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2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 24448, 2021 12 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585777

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 mRNA vaccines are highly effective at preventing COVID-19. Prior studies have found detectable SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies in oral mucosal specimens of participants with history of COVID-19. To assess the development of oral SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies among people who received either the Moderna or Pfizer/BioNTech COVID-19 vaccination series, we developed a novel SARS-CoV-2 IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to quantify the concentrations of oral and nasal mucosal SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels. We enrolled 52 participants who received the Moderna vaccine and 80 participants who received the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine. Oral mucosal specimens were self-collected by participants prior to or on the day of vaccination, and on days 5, 10, 15, and 20 following each vaccination dose and 30, 60, and 90 days following the second vaccination dose. A subset of the cohort provided additional nasal mucosal specimens at every time point. All participants developed detectable oral mucosal SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies by 15 days after the first vaccination dose. There were no significant differences in oral mucosal antibody concentrations once participants were fully vaccinated in the Moderna and Pfizer/BioNTech vaccines. Oral or nasal mucosal antibody testing could be an inexpensive and less invasive alternative to serum antibody testing. Further research is needed to understand the duration of detectable oral or nasal mucosal antibodies and how antibody concentrations change with time.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Immunoglobulin G/analysis , Mouth Mucosa/metabolism , Respiratory System/metabolism , /immunology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Time Factors , Vaccination , Young Adult , /administration & dosage
3.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6671-6685, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544318

ABSTRACT

Infection by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes a wide spectrum of syndromes involving multiple organ systems and is primarily mediated by viral spike (S) glycoprotein through the receptor-binding domain (RBD) and numerous cellular proteins including ACE2, transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2), kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1), and neuropilin-1 (NRP-1). In this study, we examined the entry tropism of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV using S protein-based pseudoviruses to infect 22 cell lines and 3 types of primary cells isolated from respiratory, urinary, digestive, reproductive, and immune systems. At least one cell line or type of primary cell from each organ system was infected by both pseudoviruses. Infection by pseudoviruses is effectively blocked by S1, RBD, and ACE2 recombinant proteins, and more weakly by Kim-1 and NRP-1 recombinant proteins. Furthermore, cells with robust SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus infection had strong expression of either ACE2 or Kim-1 and NRP-1 proteins. ACE2 glycosylation appeared to be critical for the infections of both viruses as there was a positive correlation between infectivity of either SARS-CoV-2 or SARS-CoV pseudovirus with the level of glycosylated ACE2 (gly-ACE2). These results reveal that SARS-CoV-2 cell entry could be mediated by either an ACE2-dependent or -independent mechanism, thus providing a likely molecular basis for its broad tropism for a wide variety of cell types.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Gastrointestinal Tract/virology , Genitalia/virology , Hepatitis A Virus Cellular Receptor 1/metabolism , Immune System/virology , Neuropilin-1/metabolism , Respiratory System/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Virus Internalization , Blotting, Western , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Cells, Cultured , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Gastrointestinal Tract/cytology , Genitalia/cytology , Humans , Immune System/cytology , Respiratory System/cytology
4.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 11 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542796

ABSTRACT

Children with COVID-19 develop moderate symptoms in most cases. Thus, a proportion of children requires hospital admission. The study aimed to assess the history, clinical and laboratory parameters in children with COVID-19 concerning the severity of respiratory symptoms. The study included 332 children (median age 57 months) with COVID-19. History data, clinical findings, laboratory parameters, treatment, and outcome, were evaluated. Children were compared in the groups that varied in the severity of symptoms of respiratory tract involvement. Children who required oxygen therapy represented 8.73%, and intensive care 1.5% of the whole cohort. Comorbidities were present in 126 patients (37.95%). Factors increasing the risk of oxygen therapy included comorbidities (odds ratio (OR) = 92.39; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = (4.19; 2036.90); p < 0.00001), dyspnea (OR = 45.81; 95% CI (4.05; 518.21); p < 0.00001), auscultation abnormalities (OR = 34.33; 95% CI (2.59; 454.64); p < 0.00001). Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) > 280 IU/L and creatinine kinase > 192 IU/L were parameters with a good area under the curve (0.804-LDH) and a positive predictive value (42.9%-CK). The clinical course of COVID-19 was mild to moderate in most patients. Children with comorbidities, dyspnea, or abnormalities on auscultation are at risk of oxygen therapy. Laboratory parameters potentially useful in patients evaluated for the severe course are LDH > 200 IU/L and CK > 192 IU/L.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Respiratory System/physiopathology , Adolescent , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant , Male , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory System/diagnostic imaging , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
5.
Biomed J ; 44(4): 504-507, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525701

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, an infectious disease caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has emerged as global pandemic. Here, we described the changes in microbiota of upper respiratory tract by analyzing the publically available RNA sequencing data of SARS-CoV-2-infected ferrets. The bacterial dysbiosis due to SARS-CoV-2 was largely inversely proportional to the dysbiosis caused by influenza-A virus. The bacterial taxa which are defined as healthy ecostate were significantly reduced during SARS-CoV-2 infection. Altogether, this preliminary study provides a new insight on the possible role of bacterial communities of upper respiratory tract in determining the immunity, susceptibility, and mortality for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Microbiota , Animals , Dysbiosis , Ferrets , Humans , Microbiota/genetics , RNA , Respiratory System , SARS-CoV-2 , Sequence Analysis, RNA
6.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(10): 1924-1926, 2021 11 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522131

ABSTRACT

We examine airborne transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) potential using a source-to-dose framework beginning with generation of virus-containing droplets and aerosols and ending with virus deposition in the respiratory tract of susceptible individuals. By addressing 4 critical questions, we identify both gaps in addressing 4 critical questions with answers having policy implications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viruses , Aerosols , Humans , Respiratory System , SARS-CoV-2
7.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0257549, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511814

ABSTRACT

Particulate generation occurs during exercise-induced exhalation, and research on this topic is scarce. Moreover, infection-control measures are inadequately implemented to avoid particulate generation. A laminar airflow ventilation system (LFVS) was developed to remove respiratory droplets released during treadmill exercise. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the number of aerosols during training on a treadmill and exercise intensity and to elucidate the effect of the LFVS on aerosol removal during anaerobic exercise. In this single-center observational study, the exercise tests were performed on a treadmill at Running Science Lab in Japan on 20 healthy subjects (age: 29±12 years, men: 80%). The subjects had a broad spectrum of aerobic capacities and fitness levels, including athletes, and had no comorbidities. All of them received no medication. The exercise intensity was increased by 1-km/h increments until the heart rate reached 85% of the expected maximum rate and then maintained for 10 min. The first 10 subjects were analyzed to examine whether exercise increased the concentration of airborne particulates in the exhaled air. For the remaining 10 subjects, the LFVS was activated during constant-load exercise to compare the number of respiratory droplets before and after LFVS use. During exercise, a steady amount of particulates before the lactate threshold (LT) was followed by a significant and gradual increase in respiratory droplets after the LT, particularly during anaerobic exercise. Furthermore, respiratory droplets ≥0.3 µm significantly decreased after using LFVS (2120800±759700 vs. 560 ± 170, p<0.001). The amount of respiratory droplets significantly increased after LT. The LFVS enabled a significant decrease in respiratory droplets during anaerobic exercise in healthy subjects. This study's findings will aid in exercising safely during this pandemic.


Subject(s)
Air Conditioning/methods , COVID-19/prevention & control , Exercise/physiology , Particulate Matter/chemistry , Adult , Aerosols/chemistry , Air Filters , Anaerobic Threshold/physiology , COVID-19/metabolism , Exercise Test/methods , Exhalation/physiology , Female , Heart Rate/physiology , Humans , Japan , Lactic Acid/metabolism , Male , Oxygen Consumption/physiology , Respiration , Respiratory System/physiopathology , Running/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Ventilation/methods
8.
Clin Lab ; 67(11)2021 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1513104

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The rapid spread of pneumonia caused by SARS-CoV-2 has seriously threatened people. In this study, we detected the expression of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG/IgM and respiratory tract SARS-CoV-2 RNA in patients with COVID-19 and explored the correlation and clinical significance between SARS-CoV-2 antibody and respiratory SARS-CoV-2 RNA. METHODS: From March 5, 2020 to April 28, 2020, 48 cases with COVID-19 diagnosed in Beijing Xiaotangshan Hospital were enrolled. SARS-CoV-2 RNAs were detected by real-time fluorescence RT-PCR method. Serum SARS-CoV-2 IgG/IgM antibodies were determined by colloidal gold immunochromatography. The statistical analysis was performed using chi-squared test. RESULTS: In all the patients, SARS-CoV-2 RNA among 270 upper respiratory tract (nasal or throat swabs) samples, 71 lower respiratory tract (sputum) samples, and anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM/IgG antibodies in 123 serum samples were detected during the hospitalization period. The positive rate of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG was significantly higher than that of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM within the first week after symptom onset (p < 0.05). The positive rate of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG was also significantly higher than that of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM during day 8 - 30 after symptom onset (p < 0.01). The positive rate of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the lower respiratory tract specimens (64.8%, 46/71) was significantly higher than that in the upper respiratory tract (46.7%, 126/270) (p < 0.05). The positive rate (100%, 4/4) of SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection in the lower respiratory tract specimens before IgG seroconversion was significantly higher than that of the positive rate (59.3%, 32/54) after IgG seroconversion (p < 0.01). The positive rate (72.2%, 57/79) of SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection in the upper respiratory tract specimens before IgG seroconversion was significantly higher than that of the positive rate (30.7%, 39/127) after IgG seroconversion (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG might be detected within the first week after symptom onset. The application of SARS-CoV-2 antibody (IgG/IgM) detection is important for the suspected cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection with negative SARS-CoV-2 RNA results. The positive rate of SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection in the lower respiratory tract specimens was significantly higher than that in the upper respiratory tract. Sputum detection is recommended for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Using lower respiratory tract specimens may reduce the false negative PCR tests. The detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA can be improved by investigating follow-up specimens over time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , RNA, Viral/genetics , Respiratory System , Sensitivity and Specificity
9.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 2199-2201, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505680

ABSTRACT

We report pilot studies to evaluate the susceptibility of common domestic livestock (cattle, sheep, goat, alpaca, rabbit, and horse) to intranasal infection with SARS-CoV-2. None of the infected animals shed infectious virus via nasal, oral, or faecal routes, although viral RNA was detected in several animals. Further, neutralizing antibody titres were low or non-existent one month following infection. These results suggest that domestic livestock are unlikely to contribute to SARS-CoV-2 epidemiology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/veterinary , Host Specificity , Livestock/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Camelids, New World/virology , Cattle/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Goats/virology , Horses/virology , Host Specificity/immunology , Humans , Nasal Cavity/virology , RNA, Viral/analysis , Rabbits/virology , Rectum/virology , Respiratory System/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sheep/virology , Species Specificity , Vero Cells , Virus Shedding , Viscera/virology
10.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(9): e2814-e2817, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501023

ABSTRACT

Intrahost analysis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) genomic sequences identified 2 viral haplotypes comprised of 3 genetically linked mutations from the respiratory and intestinal tracts of a patient with coronavirus disease 2019. Spatiotemporal data suggest that this patient initially had dual infection of 2 SARS-CoV-2 variants, which subsequently redistributed into the 2 systems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Genomics , Humans , Respiratory System
11.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0257644, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496499

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 may present with a variety of clinical syndromes, however, the upper airway and the lower respiratory tract are the principle sites of infection. Previous work on respiratory viral infections demonstrated that airway inflammation results in the release of volatile organic compounds as well as nitric oxide. The detection of these gases from patients' exhaled breath offers a novel potential diagnostic target for COVID-19 that would offer real-time screening of patients for COVID-19 infection. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We present here a breath tester utilizing a catalytically active material, which allows for the temporal manifestation of the gaseous biomarkers' interactions with the sensor, thus giving a distinct breath print of the disease. A total of 46 Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients on mechanical ventilation participated in the study, 23 with active COVID-19 respiratory infection and 23 non-COVID-19 controls. Exhaled breath bags were collected on ICU days 1, 3, 7, and 10 or until liberation from mechanical ventilation. The breathalyzer detected high exhaled nitric oxide (NO) concentration with a distinctive pattern for patients with active COVID-19 pneumonia. The COVID-19 "breath print" has the pattern of the small Greek letter omega (). The "breath print" identified patients with COVID-19 pneumonia with 88% accuracy upon their admission to the ICU. Furthermore, the sensitivity index of the breath print (which scales with the concentration of the key biomarker ammonia) appears to correlate with duration of COVID-19 infection. CONCLUSIONS: The implication of this breath tester technology for the rapid screening for COVID-19 and potentially detection of other infectious diseases in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/metabolism , Nitric Oxide/analysis , Aged , Biomarkers , Breath Tests/methods , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Respiratory System/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sensitivity and Specificity , Volatile Organic Compounds/analysis
13.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 2173-2182, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493581

ABSTRACT

The continuing emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants calls for regular assessment to identify differences in viral replication, shedding and associated disease. In this study, we compared African green monkeys infected intranasally with either the UK B.1.1.7 (Alpha) variant or its contemporary D614G progenitor. Both variants caused mild respiratory disease with no significant differences in clinical presentation. Significantly higher levels of viral RNA and infectious virus were found in upper and lower respiratory tract samples and tissues from B.1.1.7 infected animals. Interestingly, D614G infected animals showed significantly higher levels of viral RNA and infectious virus in rectal swabs and gastrointestinal tissues. Our results indicate that B.1.1.7 infection in African green monkeys is associated with increased respiratory replication and shedding but no disease enhancement similar to human B.1.1.7 cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops/virology , Respiratory System/virology , Virus Replication , Virus Shedding , Administration, Intranasal , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Tract/virology , Host Specificity , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Random Allocation , Rectum/virology , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Vero Cells , Viral Load
14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21297, 2021 10 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493220

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 outbreak has caused over three million deaths worldwide. Understanding the pathology of the disease and the factors that drive severe and fatal clinical outcomes is of special relevance. Studying the role of the respiratory microbiota in COVID-19 is especially important as the respiratory microbiota is known to interact with the host immune system, contributing to clinical outcomes in chronic and acute respiratory diseases. Here, we characterized the microbiota in the respiratory tract of patients with mild, severe, or fatal COVID-19, and compared it to healthy controls and patients with non-COVID-19-pneumonia. We comparatively studied the microbial composition, diversity, and microbiota structure between the study groups and correlated the results with clinical data. We found differences in the microbial composition for COVID-19 patients, healthy controls, and non-COVID-19 pneumonia controls. In particular, we detected a high number of potentially opportunistic pathogens associated with severe and fatal levels of the disease. Also, we found higher levels of dysbiosis in the respiratory microbiota of patients with COVID-19 compared to the healthy controls. In addition, we detected differences in diversity structure between the microbiota of patients with mild, severe, and fatal COVID-19, as well as the presence of specific bacteria that correlated with clinical variables associated with increased risk of mortality. In summary, our results demonstrate that increased dysbiosis of the respiratory tract microbiota in patients with COVID-19 along with a continuous loss of microbial complexity structure found in mild to fatal COVID-19 cases may potentially alter clinical outcomes in patients. Taken together, our findings identify the respiratory microbiota as a factor potentially associated with the severity of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/genetics , COVID-19/microbiology , COVID-19/mortality , Dysbiosis/microbiology , Microbiota/genetics , Respiratory System/microbiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Severity of Illness Index , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/pathology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Middle Aged , Phylogeny , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Young Adult
15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20615, 2021 10 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475482

ABSTRACT

Differential kinetics of RNA loads and infectious viral levels in the upper respiratory tract between asymptomatic and symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infected adult outpatients remain unclear limiting recommendations that may guide clinical management, infection control measures and occupational health decisions. In the present investigation, 496 (2.8%) of 17,911 French adult outpatients were positive for an upper respiratory tract SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection by a quantitative RT-PCR assay, of which 180 (36.3%) were COVID-19 asymptomatic. Of these adult asymptomatic viral shedders, 75% had mean to high RNA viral loads (Ct values < 30) which median value was significantly higher than that observed in symptomatic subjects (P = 0.029), and 50.6% were positive by cell culture assays of their upper respiratory tract specimens. Our findings indicate that COVID-19 asymptomatic adult outpatients are significant viable SARS-CoV-2 shedders in their upper respiratory tract playing a major potential role as SARS-CoV-2 transmitters in various epidemiological transmission chains, promoting COVID-19 resurgence in populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Outpatients , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Shedding , Adolescent , Adult , Animals , Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Chlorocebus aethiops , Female , France , Humans , Kinetics , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral , Respiratory System/metabolism , Vero Cells , Viral Load , Young Adult
17.
Front Immunol ; 12: 701443, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470757

ABSTRACT

The airway mucus barrier is a primary defensive layer at the airway surface. Mucins are the major structural components of airway mucus that protect the respiratory tract. Respiratory viruses invade human airways and often induce abnormal mucin overproduction and airway mucus secretion, leading to airway obstruction and disease. The mechanism underlying the virus-induced abnormal airway mucus secretion has not been fully studied so far. Understanding the mechanisms by which viruses induce airway mucus hypersecretion may open new avenues to treatment. In this article, we elaborate the clinical and experimental evidence that respiratory viruses cause abnormal airway mucus secretion, review the underlying mechanisms, and also discuss the current research advance as well as potential strategies to treat the abnormal airway mucus secretion caused by SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Mucus/metabolism , Virus Diseases/metabolism , Animals , Humans , Respiratory System/metabolism
18.
Med Eng Phys ; 92: 71-79, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1452333

ABSTRACT

The comprehension of the fluid flow in the upper airways is of paramount importance when treating patients under clinical conditions that demand mechanical ventilation. Barotrauma and overdistension are related to undesirable pressures and might be responsible for morbidity and mortality. In the current work we use computational fluid dynamics to investigate the pressure field in the upper respiratory airways. We performed a set of simulations varying the volumetric flow rate of mechanical ventilators and we have shown that the pressure profile can be calculated by means of the volumetric flow rate in accordance with a mathematical expression given by Pav=aV˙2, where Pav is the average pressure at selected sections of the upper airways and V˙ is the volumetric flow rate. Numerical findings provide evidence that the constant a varies with the location of the plane in the upper airways. We also show that some particular diameters of endotracheal tubes (ETT) must be used with care for a given range of volumetric flow rates. Overall, we document an important relationship among pressure, volumetric flow rate and selected internal diameters from ETT.


Subject(s)
Intubation, Intratracheal , Ventilators, Mechanical , Humans , Hydrodynamics , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory System
19.
J Immunol ; 207(10): 2581-2588, 2021 11 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450886

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is a respiratory pathogen that can cause severe disease in at-risk populations but results in asymptomatic infections or a mild course of disease in the majority of cases. We report the identification of SARS-CoV-2-reactive B cells in human tonsillar tissue obtained from children who were negative for coronavirus disease 2019 prior to the pandemic and the generation of mAbs recognizing the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein from these B cells. These Abs showed reduced binding to Spike proteins of SARS-CoV-2 variants and did not recognize Spike proteins of endemic coronaviruses, but subsets reacted with commensal microbiota and exhibited SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing potential. Our study demonstrates pre-existing SARS-CoV-2-reactive Abs in various B cell populations in the upper respiratory tract lymphoid tissue that may lead to the rapid engagement of the pathogen and contribute to prevent manifestations of symptomatic or severe disease.


Subject(s)
Adenoids/immunology , B-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Mucous Membrane/immunology , Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell/genetics , Respiratory System/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , Child , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunologic Memory , Lymphocyte Activation , Single-Cell Analysis , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Transcriptome
20.
Lit Med ; 38(2): 233-238, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450720
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