aimed to investigate changes in respiratory viruses other than severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) that occurred following the implementation of these NPIs. METHODS: From January 2018 to December 2021, influenza-like illness patient specimens and specimens from the Korea Influenza and Respiratory Viruses Surveillance System were analyzed at the Incheon Metropolitan City Institute of Public Health and Environment. Oropharyngeal or nasopharyngeal swab samples from respiratory infection patients were transferred in a virus transport medium at 4°C. After RNA or DNA extraction, respiratory virus-specific genes for human influenza virus (IFV), adenovirus (ADV), parainfluenza virus (PIV), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human rhinovirus (hRV), human coronavirus, human bocavirus, and human metapneumovirus were detected by individual real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: A total 3,334 samples were collected. After NPI was implemented, the detection of respiratory viruses other than SARS-CoV-2 decreased overall. The yearly detection rate of respiratory viruses was decreased from 69.5% (399/574) in 2018 and 73.3% (505/689) in 2019 to 19.8% (206/1,043) in 2020 and 34.9% (365/1,028) in 2021. The epidemic was more prominent in respiratory viruses such as IFV and RSV, which were considered dominant viruses, especially those with viral envelopes. Among viruses that were not considered dominant, hRV showed no clear change before and after NPI, while PIV showed a rapid increase compared to the existing dominant viruses between October-December 2021, after the increase in the number of gatherings started at the end of September and the "Relaxing COVID19 and mitigation policy," which was implemented on November 1. CONCLUSION: NPI seems to have influenced the isolation and transmission of respiratory viruses in South Korea. In the future, additional studies focusing on the isolation and transmission patterns of respiratory viruses following NPI are needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Virus Diseases , Viruses , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Viruses/genetics
2.
Vaccine ; 40(26): 3556-3565, 2022 Jun 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1873315

ABSTRACT

Childhood Immunization is one of the critical strategies to decrease infant morbidity and mortality due to infectious diseases, but primary immunization schedules for infants in most countries start at 2 months of age. Childhood vaccines therefore begin providing adequate protection later in life, leaving infants vulnerable to infectious diseases and creating an immunity gap that results in higher morbidity and mortality among younger infants. Maternal immunization, the practice of vaccinating individuals during pregnancy, reduces the risk of infant infection primarily through the transfer of protective maternal antibodies to the fetus during late pregnancy. Although much progress has been made in public health policies to support maternal immunization research, inclusion of pregnant individuals and children in clinical trials remains challenging. This has resulted in paucity of evidence regarding safety and effectiveness of vaccines to support licensure of products intended for use during pregnancy and lactation to prevent disease in the infant. In addition, although safeguards for clinical research in pregnancy are supportive, experimental vaccines, e.g., Respiratory Syncytial Virus, are more complicated to study because data on safety, efficacy, and dosing are limited. This requires randomized controlled trials with safety monitoring for the mother, the fetus, and the infant with follow-up for at least 1 year or longer to assess long-term health outcomes that may be associated with peripartum vaccine exposure. The goal of this paper is to discuss the general regulatory considerations for clinical research to evaluate safety and effectiveness of vaccines administered during pregnancy to protect infants from disease. This could be useful to inform future vaccine trials. This discussion is not intended to provide agency guidance nor to articulate agency policy.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Vaccines , Child , Female , Humans , Immunization , Infant , Pregnancy , Vaccination
3.
Viruses ; 14(5)2022 05 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869811

ABSTRACT

Many countries have implemented public health and social measures (PHSMs) to control the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Although the PHSMs are targeted at SARS-CoV-2 transmission control, they directly or indirectly impact the epidemiology of different respiratory viral diseases. The purpose of this study was to investigate the collateral impact of PHSMs used during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on the epidemiology of other respiratory viruses, including influenza, parainfluenza, respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus, and adenovirus infections. We conducted a systematic review of the published literature on changes in the incidence of respiratory viral diseases and detection rates of the respiratory viruses during COVID-19 pandemic, lasting from 2020-2021, published between December 2019 and March 2022 in PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases. We identified an overall decrease of 23-94% in the incidence of respiratory viral diseases and a decrease of 0-98% in the detection of the viruses. Our study suggests that the PHSMs implemented during COVID-19 pandemic reduced the incidence of respiratory viral diseases and transmission of respiratory viruses. At the time of this study, and as governments relax PHSMs, public health authorities should prepare for a probable increase in the burden of respiratory viral diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Viruses , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Public Health , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Lancet ; 399(10340): 2047-2064, 2022 05 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1864651

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of acute lower respiratory infection in young children. We previously estimated that in 2015, 33·1 million episodes of RSV-associated acute lower respiratory infection occurred in children aged 0-60 months, resulting in a total of 118 200 deaths worldwide. Since then, several community surveillance studies have been done to obtain a more precise estimation of RSV associated community deaths. We aimed to update RSV-associated acute lower respiratory infection morbidity and mortality at global, regional, and national levels in children aged 0-60 months for 2019, with focus on overall mortality and narrower infant age groups that are targeted by RSV prophylactics in development. METHODS: In this systematic analysis, we expanded our global RSV disease burden dataset by obtaining new data from an updated search for papers published between Jan 1, 2017, and Dec 31, 2020, from MEDLINE, Embase, Global Health, CINAHL, Web of Science, LILACS, OpenGrey, CNKI, Wanfang, and ChongqingVIP. We also included unpublished data from RSV GEN collaborators. Eligible studies reported data for children aged 0-60 months with RSV as primary infection with acute lower respiratory infection in community settings, or acute lower respiratory infection necessitating hospital admission; reported data for at least 12 consecutive months, except for in-hospital case fatality ratio (CFR) or for where RSV seasonality is well-defined; and reported incidence rate, hospital admission rate, RSV positive proportion in acute lower respiratory infection hospital admission, or in-hospital CFR. Studies were excluded if case definition was not clearly defined or not consistently applied, RSV infection was not laboratory confirmed or based on serology alone, or if the report included fewer than 50 cases of acute lower respiratory infection. We applied a generalised linear mixed-effects model (GLMM) to estimate RSV-associated acute lower respiratory infection incidence, hospital admission, and in-hospital mortality both globally and regionally (by country development status and by World Bank Income Classification) in 2019. We estimated country-level RSV-associated acute lower respiratory infection incidence through a risk-factor based model. We developed new models (through GLMM) that incorporated the latest RSV community mortality data for estimating overall RSV mortality. This review was registered in PROSPERO (CRD42021252400). FINDINGS: In addition to 317 studies included in our previous review, we identified and included 113 new eligible studies and unpublished data from 51 studies, for a total of 481 studies. We estimated that globally in 2019, there were 33·0 million RSV-associated acute lower respiratory infection episodes (uncertainty range [UR] 25·4-44·6 million), 3·6 million RSV-associated acute lower respiratory infection hospital admissions (2·9-4·6 million), 26 300 RSV-associated acute lower respiratory infection in-hospital deaths (15 100-49 100), and 101 400 RSV-attributable overall deaths (84 500-125 200) in children aged 0-60 months. In infants aged 0-6 months, we estimated that there were 6·6 million RSV-associated acute lower respiratory infection episodes (4·6-9·7 million), 1·4 million RSV-associated acute lower respiratory infection hospital admissions (1·0-2·0 million), 13 300 RSV-associated acute lower respiratory infection in-hospital deaths (6800-28 100), and 45 700 RSV-attributable overall deaths (38 400-55 900). 2·0% of deaths in children aged 0-60 months (UR 1·6-2·4) and 3·6% of deaths in children aged 28 days to 6 months (3·0-4·4) were attributable to RSV. More than 95% of RSV-associated acute lower respiratory infection episodes and more than 97% of RSV-attributable deaths across all age bands were in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). INTERPRETATION: RSV contributes substantially to morbidity and mortality burden globally in children aged 0-60 months, especially during the first 6 months of life and in LMICs. We highlight the striking overall mortality burden of RSV disease worldwide, with one in every 50 deaths in children aged 0-60 months and one in every 28 deaths in children aged 28 days to 6 months attributable to RSV. For every RSV-associated acute lower respiratory infection in-hospital death, we estimate approximately three more deaths attributable to RSV in the community. RSV passive immunisation programmes targeting protection during the first 6 months of life could have a substantial effect on reducing RSV disease burden, although more data are needed to understand the implications of the potential age-shifts in peak RSV burden to older age when these are implemented. FUNDING: EU Innovative Medicines Initiative Respiratory Syncytial Virus Consortium in Europe (RESCEU).


Subject(s)
Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Child , Child, Preschool , Cost of Illness , Global Health , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology
5.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 2884, 2022 May 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1860372

ABSTRACT

Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an important cause of acute respiratory infection with the most severe disease in the young and elderly. Non-pharmaceutical interventions and travel restrictions for controlling COVID-19 have impacted the circulation of most respiratory viruses including RSV globally, particularly in Australia, where during 2020 the normal winter epidemics were notably absent. However, in late 2020, unprecedented widespread RSV outbreaks occurred, beginning in spring, and extending into summer across two widely separated regions of the Australian continent, New South Wales (NSW) and Australian Capital Territory (ACT) in the east, and Western Australia. Through genomic sequencing we reveal a major reduction in RSV genetic diversity following COVID-19 emergence with two genetically distinct RSV-A clades circulating cryptically, likely localised for several months prior to an epidemic surge in cases upon relaxation of COVID-19 control measures. The NSW/ACT clade subsequently spread to the neighbouring state of Victoria and to cause extensive outbreaks and hospitalisations in early 2021. These findings highlight the need for continued surveillance and sequencing of RSV and other respiratory viruses during and after the COVID-19 pandemic, as mitigation measures may disrupt seasonal patterns, causing larger or more severe outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Infant , Pandemics/prevention & control , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/prevention & control , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/genetics , Seasons , Victoria
6.
Front Immunol ; 13: 807104, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1855349

ABSTRACT

Immunoglobulin gene heterogeneity reflects the diversity and focus of the humoral immune response towards different infections, enabling inference of B cell development processes. Detailed compositional and lineage analysis of long read IGH repertoire sequencing, combining examples of pandemic, epidemic and endemic viral infections with control and vaccination samples, demonstrates general responses including increased use of IGHV4-39 in both Zaire Ebolavirus (EBOV) and COVID-19 patient cohorts. We also show unique characteristics absent in Respiratory Syncytial Virus or yellow fever vaccine samples: EBOV survivors show unprecedented high levels of class switching events while COVID-19 repertoires from acute disease appear underdeveloped. Despite the high levels of clonal expansion in COVID-19 IgG1 repertoires there is a striking lack of evidence of germinal centre mutation and selection. Given the differences in COVID-19 morbidity and mortality with age, it is also pertinent that we find significant differences in repertoire characteristics between young and old patients. Our data supports the hypothesis that a primary viral challenge can result in a strong but immature humoral response where failures in selection of the repertoire risk off-target effects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ebolavirus , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Pandemics , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(3): e0039922, 2022 Jun 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1854248

ABSTRACT

Xpert Xpress SARS-CoV-2/Flu/RSV is a rapid diagnostic test currently approved for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 using upper respiratory tract specimens. This study attempts to assess the performance of this assay using upper and lower respiratory tract specimens by comparing its results to the lab-developed PCR test. We assessed the performance of GeneXpert for the detection of SARS-CoV-2, influenza A, influenza B, and respiratory syncytial virus for upper respiratory tract specimens. In addition, the SARS-CoV-2 detection was evaluated for lower respiratory tract specimens (bronchoalveolar lavage and tracheal aspirate). Precision and reproducibility of the test were also assessed using samples with varying cycle threshold values. Xpert Xpress SARS-CoV-2/Flu/RSV shows 100% positive and negative agreements for all four targets when tested using upper respiratory tract specimens. For lower respiratory tract specimens, tracheal aspirate and bronchoalveolar lavage samples respectively show 96% and 100% positive percent agreement for SARS-Cov-2 target only. No positive flu/RSV samples were included for lower respiratory tract specimens. Both samples show 100% negative percent agreement. The precision and reproducibility assay also showed 100% correspondence. Xpert Xpress SARS-CoV-2/Flu/RSV can be potentially used for SARS-Cov-2 detection in lower respiratory tract specimens. Performance passed our study acceptance criteria and shows promising implications as a point of care detection assay. IMPORTANCE Cepheid's Xpert Xpress SARS-CoV-2/Flu/RSV provides a means of rapid diagnosis that can help in hospital bed management and patient flow. It is also important for each microbiology lab to increase its capacity and most importantly have a different platform to overcome the anticipated reagent shortage at times of peak community transmission. There is limited evidence on using it for lower respiratory tract specimens. Here we present our validation for upper respiratory tract specimens as well as a potential use for lower respiratory specimens (BAL and TA), and we discuss some of the applications we have been using in our organization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A virus , Influenza, Human , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Bronchoalveolar Lavage , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Influenza A virus/genetics , Influenza B virus/genetics , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Nasopharynx , Reproducibility of Results , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
8.
J Med Virol ; 94(7): 3096-3100, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1844092

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are one of the leading causes of illness and death among community members worldwide. Viral infections are the most common agents estimated to be involved in these patients. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) among children with ARIs. This study evaluated the presence of SARS-CoV-2 and hRSV in 168 throat and nasopharyngeal swab samples using real-time RT-PCR. All samples were collected from children under 5 years old with ARIs who attended Children's Medical Center, Tehran, Iran, and sent to the Iranian National Influenza Center with appropriate conditions in 2021. Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were used for comparison of the data of the prevalence of hRSV and SARS-CoV-2 infections among children. Of 168 patients examined, 95 (57%) were male and 73 (43%) female. Out of them, 47 (28%) cases were younger than 1 year old and 121 cases (72%) were 1-5 years old. The most common clinical manifestations of patients were cough (78%), nausea (31%), diarrhea (27%), and fever (18%). Among 168 patients, no hRSV was detected, while the SARS-CoV-2 genome was identified in 16 (9.5%) patients. Among 16 positive cases of SARS-CoV-2, 8 (50%) were under 1 year old and 8 positive cases were 1-5 years old. This study was performed at cold months of the year but due to the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic and adherence to health protocols, school closures, and virtual classes, no cases of hRSV infections were identified.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
9.
Pediatr Int ; 64(1): e14937, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1822056

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has drastically changed the recommended activities and environment for patients worldwide. Our aim was to assess the impact of COVID-19 on pediatric hospitalizations in Kitami, Japan. METHODS: A retrospective, single-center study was conducted on hospitalized patients aged 0-14 years at the Japanese Red Cross Kitami Hospital. We compared the incidence of pediatric patients hospitalized in 2020 with those in 2017-2019. RESULTS: The number of pediatric hospitalized patients dropped significantly in 2020 compared to that in 2017-2019 (median 43.0 vs 78.5 per month, P < 0.001). The patients were significantly older in 2020 (4.3 vs 3.4 years, P < 0.001). Hospitalization from respiratory (8.5 vs 30.5, P < 0.001) and gastrointestinal infections (3.0 vs 6.0, P = 0.004) significantly decreased. Admission due to respiratory syncytial virus (0.0 vs 4.0, P < 0.001), human metapneumovirus (0.0 vs 1.0, P = 0.005), influenza (0.0 vs 0.0, P = 0.009), adenovirus (0.0 vs 1.0, P = 0.003), and rotavirus infection (0.0 vs 0.0, P = 0.025) also decreased significantly. The <1-5 age groups significantly decreased (<1 year old, 6.5 vs 12.5, P < 0.001; 1-3 years old, 13.0 vs 29.5, P < 0.001; 4-5 years old, 5.5 vs 11.5, P < 0.001). Hospitalization due to foreign body ingestions increased significantly in 2020 (1.0 vs 0.0, P = 0.010). CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 control measures inadvertently reduced the number of hospitalized pediatric patients, especially younger children with respiratory and gastrointestinal infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant , Japan/epidemiology , Pandemics , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
10.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0266095, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1817480

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Impacts of COVID-19 mitigation measures on seasonal respiratory viruses is unknown in sub-tropical climates. METHODS: We compared weekly testing and test-positivity of respiratory infections in the 2019-2020 respiratory season to the 2012-2018 seasons in southern Puerto Rico using Wilcoxon signed rank tests. RESULTS: Compared to the average for the 2012-2018 seasons, test-positivity was significantly lower for Influenza A (p<0.001) & B (p<0.001), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) (p<0.01), respiratory adenovirus (AdV) (p<0.05), and other respiratory viruses (p<0.001) following March 2020 COVID-19 stay at home orders. CONCLUSIONS: Mitigation measures and behavioral social distancing choices may have reduced respiratory viral spread in southern Puerto Rico.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Viruses , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Puerto Rico/epidemiology
11.
N Engl J Med ; 386(17): 1615-1626, 2022 04 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1815678

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), a major cause of illness and death in infants worldwide, could be prevented by vaccination during pregnancy. The efficacy, immunogenicity, and safety of a bivalent RSV prefusion F protein-based (RSVpreF) vaccine in pregnant women and their infants are uncertain. METHODS: In a phase 2b trial, we randomly assigned pregnant women, at 24 through 36 weeks' gestation, to receive either 120 or 240 µg of RSVpreF vaccine (with or without aluminum hydroxide) or placebo. The trial included safety end points and immunogenicity end points that, in this interim analysis, included 50% titers of RSV A, B, and combined A/B neutralizing antibodies in maternal serum at delivery and in umbilical-cord blood, as well as maternal-to-infant transplacental transfer ratios. RESULTS: This planned interim analysis included 406 women and 403 infants; 327 women (80.5%) received RSVpreF vaccine. Most postvaccination reactions were mild to moderate; the incidence of local reactions was higher among women who received RSVpreF vaccine containing aluminum hydroxide than among those who received RSVpreF vaccine without aluminum hydroxide. The incidences of adverse events in the women and infants were similar in the vaccine and placebo groups; the type and frequency of these events were consistent with the background incidences among pregnant women and infants. The geometric mean ratios of 50% neutralizing titers between the infants of vaccine recipients and those of placebo recipients ranged from 9.7 to 11.7 among those with RSV A neutralizing antibodies and from 13.6 to 16.8 among those with RSV B neutralizing antibodies. Transplacental neutralizing antibody transfer ratios ranged from 1.41 to 2.10 and were higher with nonaluminum formulations than with aluminum formulations. Across the range of assessed gestational ages, infants of women who were immunized had similar titers in umbilical-cord blood and similar transplacental transfer ratios. CONCLUSIONS: RSVpreF vaccine elicited neutralizing antibody responses with efficient transplacental transfer and without evident safety concerns. (Funded by Pfizer; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04032093.).


Subject(s)
Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Viral Fusion Proteins , Aluminum Hydroxide/adverse effects , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Female , Humans , Infant , Pregnancy , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/immunology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/prevention & control , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines/adverse effects , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines/immunology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines/therapeutic use , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/immunology , Vaccination , Viral Fusion Proteins/immunology
12.
Viruses ; 14(5)2022 04 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1810330

ABSTRACT

RNA viruses like SARS-CoV-2, influenza virus, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are dependent on host genes for replication. We investigated if probenecid, an FDA-approved and safe urate-lowering drug that inhibits organic anion transporters (OATs) has prophylactic or therapeutic efficacy to inhibit RSV replication in three epithelial cell lines used in RSV studies, i.e., Vero E6 cells, HEp-2 cells, and in primary normal human bronchoepithelial (NHBE) cells, and in BALB/c mice. The studies showed that nanomolar concentrations of all probenecid regimens prevent RSV strain A and B replication in vitro and RSV strain A in vivo, representing a potential prophylactic and chemotherapeutic for RSV.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Animals , Mice , Probenecid/pharmacology , Probenecid/therapeutic use , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/drug therapy , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/metabolism , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/prevention & control , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Replication
14.
Pathology ; 54(4): 466-471, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1799763

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, sample pooling has proven an effective strategy to overcome the limitations of reagent shortages and expand laboratory testing capacity. The inclusion of influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in a multiplex tandem PCR platform with SARS-CoV-2 provides useful diagnostic and infection control information. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of the influenza and RSV targets in the AusDiagnostics SARS-CoV-2, Influenza and RSV 8-well assay, including the effect of pooling samples on target detection. RSV target detection in clinical samples was compared to the Cepheid Xpert Xpress Flu/RSV assay as a reference standard. Samples were then tested in pools of four and detection rates were compared. Owing to the unavailability of clinical samples for influenza, only the effect of sample pooling on simulated samples was evaluated for these targets. RSV was detected in neat clinical samples with a positive percent agreement (PPA) of 100% and negative percent agreement (NPA) of 99.5% compared to the reference standard, demonstrating 99.7% agreement. This study demonstrates that sample pooling by four increases the average Ct value by 2.24, 2.29, 2.20 and 1.91 cycles for the target's influenza A, influenza A typing, influenza B and RSV, respectively. The commercial AusDiagnostics SARS-CoV-2, Influenza and RSV 8-well assay was able to detect influenza and RSV at an intermediate concentration within the limit of detection of the assay. Further studies to explore the applicability of sample pooling at the lower limit of detection of the assay is needed. Nevertheless, sample pooling has shown to be a viable strategy to increase testing throughput and reduce reagent usage. In addition, the multiplexed platform targeting various respiratory viruses assists with public health and infection control responses, clinical care, and patient management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A virus , Influenza, Human , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Influenza A virus/genetics , Influenza B virus/genetics , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Nasopharynx , Pandemics , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
15.
Viruses ; 14(4)2022 04 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1786082

ABSTRACT

Influenza-like illness (ILI) can be caused by a range of respiratory viruses. The present study investigates the contribution of influenza and other respiratory viruses, the occurrence of viral co-infections, and the persistence of the viruses after ILI onset in older adults. During the influenza season 2014-2015, 2366 generally healthy community-dwelling older adults (≥60 years) were enrolled in the study. Viruses were identified by multiplex ligation-dependent probe-amplification assay in naso- and oropharyngeal swabs taken during acute ILI phase, and 2 and 8 weeks later. The ILI incidence was 10.7%, which did not differ between vaccinated and unvaccinated older adults; influenza virus was the most frequently detected virus (39.4%). Other viruses with significant contribution were: rhinovirus (17.3%), seasonal coronavirus (9.8%), respiratory syncytial virus (6.7%), and human metapneumovirus (6.3%). Co-infections of influenza virus with other viruses were rare. The frequency of ILI cases in older adults in this 2014-2015 season with low vaccine effectiveness was comparable to that of the 2012-2013 season with moderate vaccine efficacy. The low rate of viral co-infections observed, especially for influenza virus, suggests that influenza virus infection reduces the risk of simultaneous infection with other viruses. Viral persistence or viral co-infections did not affect the clinical outcome of ILI.


Subject(s)
Coinfection , Coronavirus , Influenza, Human , Orthomyxoviridae , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Virus Diseases , Aged , Coinfection/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Virus Diseases/epidemiology
16.
Pediatr Emerg Care ; 38(1): e398-e403, 2022 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1767003

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in pediatric patients has been associated with low risk of concomitant bacterial infection. However, in children with severe disease, it occurs in 22% to 50% of patients. As viral testing becomes routine, bacterial codetections are increasingly identified in patients with non-RSV viruses. We hypothesized, among patients intubated for respiratory failure secondary to suspected infection, there are similar rates of codetection between RSV and non-RSV viral detections. METHODS: This retrospective chart review, conducted over a 5-year period, included all patients younger than 2 years who required intubation secondary to respiratory failure from an infectious etiology in a single pediatric emergency department. Patients intubated for noninfectious causes were excluded. RESULTS: We reviewed 274 patients, of which 181 had positive viral testing. Of these, 48% were RSV-positive and 52% were positive for viruses other than RSV. Codetection of bacteria was found in 76% (n = 65; 95% confidence interval [CI], 66%, 84%) of RSV-positive patients and 66% (n = 63, 95% CI: 57%, 76%) of patients positive with non-RSV viruses. Among patients with negative viral testing, 33% had bacterial growth on lower respiratory culture. Male sex was the only patient-related factor associated with increased odds of codetection (odds ratio [OR], 2.2; 95% CI, 1.08-4.38). The odds of codetection between RSV-positive patients and non-RSV viruses were not significantly different (OR, 1.3; 95% CI, 0.62-2.71). CONCLUSIONS: Bacterial codetection is common and not associated with anticipated patient-related factors or with a specific virus. These results suggest consideration of empiric antibiotics in infants with respiratory illness requiring intubation.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Bacteria , Child , Humans , Infant , Male , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/complications , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
17.
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 75(2): 209-211, 2022 Mar 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1761196

ABSTRACT

Nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) for COVID-19 can affect the current and future dynamics of respiratory syncytial virus infections (RSV). In Tokyo, RSV activity declined by 97.9% (95% CI: 94.8%-99.2%) during NPIs. A long period of NPIs could increase susceptible populations, thus enhancing the potential for large RSV outbreaks after the end of NPIs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Infant , Japan/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Tokyo/epidemiology
19.
Viruses ; 14(3)2022 02 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1744919

ABSTRACT

Respiratory viruses play an important role in asthma exacerbation, and early exposure can be involved in recurrent bronchitis and the development of asthma. The exact mechanism is not fully clarified, and pathogen-to-host interaction studies are warranted to identify biomarkers of exacerbation in the early phase. Only a limited number of international exacerbation cohorts were studied. Here, we have established a local pediatric exacerbation study in Germany consisting of children with asthma or chronic, recurrent bronchitis and analyzed the viriome within the nasopharyngeal swab specimens derived from the entire cohort (n = 141). Interestingly, 41% of exacerbated children had a positive test result for human rhinovirus (HRV)/human enterovirus (HEV), and 14% were positive for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). HRV was particularly prevalent in asthmatics (56%), wheezers (50%), and atopic (66%) patients. Lymphocytes were decreased in asthmatics and in HRV-infected subjects, and patients allergic to house dust mites were more susceptible to HRV infection. Our study thus confirms HRV infection as a strong 'biomarker' of exacerbated asthma. Further longitudinal studies will show the clinical progress of those children with a history of an RSV or HRV infection. Vaccination strategies and novel treatment guidelines against HRV are urgently needed to protect those high-risk children from a serious course of disease.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Bronchitis , Enterovirus Infections , Enterovirus , Picornaviridae Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Virus Diseases , Viruses , Asthma/epidemiology , Biomarkers , Child , Humans , Infant , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Rhinovirus
20.
Viruses ; 14(3)2022 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742733

ABSTRACT

Viral replication and transmissibility are the principal causes of endemic and pandemic disease threats. There remains a need for broad-spectrum antiviral agents. The most common respiratory viruses are endemic agents such as coronaviruses, respiratory syncytial viruses, and influenza viruses. Although vaccines are available for SARS-CoV-2 and some influenza viruses, there is a paucity of effective antiviral drugs, while for RSV there is no vaccine available, and therapeutic treatments are very limited. We have previously shown that probenecid is safe and effective in limiting influenza A virus replication and SARS-CoV-2 replication, along with strong evidence showing inhibition of RSV replication in vitro and in vivo. This review article will describe the antiviral activity profile of probenecid against these three viruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Orthomyxoviridae , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning , Humans , Probenecid/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2
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