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1.
Viruses ; 15(5)2023 04 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241085

ABSTRACT

Qualitative SARS-CoV-2 antigen assays based on immunochromatography are useful for mass diagnosis of COVID-19, even though their sensitivity is poor in comparison with RT-PCR assays. In addition, quantitative assays could improve antigenic test performance and allow testing with different specimens. Using quantitative assays, we tested 26 patients for viral RNA and N-antigen in respiratory samples, plasma and urine. This allowed us to compare the kinetics between the three compartments and to compare RNA and antigen concentrations in each. Our results showed the presence of N-antigen in respiratory (15/15, 100%), plasma (26/59, 44%) and urine (14/54, 28.9%) samples, whereas RNA was only detected in respiratory (15/15, 100%) and plasma (12/60, 20%) samples. We detected N-antigen in urine and plasma samples until the day 9 and day 13 post-inclusion, respectively. The antigen concentration was found to correlate with RNA levels in respiratory (p < 0.001) and plasma samples (p < 0.001). Finally, urinary antigen levels correlated with plasma levels (p < 0.001). Urine N-antigen detection could be part of the strategy for the late diagnosis and prognostic evaluation of COVID-19, given the ease and painlessness of sampling and the duration of antigen excretion in this biological compartment.


Subject(s)
Blood Group Antigens , COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/diagnosis , Kinetics , Respiratory System , RNA, Viral/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity
2.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1197908, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240238

ABSTRACT

Innate immunity of the mucosal surfaces provides the first-line defense from invading pathogens and pollutants conferring protection from the external environment. Innate immune system of the airway epithelium consists of several components including the mucus layer, mucociliary clearance of beating cilia, production of host defense peptides, epithelial barrier integrity provided by tight and adherens junctions, pathogen recognition receptors, receptors for chemokines and cytokines, production of reactive oxygen species, and autophagy. Therefore, multiple components interplay with each other for efficient protection from pathogens that still can subvert host innate immune defenses. Hence, the modulation of innate immune responses with different inducers to boost host endogenous front-line defenses in the lung epithelium to fend off pathogens and to enhance epithelial innate immune responses in the immunocompromised individuals is of interest for host-directed therapy. Herein, we reviewed possibilities of modulation innate immune responses in the airway epithelium for host-directed therapy presenting an alternative approach to standard antibiotics.


Subject(s)
Immunity, Innate , Respiratory System , Humans , Epithelium , Cytokines , Chemokines
4.
Gut Microbes ; 15(1): 2223340, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242837

ABSTRACT

The antibiotic resistome is the collection of all antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) present in an individual. Whether an individual's susceptibility to infection and the eventual severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is influenced by their respiratory tract antibiotic resistome is unknown. Additionally, whether a relationship exists between the respiratory tract and gut ARGs composition has not been fully explored. We recruited 66 patients with COVID-19 at three disease stages (admission, progression, and recovery) and conducted a metagenome sequencing analysis of 143 sputum and 97 fecal samples obtained from them. Respiratory tract, gut metagenomes, and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) transcriptomes are analyzed to compare the gut and respiratory tract ARGs of intensive care unit (ICU) and non-ICU (nICU) patients and determine relationships between ARGs and immune response. Among the respiratory tract ARGs, we found that Aminoglycoside, Multidrug, and Vancomycin are increased in ICU patients compared with nICU patients. In the gut, we found that Multidrug, Vancomycin, and Fosmidomycin were increased in ICU patients. We discovered that the relative abundances of Multidrug were significantly correlated with clinical indices, and there was a significantly positive correlation between ARGs and microbiota in the respiratory tract and gut. We found that immune-related pathways in PBMC were enhanced, and they were correlated with Multidrug, Vancomycin, and Tetracycline ARGs. Based on the ARG types, we built a respiratory tract-gut ARG combined random-forest classifier to distinguish ICU COVID-19 patients from nICU patients with an AUC of 0.969. Cumulatively, our findings provide some of the first insights into the dynamic alterations of respiratory tract and gut antibiotic resistome in the progression of COVID-19 and disease severity. They also provide a better understanding of how this disease affects different cohorts of patients. As such, these findings should contribute to better diagnosis and treatment scenarios.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Vancomycin , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Respiratory System , Patient Acuity
6.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 7162, 2023 05 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316264

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has generated interest in the assessment of systemic immune status, but existing knowledge about mucosal immunity is clearly insufficient to understand the full pathogenetic mechanisms of the disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of novel coronavirus infection on mucosal immunity in the postinfection period among health care workers (HCWs). A total of 180 health care workers with and without a history of COVID-19 who ranged in age from 18 to 65 years were enrolled in this one-stage, cross-sectional study. The study subjects completed the 36-Item Short Form (36) Health Survey (SF-36) and the Fatigue Assessment Scale. Secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) and total immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels were quantified in saliva samples, induced sputum samples, and nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal scrapings by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Specific anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies were quantified in serum samples by chemiluminescence immunoassay. Analysis of the questionnaire data showed that all HCWs with a history of COVID-19 reported health problems that limited their daily activities and negative changes in their emotional health three months after the disease, regardless of its severity. The following shifts were detected in the adaptive arm of the immune response in different mucosal compartments. Among subjects who had severe or moderate-to-severe COVID-19, salivary sIgA levels were significantly higher than those in the control group (p < 0.05 and p < 0.005, respectively). Compared to the subjects in the control group, all subjects with prior COVID-19 had significantly higher levels of total IgG in induced sputum. In the group of patients who had had severe infection, total IgG in saliva was also higher (p < 0.05). A direct statistically significant correlation was also detected between the levels of total IgG in all studied samples and the levels of specific IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in the serum. A significant correlation was observed between total IgG levels and the parameters of physical and social activities, mental health, and fatigue levels. Our study demonstrated long-term changes in the humoral mucosal immune response, which were most pronounced in health care workers with a history of severe or moderate-to-severe COVID-19, and an association of these changes with certain clinical signs of post-COVID-19 syndrome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Personnel , Immunity, Mucosal , Russia , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Humans , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Immunoglobulin A/analysis , Respiratory System/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Severity of Illness Index , Immunoglobulin G/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
7.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1147549, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2312605

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The incidence of long COVID is substantial, even in people with mild to moderate acute COVID-19. The role of early viral kinetics in the subsequent development of long COVID is largely unknown, especially in individuals who were not hospitalized for acute COVID-19. Methods: Seventy-three non-hospitalized adult participants were enrolled within approximately 48 hours of their first positive SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR test, and mid-turbinate nasal and saliva samples were collected up to 9 times within the first 45 days after enrollment. Samples were assayed for SARS-CoV-2 using RT-PCR and additional SARS-CoV-2 test results were abstracted from the clinical record. Each participant indicated the presence and severity of 49 long COVID symptoms at 1-, 3-, 6-, 12-, and 18-months post-COVID-19 diagnosis. Time from acute COVID-19 illness onset to SARS-CoV-2 RNA clearance greater or less than 28 days was tested for association with the presence or absence of each of 49 long COVID symptoms at 90+ days from acute COVID-19 symptom onset. Results: Self-reported brain fog and muscle pain at 90+ days after acute COVID-19 onset were negatively associated with viral RNA clearance within 28 days of acute COVID-19 onset with adjustment for age, sex, BMI ≥ 25, and COVID vaccination status prior to COVID-19 (brain fog: aRR 0.46, 95% CI 0.22-0.95; muscle pain: aRR 0.28, 95% CI 0.08-0.94). Participants reporting higher severity brain fog or muscle pain at 90+ days after acute COVID-19 onset were less likely to have cleared SARS-CoV-2 RNA within 28 days. The acute viral RNA decay trajectories of participants who did and did not later go on to experience brain fog 90+ days after acute COVID-19 onset were distinct. Discussion: This work indicates that at least two long COVID symptoms - brain fog and muscle pain - at 90+ days from acute COVID-19 onset are specifically associated with prolonged time to clearance of SARS-CoV-2 RNA from the upper respiratory tract during acute COVID-19. This finding provides evidence that delayed immune clearance of SARS-CoV-2 antigen or greater amount or duration of viral antigen burden in the upper respiratory tract during acute COVID-19 are directly linked to long COVID. This work suggests that host-pathogen interactions during the first few weeks after acute COVID-19 onset have an impact on long COVID risk months later.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , RNA, Viral/genetics , COVID-19 Testing , Myalgia , Respiratory System , Brain
8.
Virol J ; 20(1): 65, 2023 04 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2293274

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has become a worldwide pandemic with over 627 million cases and over 6.5 million deaths. It was reported that smoking-related chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) might be a crucial risk for COVID-19 patients to develop severe condition. As cigarette smoke (CS) is the major risk factor for COPD, we hypothesize that barrier dysfunction and an altered cytokine response in CS-exposed airway epithelial cells may contribute to increased SARS-CoV-2-induced immune response that may result in increased susceptibility to severe disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of CS on SARS-CoV-2-induced immune and inflammatory responses, and epithelial barrier integrity leading to airway epithelial damage. METHODS: Primary human airway epithelial cells were differentiated under air-liquid interface culture. Cells were then exposed to cigarette smoke medium (CSM) before infection with SARS-CoV-2 isolated from a local patient. The infection susceptibility, morphology, and the expression of genes related to host immune response, airway inflammation and damages were evaluated. RESULTS: Cells pre-treated with CSM significantly caused higher replication of SARS-CoV-2 and more severe SARS-CoV-2-induced cellular morphological alteration. CSM exposure caused significant upregulation of long form angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)2, a functional receptor for SARS-CoV-2 viral entry, transmembrane serine protease (TMPRSS)2 and TMPRSS4, which cleave the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 to allow viral entry, leading to an aggravated immune response via inhibition of type I interferon pathway. In addition, CSM worsened SARS-CoV-2-induced airway epithelial cell damage, resulting in severe motile ciliary disorder, junctional disruption and mucus hypersecretion. CONCLUSION: Smoking led to dysregulation of host immune response and cell damage as seen in SARS-CoV-2-infected primary human airway epithelia. These findings may contribute to increased disease susceptibility with severe condition and provide a better understanding of the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection in smokers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cigarette Smoking , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Respiratory System
9.
Glycobiology ; 33(6): 476-489, 2023 06 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2304778

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 global pandemic has underscored the need to understand how viruses and other pathogens are able to infect and replicate within the respiratory system. Recent studies have highlighted the role of highly O-glycosylated mucins in the protection of the respiratory system as well as how mucin-type O-glycosylation may be able to modify viral infectivity. Therefore, we set out to identify the specific genes controlling mucin-type O-glycosylation throughout the mouse respiratory system as well as determine how their expression and the expression of respiratory mucins is influenced by infection or injury. Here, we show that certain mucins and members of the Galnt family are abundantly expressed in specific respiratory tissues/cells and demonstrate unique patterns of O-glycosylation across diverse respiratory tissues. Moreover, we find that the expression of certain Galnts and mucins is altered during lung infection and injury in experimental mice challenged with infectious agents, toxins, and allergens. Finally, we examine gene expression changes of Galnts and mucins in a mouse model of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our work provides foundational knowledge regarding the specific expression of Galnt enzyme family members and mucins throughout the respiratory system, and how their expression is altered upon lung infection and injury.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucins , Animals , Mice , Mucins/genetics , Mucins/metabolism , Glycosylation , COVID-19/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Respiratory System/metabolism
11.
Clin Obes ; 10(6): e12403, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2267680

ABSTRACT

Obesity is an emerging independent risk factor for susceptibility to and severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Previous viral pandemics have shown that obesity, particularly severe obesity (BMI > 40 kg/m2 ), is associated with increased risk of hospitalization, critical care admission and fatalities. In this narrative review, we examine emerging evidence of the influence of obesity on COVID-19, the challenges to clinical management from pulmonary, endocrine and immune dysfunctions in individuals with obesity and identify potential areas for further research. We recommend that people with severe obesity be deemed a vulnerable group for COVID-19; clinical trials of pharmacotherapeutics, immunotherapies and vaccination should prioritize inclusion of people with obesity.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Obesity/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Endocrine System , Hospitalization , Humans , Immune System , Pandemics , Respiratory System , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/complications , Vulnerable Populations
15.
Microb Genom ; 9(2)2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2278746

ABSTRACT

To date, little is known about the effect of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus responsible for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, on the upper respiratory tract (URT) microbiota over time. To fill this knowledge gap, we used 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing to characterize the URT microbiota in 48 adults, including (1) 24 participants with mild-to-moderate COVID-19 who had serial mid-turbinate swabs collected up to 21 days after enrolment and (2) 24 asymptomatic, uninfected controls who had mid-turbinate swabs collected at enrolment only. To compare the URT microbiota between groups in a comprehensive manner, different types of statistical analyses that are frequently employed in microbial ecology were used, including ⍺-diversity, ß-diversity and differential abundance analyses. Final statistical models included age, sex and the presence of at least one comorbidity as covariates. The median age of all participants was 34.00 (interquartile range=28.75-46.50) years. In comparison to samples from controls, those from participants with COVID-19 had a lower observed species index at day 21 (linear regression coefficient=-13.30; 95 % CI=-21.72 to -4.88; q=0.02). In addition, the Jaccard index was significantly different between samples from participants with COVID-19 and those from controls at all study time points (PERMANOVA q<0.05 for all comparisons). The abundance of three amplicon sequence variants (ASVs) (one Corynebacterium ASV, Frederiksenia canicola, and one Lactobacillus ASV) were decreased in samples from participants with COVID-19 at all seven study time points, whereas the abundance of one ASV (from the family Neisseriaceae) was increased in samples from participants with COVID-19 at five (71.43 %) of the seven study time points. Our results suggest that mild-to-moderate COVID-19 can lead to alterations of the URT microbiota that persist for several weeks after the initial infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Microbiota , Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Respiratory System
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