Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 37
Filter
2.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 71(2): 150-152, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-729244

ABSTRACT

The aim of the study was to investigate differences in viral shedding in respiratory and fecal samples from children with novel coronavirus disease 19. We searched PubMed, SCOPUS, Embase, and Web of Science databases to identify pediatric studies comparing the pattern of fecal and respiratory shedding of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA. Summary estimates were calculated using random-effects models. Four studies reporting data from 36 children were included. A higher proportion of children had viral shedding in stools after 14 days of symptoms onset compared to respiratory samples (risk ratio = 3.2, 95% confidence interval 1.2-8.9, I2 = 51%). Viral RNA shedding was longer in fecal samples with a mean difference of approximately 9 days (mean difference = 8.6, 95% confidence interval 1.7-15.4, I2 = 77%) compared with respiratory samples. SARS-CoV-2 shedding seems to be present in feces for a longer time than in the respiratory tract of children. Although fecal SARS-CoV-2 presence in feces do not confirm its transmissibility, the high and fast spread of the novel coronavirus disease 19 worldwide indicate other transmission routes are also plausible.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Feces/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , RNA, Viral , Virus Shedding , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Female , Gastrointestinal Tract/virology , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Respiratory System/virology
3.
Crit Care Nurs Q ; 43(4): 390-399, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-729219

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) creates severe respiratory distress and often a cascade of other systemic complications impacting several organ systems. The immune response includes a cytokine storm that creates many life-threatening problems including coagulopathies, arrhythmias, and secondary infections. This article discusses the multisystem responses to the physical insults created by this corona virus.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Cardiovascular System/virology , Gastrointestinal Tract/virology , Humans , Immune System/virology , Integumentary System/virology , Kidney/virology , Musculoskeletal System/virology , Nervous System/virology , Pandemics , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Respiratory System/virology
4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4207, 2020 08 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-724410

ABSTRACT

The rapid spread of coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 greatly threatens global public health but no prophylactic vaccine is available. Here, we report the generation of a replication-incompetent recombinant serotype 5 adenovirus, Ad5-S-nb2, carrying a codon-optimized gene encoding Spike protein (S). In mice and rhesus macaques, intramuscular injection with Ad5-S-nb2 elicits systemic S-specific antibody and cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses. Intranasal inoculation elicits both systemic and pulmonary antibody responses but weaker CMI response. At 30 days after a single vaccination with Ad5-S-nb2 either intramuscularly or intranasally, macaques are protected against SARS-CoV-2 challenge. A subsequent challenge reveals that macaques vaccinated with a 10-fold lower vaccine dosage (1 × 1010 viral particles) are also protected, demonstrating the effectiveness of Ad5-S-nb2 and the possibility of offering more vaccine dosages within a shorter timeframe. Thus, Ad5-S-nb2 is a promising candidate vaccine and warrants further clinical evaluation.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Adenoviridae/genetics , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Macaca mulatta , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Respiratory System/pathology , Respiratory System/virology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage
5.
J Infect Dis ; 222(4): 551-555, 2020 07 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-704462

ABSTRACT

We simulated 3 transmission modes, including close-contact, respiratory droplets and aerosol routes, in the laboratory. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can be highly transmitted among naive human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) mice via close contact because 7 of 13 naive hACE2 mice were SARS-CoV-2 antibody seropositive 14 days after being introduced into the same cage with 3 infected-hACE2 mice. For respiratory droplets, SARS-CoV-2 antibodies from 3 of 10 naive hACE2 mice showed seropositivity 14 days after introduction into the same cage with 3 infected-hACE2 mice, separated by grids. In addition, hACE2 mice cannot be experimentally infected via aerosol inoculation until continued up to 25 minutes with high viral concentrations.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Aerosols , Anal Canal/virology , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Chlorocebus aethiops , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Pharynx/virology , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Respiratory System/virology , Risk , Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms , Time Factors , Vero Cells , Viral Load , Weight Loss
6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3910, 2020 08 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-697036

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, a ß-coronavirus, has rapidly spread across the world, highlighting its high transmissibility, but the underlying morphogenesis and pathogenesis remain poorly understood. Here, we characterize the replication dynamics, cell tropism and morphogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 in organotypic human airway epithelial (HAE) cultures. SARS-CoV-2 replicates efficiently and infects both ciliated and secretory cells in HAE cultures. In comparison, HCoV-NL63 replicates to lower titers and is only detected in ciliated cells. SARS-CoV-2 shows a similar morphogenetic process as other coronaviruses but causes plaque-like cytopathic effects in HAE cultures. Cell fusion, apoptosis, destruction of epithelium integrity, cilium shrinking and beaded changes are observed in the plaque regions. Taken together, our results provide important insights into SARS-CoV-2 cell tropism, replication and morphogenesis.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Epithelial Cells/virology , Morphogenesis/physiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Respiratory System/virology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Cell Line , Cells, Cultured , Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral , Epithelial Cells/pathology , Humans , Pandemics , Respiratory System/pathology , Tropism , Virus Replication
7.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 39(9): e261-e262, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-692346

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak has a growing impact on global health; vertical transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection is still controversial. In this article, we describe a case of vertical transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in a newborn with respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Adult , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Gastrointestinal Tract/virology , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Pregnancy , Respiratory System/virology
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(30): e21320, 2020 Jul 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-682685

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Assessing the effectiveness and safety of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for symptoms of upper respiratory tract of coronavirus disease 2019 is the main purpose of this systematic review protocol. METHODS: The following electronic databases will be searched from inception to Sep 2020: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, TCM, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, Chinese Scientific Journal Database (VIP database), and Wan-Fang Database. Search dates: from inception dates to June 2020. Language: English. Publication period: from inception dates to June 2020. The primary outcome is the time and rate of appearance of main symptoms (including coughing, pharyngalgia, and nasal obstruction). The secondary outcome is the length of hospital stay. Two independent reviewers will conduct the study selection, data extraction and assessment. RevMan V.5.3 will be used for the assessment of risk of bias and data synthesis. RESULTS: The results will provide a high-quality synthesis of current evidence for researchers in this subject area. CONCLUSION: The conclusion of our study will provide an evidence to judge whether TCM is effective and safe for the patients with symptoms of upper respiratory tract of coronavirus disease 2019. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This protocol will not evaluate individual patient information or affect patient rights and therefore does not require ethical approval. Results from this review will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals and conference reports. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020187422.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Research Design , Respiratory System/virology , Respiratory Tract Infections/pathology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Treatment Outcome
10.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3496, 2020 07 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-640239

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, a coronavirus that emerged in late 2019, has spread rapidly worldwide, and information about the modes of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 among humans is critical to apply appropriate infection control measures and to slow its spread. Here we show that SARS-CoV-2 is transmitted efficiently via direct contact and via the air (via respiratory droplets and/or aerosols) between ferrets, 1 to 3 days and 3 to 7 days after exposure respectively. The pattern of virus shedding in the direct contact and indirect recipient ferrets is similar to that of the inoculated ferrets and infectious virus is isolated from all positive animals, showing that ferrets are productively infected via either route. This study provides experimental evidence of robust transmission of SARS-CoV-2 via the air, supporting the implementation of community-level social distancing measures currently applied in many countries in the world and informing decisions on infection control measures in healthcare settings.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Disease Models, Animal , Ferrets , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Pandemics , Rectum/virology , Respiratory System/virology , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Virus Shedding
11.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 39(9): e249-e256, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-630302

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Children with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are more likely to have mild or no symptoms compared with adults and may represent important vectors for transmitting the virus. Little is known about the duration of respiratory and gastrointestinal viral shedding in children with COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: To determine the average shedding times of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) via the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts in children. METHODS: We performed a systematic search of Ovid MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane CENTRAL databases for studies reporting real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rt-PCR) results in children with COVID-19, then extracted and synthesized data on duration of viral shedding from symptom onset in respiratory and gastrointestinal samples. RESULTS: Based on data compiled from 69 pediatric cases, the duration of viral shedding through the respiratory tract is up to 24 days from symptom onset with a mean of 11.1 ± 5.8 days. Of the children who underwent testing with stool PCR, rectal swab or anal swab, 86% returned a positive result. The mean duration of viral shedding via the gastrointestinal tract was 23.6 ± 8.8 days from symptom onset. In 89% of cases, viral shedding via the gastrointestinal tract persisted after nasopharyngeal or throat swabs became negative, for as long as 4 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to systematically review the duration of respiratory and gastrointestinal viral shedding of SARS-CoV-2 in pediatric patients. These findings may have important implications for infection control strategies during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Gastrointestinal Tract/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Respiratory System/virology , Adolescent , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Databases, Factual , Feces/virology , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Nasopharynx/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , RNA, Viral/analysis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Virus Shedding
12.
Cell ; 182(4): 812-827.e19, 2020 08 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-628613

ABSTRACT

A SARS-CoV-2 variant carrying the Spike protein amino acid change D614G has become the most prevalent form in the global pandemic. Dynamic tracking of variant frequencies revealed a recurrent pattern of G614 increase at multiple geographic levels: national, regional, and municipal. The shift occurred even in local epidemics where the original D614 form was well established prior to introduction of the G614 variant. The consistency of this pattern was highly statistically significant, suggesting that the G614 variant may have a fitness advantage. We found that the G614 variant grows to a higher titer as pseudotyped virions. In infected individuals, G614 is associated with lower RT-PCR cycle thresholds, suggestive of higher upper respiratory tract viral loads, but not with increased disease severity. These findings illuminate changes important for a mechanistic understanding of the virus and support continuing surveillance of Spike mutations to aid with development of immunological interventions.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Epidemiological Monitoring , Genetic Fitness , Genetic Variation , Geographic Information Systems , Hospitalization , Humans , Pandemics , Phylogeny , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Respiratory System/virology , Severity of Illness Index , Viral Load
13.
Virol J ; 17(1): 86, 2020 06 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-618211

ABSTRACT

The need for timely establishment of a complete diagnostic protocol of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is demanded worldwide. We selected 15 positive novel coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) patients with mild or no symptom. Initially, fecal samples were negative in the 67% (10/15) of the cases, while 33% (5/10) of the cases were positive. After serial virus RNA testing, 73% (11/15) of the cases resulted positive to fecal specimens. In particular, 15 days after the first positive respiratory specimens test, 6 fecal specimens became positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA, while 13 respiratory test returned negative result. In conclusion, qRT-PCR assays of fecal specimens, is an important step to control infection, suggesting that samples remained positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA longer time then respiratory tract samples. Our results enhance the recent knowledge on this emerging infectious disease and offer suggestions for a more complete diagnostic strategy.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Feces/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Genes, Viral/genetics , Humans , Male , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Respiratory System/virology , Time Factors , Virus Shedding
14.
Nat Biotechnol ; 38(8): 970-979, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-616612

ABSTRACT

To investigate the immune response and mechanisms associated with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), we performed single-cell RNA sequencing on nasopharyngeal and bronchial samples from 19 clinically well-characterized patients with moderate or critical disease and from five healthy controls. We identified airway epithelial cell types and states vulnerable to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. In patients with COVID-19, epithelial cells showed an average three-fold increase in expression of the SARS-CoV-2 entry receptor ACE2, which correlated with interferon signals by immune cells. Compared to moderate cases, critical cases exhibited stronger interactions between epithelial and immune cells, as indicated by ligand-receptor expression profiles, and activated immune cells, including inflammatory macrophages expressing CCL2, CCL3, CCL20, CXCL1, CXCL3, CXCL10, IL8, IL1B and TNF. The transcriptional differences in critical cases compared to moderate cases likely contribute to clinical observations of heightened inflammatory tissue damage, lung injury and respiratory failure. Our data suggest that pharmacologic inhibition of the CCR1 and/or CCR5 pathways might suppress immune hyperactivation in critical COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Respiratory System/pathology , Single-Cell Analysis , Transcriptome , Adult , Aged , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/virology , Cell Communication , Cell Differentiation , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Epithelial Cells/pathology , Epithelial Cells/virology , Female , Humans , Immune System/pathology , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/pathology , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Respiratory System/immunology , Respiratory System/virology , Severity of Illness Index
15.
J Infect Dis ; 222(3): 367-371, 2020 07 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-436918

ABSTRACT

The viral RNA shedding time (VST) for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 has not been well characterized. Clinical data were collected and compared between patients with short and long VSTs (in the lower and upper quartiles, respectively). The probability of recurrent positive reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction results decreased sharply to 4.8% after 3 consecutive negative results. A series of ≥3 consecutive negative results was suitable as a criterion for the end of viral RNA shedding. The VST for shedding from the respiratory tract was significantly shorter in patients with normal B-cell counts on admission than in those with decreased B-cell counts (median [interquartile range], 11 [9-13] vs 16 [12-20] days, respectively; P = .001).


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes/physiology , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Respiratory System/virology , Virus Shedding , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Case-Control Studies , China , Cytokines/metabolism , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Proportional Hazards Models , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Time Factors
16.
Cell ; 182(2): 429-446.e14, 2020 07 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-381993

ABSTRACT

The mode of acquisition and causes for the variable clinical spectrum of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remain unknown. We utilized a reverse genetics system to generate a GFP reporter virus to explore severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pathogenesis and a luciferase reporter virus to demonstrate sera collected from SARS and COVID-19 patients exhibited limited cross-CoV neutralization. High-sensitivity RNA in situ mapping revealed the highest angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) expression in the nose with decreasing expression throughout the lower respiratory tract, paralleled by a striking gradient of SARS-CoV-2 infection in proximal (high) versus distal (low) pulmonary epithelial cultures. COVID-19 autopsied lung studies identified focal disease and, congruent with culture data, SARS-CoV-2-infected ciliated and type 2 pneumocyte cells in airway and alveolar regions, respectively. These findings highlight the nasal susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 with likely subsequent aspiration-mediated virus seeding to the lung in SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis. These reagents provide a foundation for investigations into virus-host interactions in protective immunity, host susceptibility, and virus pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Respiratory System/virology , Reverse Genetics/methods , Aged , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Cell Line , Cells, Cultured , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Cystic Fibrosis/pathology , DNA, Recombinant , Female , Furin/metabolism , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Nasal Mucosa/metabolism , Nasal Mucosa/pathology , Nasal Mucosa/virology , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Respiratory System/pathology , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Vero Cells , Virulence , Virus Replication
17.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 71(2): 150-152, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-379176

ABSTRACT

The aim of the study was to investigate differences in viral shedding in respiratory and fecal samples from children with novel coronavirus disease 19. We searched PubMed, SCOPUS, Embase, and Web of Science databases to identify pediatric studies comparing the pattern of fecal and respiratory shedding of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA. Summary estimates were calculated using random-effects models. Four studies reporting data from 36 children were included. A higher proportion of children had viral shedding in stools after 14 days of symptoms onset compared to respiratory samples (risk ratio = 3.2, 95% confidence interval 1.2-8.9, I2 = 51%). Viral RNA shedding was longer in fecal samples with a mean difference of approximately 9 days (mean difference = 8.6, 95% confidence interval 1.7-15.4, I2 = 77%) compared with respiratory samples. SARS-CoV-2 shedding seems to be present in feces for a longer time than in the respiratory tract of children. Although fecal SARS-CoV-2 presence in feces do not confirm its transmissibility, the high and fast spread of the novel coronavirus disease 19 worldwide indicate other transmission routes are also plausible.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Feces/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , RNA, Viral , Virus Shedding , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Female , Gastrointestinal Tract/virology , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Respiratory System/virology
18.
J Infect Dis ; 222(4): 551-555, 2020 07 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-343436

ABSTRACT

We simulated 3 transmission modes, including close-contact, respiratory droplets and aerosol routes, in the laboratory. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can be highly transmitted among naive human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) mice via close contact because 7 of 13 naive hACE2 mice were SARS-CoV-2 antibody seropositive 14 days after being introduced into the same cage with 3 infected-hACE2 mice. For respiratory droplets, SARS-CoV-2 antibodies from 3 of 10 naive hACE2 mice showed seropositivity 14 days after introduction into the same cage with 3 infected-hACE2 mice, separated by grids. In addition, hACE2 mice cannot be experimentally infected via aerosol inoculation until continued up to 25 minutes with high viral concentrations.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Aerosols , Anal Canal/virology , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Chlorocebus aethiops , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Pharynx/virology , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Respiratory System/virology , Risk , Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms , Time Factors , Vero Cells , Viral Load , Weight Loss
19.
Immunity ; 52(6): 905-909, 2020 06 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-324218

ABSTRACT

Respiratory viruses affect us throughout our lives, from infancy to old age, causing illnesses ranging from a common cold to severe pneumonia. They belong to several virus families, and although many features of infection with these diverse viruses are shared, some have unique characteristics. Here we explain what happens when we are infected by respiratory viruses, including SARS-CoV-2, which causes COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Respiratory System/physiopathology , Adaptive Immunity , Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Respiratory System/immunology , Respiratory System/virology , Virus Physiological Phenomena , Viruses/classification
20.
J Clin Virol ; 129: 104439, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-306092

ABSTRACT

Real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rRTPCR) has been the main method for diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic. De-identified results from upper and lower respiratory samples submitted to a reference laboratory demonstrated a positivity rate of 14.9 % (4428 of 29,713 samples tested). Distribution of results by birth year cohort and specimen type suggested general consistency in mean, median and peak values but higher positivity rates in individuals born from 1964 to 1974. Female patients had a significantly lower positivity rate (P < 0.0001), although similar load mean and median values, compared to males. Overall, 15.3 % (676 of 4428 positive results) of positive results had viral loads greater than 8 log10 copies/mL, with occasional samples exceeding 10 log10 copies/mL. These results support quantitative assessment of SARS-CoV-2 viral load in patient testing and efforts to control viral transmission.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Respiratory System/virology , Viral Load , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Sex Factors , Young Adult
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL