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3.
J Infect Dis ; 225(3): 404-412, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1672208

ABSTRACT

Cocirculation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and influenza viruses could pose unpredictable risks to health systems globally, with recent studies suggesting more severe disease outcomes in coinfected patients. The initial lack of a readily available coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine has reinforced the importance of influenza vaccine programs during the COVID-19 pandemic. Live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) is an important tool in protecting against influenza, particularly in children. However, it is unknown whether LAIV administration influences the outcomes of acute SARS-CoV-2 infection or disease. To investigate this, quadrivalent LAIV was administered to ferrets 3 days before or after SARS-CoV-2 infection. LAIV administration did not exacerbate the SARS-CoV-2 disease course or lung pathology with either regimen. In addition, LAIV administered before SARS-CoV-2 infection significantly reduced SARS-CoV-2 replication and shedding in the upper respiratory tract. This study demonstrated that LAIV administration in close proximity to SARS-CoV-2 infection does not exacerbate mild disease and can reduce SARS-CoV-2 shedding.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Virus Shedding , Animals , COVID-19/therapy , Disease Models, Animal , Ferrets , Influenza Vaccines/therapeutic use , Lung , Respiratory System/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Vaccines, Attenuated/therapeutic use , Virus Replication
4.
J Infect Dis ; 225(3): 392-395, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1672207

ABSTRACT

There is a paucity of reports on the characteristics of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in infants, because most studies have grouped infants with older children. We analyzed the viral loads of 45318 SARS-CoV-2-positive nasopharyngeal swab samples obtained in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Infants younger than 6 months presented higher viral loads than any other age group. Children older than 6 months showed significantly lower viral loads, similar to those founds in adults. This observation raises new questions regarding the role of infants in the spreading of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory System/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Load , Argentina/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Infant , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
5.
J Infect Dis ; 225(2): 199-207, 2022 01 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1634219

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Circulation of seasonal non-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) respiratory viruses with syndromic overlap during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic may alter the quality of COVID-19 surveillance, with possible consequences for real-time analysis and delay in implementation of control measures. METHODS: Using a multipathogen susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered (SEIR) transmission model formalizing cocirculation of SARS-CoV-2 and another respiratory virus, we assessed how an outbreak of secondary virus may affect 2 COVID-19 surveillance indicators: testing demand and positivity. Using simulation, we assessed to what extent the use of multiplex polymerase chain reaction tests on a subsample of symptomatic individuals can help correct the observed SARS-CoV-2 percentage positivity and improve surveillance quality. RESULTS: We find that a non-SARS-CoV-2 epidemic strongly increases SARS-CoV-2 daily testing demand and artificially reduces the observed SARS-CoV-2 percentage positivity for the duration of the outbreak. We estimate that performing 1 multiplex test for every 1000 COVID-19 tests on symptomatic individuals could be sufficient to maintain surveillance of other respiratory viruses in the population and correct the observed SARS-CoV-2 percentage positivity. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that cocirculating respiratory viruses can distort SARS-CoV-2 surveillance. Correction of the positivity rate can be achieved by using multiplex polymerase chain reaction tests, and a low number of samples is sufficient to avoid bias in SARS-CoV-2 surveillance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Respiratory System/virology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Models, Theoretical , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Pandemics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sentinel Surveillance
6.
Cell Rep ; 38(6): 110344, 2022 02 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1639571

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 has a broad mammalian species tropism infecting humans, cats, dogs, and farmed mink. Since the start of the 2019 pandemic, several reverse zoonotic outbreaks of SARS-CoV-2 have occurred in mink, one of which reinfected humans and caused a cluster of infections in Denmark. Here we investigate the molecular basis of mink and ferret adaptation and demonstrate the spike mutations Y453F, F486L, and N501T all specifically adapt SARS-CoV-2 to use mustelid ACE2. Furthermore, we risk assess these mutations and conclude mink-adapted viruses are unlikely to pose an increased threat to humans, as Y453F attenuates the virus replication in human cells and all three mink adaptations have minimal antigenic impact. Finally, we show that certain SARS-CoV-2 variants emerging from circulation in humans may naturally have a greater propensity to infect mustelid hosts and therefore these species should continue to be surveyed for reverse zoonotic infections.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Biological/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Zoonoses/genetics , Animals , COVID-19 , Ferrets/immunology , Genetic Fitness/genetics , Humans , Mink/immunology , Mutation , Pandemics , Respiratory System/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
7.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 368-383, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604258

ABSTRACT

Older individuals are at higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe outcomes, but the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. In addition, how age modulates SARS-CoV-2 re-infection and vaccine breakthrough infections remain largely unexplored. Here, we investigated age-associated SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis, immune responses, and the occurrence of re-infection and vaccine breakthrough infection utilizing a wild-type C57BL/6N mouse model. We demonstrated that interferon and adaptive antibody response upon SARS-CoV-2 challenge are significantly impaired in aged mice compared to young mice, which results in more effective virus replications and severe disease manifestations in the respiratory tract. Aged mice also showed increased susceptibility to re-infection due to insufficient immune protection acquired during the primary infection. Importantly, two-dose COVID-19 mRNA vaccination conferred limited adaptive immune response among the aged mice, making them susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Collectively, our findings call for tailored and optimized treatments and prevention strategies against SARS-CoV-2 among older individuals.


Subject(s)
Age Factors , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Aging/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Disease Models, Animal , Disease Susceptibility , Female , Humans , Immunity , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Respiratory System/immunology , Respiratory System/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Vaccination , Virus Replication
9.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 412-423, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585244

ABSTRACT

Although frequently reported since the beginning of the pandemic, questions remain regarding the impact of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) interaction with circulating respiratory viruses in coinfected patients. We here investigated dual infections involving early-pandemic SARS-CoV-2 and the Alpha variant and three of the most prevalent respiratory viruses, rhinovirus (RV) and Influenza A and B viruses (IAV and IBV), in reconstituted respiratory airway epithelial cells cultured at air-liquid interface. We found that SARS-CoV-2 replication was impaired by primary, but not secondary, rhino- and influenza virus infection. In contrast, SARS-CoV-2 had no effect on the replication of these seasonal respiratory viruses. Inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 correlated better with immune response triggered by RV, IAV and IBV than the virus entry. Using neutralizing antibody against type I and III interferons, SARS-CoV-2 blockade in dual infections could be partly prevented. Altogether, these data suggested that SARS-CoV-2 interaction with seasonal respiratory viruses would be modulated by interferon induction and could impact SARS-CoV-2 epidemiology when circulation of other respiratory viruses is restored.


Subject(s)
Coinfection/virology , Influenza A virus/physiology , Influenza B virus/physiology , Respiratory System/virology , Rhinovirus/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication/physiology , Coinfection/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Interferons/physiology
10.
J Infect Dis ; 224(12): 2020-2024, 2021 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575544

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The upper respiratory tract (URT) is the primary entry site for severe acute respiratory syndrome 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and other respiratory viruses, but its involvement in viral amplification and pathogenesis remains incompletely understood. METHODS: In this study, we investigated primary nasal epithelial cultures, as well as vital explanted tissues, to scrutinize the tropism of wild-type SARS-CoV-2 and the recently emerged B.1.1.7 variant. RESULTS: Our analyses revealed a widespread replication competence of SARS-CoV-2 in polarized nasal epithelium as well as in the examined URT and salivary gland tissues, which was also shared by the B.1.1.7 virus. CONCLUSIONS: In our analyses, we highlighted the active role of these anatomic sites in coronavirus disease 2019.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Respiratory System/virology , Viral Tropism , Virus Replication , Humans , Respiratory Tract Infections , SARS-CoV-2 , Trachea
11.
J Infect Dis ; 225(3): 392-395, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1545981

ABSTRACT

There is a paucity of reports on the characteristics of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in infants, because most studies have grouped infants with older children. We analyzed the viral loads of 45318 SARS-CoV-2-positive nasopharyngeal swab samples obtained in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Infants younger than 6 months presented higher viral loads than any other age group. Children older than 6 months showed significantly lower viral loads, similar to those founds in adults. This observation raises new questions regarding the role of infants in the spreading of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory System/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Load , Argentina/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Infant , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
12.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6671-6685, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544318

ABSTRACT

Infection by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes a wide spectrum of syndromes involving multiple organ systems and is primarily mediated by viral spike (S) glycoprotein through the receptor-binding domain (RBD) and numerous cellular proteins including ACE2, transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2), kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1), and neuropilin-1 (NRP-1). In this study, we examined the entry tropism of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV using S protein-based pseudoviruses to infect 22 cell lines and 3 types of primary cells isolated from respiratory, urinary, digestive, reproductive, and immune systems. At least one cell line or type of primary cell from each organ system was infected by both pseudoviruses. Infection by pseudoviruses is effectively blocked by S1, RBD, and ACE2 recombinant proteins, and more weakly by Kim-1 and NRP-1 recombinant proteins. Furthermore, cells with robust SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus infection had strong expression of either ACE2 or Kim-1 and NRP-1 proteins. ACE2 glycosylation appeared to be critical for the infections of both viruses as there was a positive correlation between infectivity of either SARS-CoV-2 or SARS-CoV pseudovirus with the level of glycosylated ACE2 (gly-ACE2). These results reveal that SARS-CoV-2 cell entry could be mediated by either an ACE2-dependent or -independent mechanism, thus providing a likely molecular basis for its broad tropism for a wide variety of cell types.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Gastrointestinal Tract/virology , Genitalia/virology , Hepatitis A Virus Cellular Receptor 1/metabolism , Immune System/virology , Neuropilin-1/metabolism , Respiratory System/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Virus Internalization , Blotting, Western , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Cells, Cultured , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Gastrointestinal Tract/cytology , Genitalia/cytology , Humans , Immune System/cytology , Respiratory System/cytology
13.
J Mol Diagn ; 23(12): 1661-1670, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1540788

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is transmitted through airborne particles in exhaled breath, causing severe respiratory disease, coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), in some patients. Samples for SARS-CoV-2 testing are typically collected by nasopharyngeal swab, with the virus detected by PCR; however, patients can test positive for 3 months after infection. Without the capacity to assay SARS-CoV-2 in breath, it is not possible to understand the risk for transmission from infected individuals. To detect virus in breath, the Bubbler-a breathalyzer that reverse-transcribes RNA from SARS-CoV-2 particles into a sample-specific barcoded cDNA-was developed. In a study of 70 hospitalized patients, the Bubbler was both more predictive of lower respiratory tract involvement (abnormal chest X-ray) and less invasive than alternatives. Samples tested using the Bubbler were threefold more enriched for SARS-CoV-2 RNA than were samples from tongue swabs, implying that virus particles were being directly sampled. The barcode-enabled Bubbler was used for simultaneous diagnosis in large batches of pooled samples at a lower limit of detection of 334 genomic copies per sample. Diagnosis by sequencing can provide additional information, such as viral load and strain identity. The Bubbler was configured to sample nucleic acids in water droplets circulating in air, demonstrating its potential in environmental monitoring and the protective effect of adequate ventilation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Diagnostic Tests, Routine/methods , Respiratory System/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Body Fluids/virology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , RNA, Viral/genetics , Specimen Handling , Viral Load/methods
14.
Nature ; 601(7893): 410-414, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1521758

ABSTRACT

The CVnCoV (CureVac) mRNA vaccine for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) was recently evaluated in a phase 2b/3 efficacy trial in humans1. CV2CoV is a second-generation mRNA vaccine containing non-modified nucleosides but with optimized non-coding regions and enhanced antigen expression. Here we report the results of a head-to-head comparison of the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of CVnCoV and CV2CoV in non-human primates. We immunized 18 cynomolgus macaques with two doses of 12 µg lipid nanoparticle-formulated CVnCoV or CV2CoV or with sham (n = 6 per group). Compared with CVnCoV, CV2CoV induced substantially higher titres of binding and neutralizing antibodies, memory B cell responses and T cell responses as well as more potent neutralizing antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2 variants, including the Delta variant. Moreover, CV2CoV was found to be comparably immunogenic to the BNT162b2 (Pfizer) vaccine in macaques. Although CVnCoV provided partial protection against SARS-CoV-2 challenge, CV2CoV afforded more robust protection with markedly lower viral loads in the upper and lower respiratory tracts. Binding and neutralizing antibody titres were correlated with protective efficacy. These data demonstrate that optimization of non-coding regions can greatly improve the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a non-modified mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in non-human primates.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Nucleosides/chemistry , Vaccines, Synthetic/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , /immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/standards , Female , Macaca fascicularis/immunology , Male , Nucleosides/genetics , Respiratory System/immunology , Respiratory System/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/standards , Viral Load , /standards
15.
Viruses ; 13(11)2021 10 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512693

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: Equine arteritis virus (EAV) infection causes reproductive losses and systemic vasculitis in susceptible equidae. The intact male becomes the virus' reservoir upon EAV infection, as it causes a chronic-persistent infection of the accessory sex glands. Infected semen is the main source of virus transmission. (2) Here, we describe acute EAV infection and spread in a stallion population after introduction of new members to the group. (3) Conclusions: acute clinical signs, acute phase detection of antigen via (PCR) nasal swabs or (EDTA) blood, and seroconversion support the idea of transmission via seminal fluids into the respiratory tract(s) of others. This outbreak highlights EAV's horizontal transmission via the respiratory tract. This route should be considered in a chronic-persistently infected herd, when seronegative animals are added to the group.


Subject(s)
Arterivirus Infections/epidemiology , Arterivirus Infections/veterinary , Disease Outbreaks , Equartevirus , Horse Diseases/epidemiology , Animals , Arterivirus Infections/transmission , Arterivirus Infections/virology , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Horse Diseases/virology , Horses , Male , Masturbation , Respiratory System/virology , Semen/virology
16.
Am J Pathol ; 191(12): 2064-2071, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506649

ABSTRACT

Current understanding of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pathophysiology is limited by disease heterogeneity, complexity, and a paucity of studies assessing patient tissues with advanced molecular tools. Rapid autopsy tissues were evaluated using multiscale, next-generation RNA-sequencing methods (bulk, single-nuclei, and spatial transcriptomics) to provide unprecedented molecular resolution of COVID-19-induced damage. Comparison of infected/uninfected tissues revealed four major regulatory pathways. Effectors within these pathways could constitute novel therapeutic targets, including the complement receptor C3AR1, calcitonin receptor-like receptor, or decorin. Single-nuclei RNA sequencing of olfactory bulb and prefrontal cortex highlighted remarkable diversity of coronavirus receptors. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 was rarely expressed, whereas basigin showed diffuse expression, and alanyl aminopeptidase, membrane, was associated with vascular/mesenchymal cell types. Comparison of lung and lymph node tissues from patients with different symptoms (one had died after a month-long hospitalization with multiorgan involvement, and the other had died after a few days of respiratory symptoms) with digital spatial profiling resulted in distinct molecular phenotypes. Evaluation of COVID-19 rapid autopsy tissues with advanced molecular techniques can identify pathways and effectors, map diverse receptors at the single-cell level, and help dissect differences driving diverging clinical courses among individual patients. Extension of this approach to larger data sets will substantially advance the understanding of the mechanisms behind COVID-19 pathophysiology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Autopsy , Disease Progression , Gene Expression Profiling , Heart/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Humans , Kidney/metabolism , Kidney/pathology , Kidney/virology , Liver/metabolism , Liver/pathology , Liver/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardium/metabolism , Myocardium/pathology , Olfactory Bulb/metabolism , Olfactory Bulb/pathology , Olfactory Bulb/virology , Prefrontal Cortex/metabolism , Prefrontal Cortex/pathology , Prefrontal Cortex/virology , Respiratory System/metabolism , Respiratory System/pathology , Respiratory System/virology , Salivary Glands/metabolism , Salivary Glands/pathology , Salivary Glands/virology , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Signal Transduction/genetics
17.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 2199-2201, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505680

ABSTRACT

We report pilot studies to evaluate the susceptibility of common domestic livestock (cattle, sheep, goat, alpaca, rabbit, and horse) to intranasal infection with SARS-CoV-2. None of the infected animals shed infectious virus via nasal, oral, or faecal routes, although viral RNA was detected in several animals. Further, neutralizing antibody titres were low or non-existent one month following infection. These results suggest that domestic livestock are unlikely to contribute to SARS-CoV-2 epidemiology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/veterinary , Host Specificity , Livestock/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Camelids, New World/virology , Cattle/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Goats/virology , Horses/virology , Host Specificity/immunology , Humans , Nasal Cavity/virology , RNA, Viral/analysis , Rabbits/virology , Rectum/virology , Respiratory System/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sheep/virology , Species Specificity , Vero Cells , Virus Shedding , Viscera/virology
18.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 2173-2182, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493581

ABSTRACT

The continuing emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants calls for regular assessment to identify differences in viral replication, shedding and associated disease. In this study, we compared African green monkeys infected intranasally with either the UK B.1.1.7 (Alpha) variant or its contemporary D614G progenitor. Both variants caused mild respiratory disease with no significant differences in clinical presentation. Significantly higher levels of viral RNA and infectious virus were found in upper and lower respiratory tract samples and tissues from B.1.1.7 infected animals. Interestingly, D614G infected animals showed significantly higher levels of viral RNA and infectious virus in rectal swabs and gastrointestinal tissues. Our results indicate that B.1.1.7 infection in African green monkeys is associated with increased respiratory replication and shedding but no disease enhancement similar to human B.1.1.7 cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops/virology , Respiratory System/virology , Virus Replication , Virus Shedding , Administration, Intranasal , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Tract/virology , Host Specificity , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Random Allocation , Rectum/virology , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Vero Cells , Viral Load
20.
J Infect Dis ; 224(12): 2020-2024, 2021 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470155

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The upper respiratory tract (URT) is the primary entry site for severe acute respiratory syndrome 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and other respiratory viruses, but its involvement in viral amplification and pathogenesis remains incompletely understood. METHODS: In this study, we investigated primary nasal epithelial cultures, as well as vital explanted tissues, to scrutinize the tropism of wild-type SARS-CoV-2 and the recently emerged B.1.1.7 variant. RESULTS: Our analyses revealed a widespread replication competence of SARS-CoV-2 in polarized nasal epithelium as well as in the examined URT and salivary gland tissues, which was also shared by the B.1.1.7 virus. CONCLUSIONS: In our analyses, we highlighted the active role of these anatomic sites in coronavirus disease 2019.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Respiratory System/virology , Viral Tropism , Virus Replication , Humans , Respiratory Tract Infections , SARS-CoV-2 , Trachea
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