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1.
Front Public Health ; 9: 740800, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775894

ABSTRACT

Background: Exposure to ambient particulate matter pollution (APMP) is a global health issue that directly affects the human respiratory system. Thus, we estimated the spatiotemporal trends in the burden of APMP-related respiratory diseases from 1990 to 2019. Methods: Based on the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019, data on the burden of APMP-related respiratory diseases were analyzed by age, sex, cause, and location. Joinpoint regression analysis was used to analyze the temporal trends in the burden of different respiratory diseases over the 30 years. Results: Globally, in 2019, APMP contributed the most to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), with 695.1 thousand deaths and 15.4 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs); however, the corresponding age-standardized death and DALY rates declined from 1990 to 2019. Similarly, although age-standardized death and DALY rates since 1990 decreased by 24% and 40%, respectively, lower respiratory infections (LRIs) still had the second highest number of deaths and DALYs attributable to APMP. This was followed by tracheal, bronchus, and lung (TBL) cancer, which showed increased age-standardized death and DALY rates during the past 30 years and reached 3.78 deaths per 100,000 persons and 84.22 DALYs per 100,000 persons in 2019. Among children aged < 5 years, LRIs had a huge burden attributable to APMP, whereas for older people, COPD was the leading cause of death and DALYs attributable to APMP. The APMP-related burdens of LRIs and COPD were relatively higher among countries with low and low-middle socio-demographic index (SDI), while countries with high-middle SDI showed the highest burden of TBL cancer attributable to APMP. Conclusions: APMP contributed substantially to the global burden of respiratory diseases, posing a significant threat to human health. Effective actions aimed at air pollution can potentially avoid an increase in the PM2.5-associated disease burden, especially in highly polluted areas.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution , Respiratory Tract Diseases , Adult , Aged , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Child , Child, Preschool , Global Burden of Disease , Humans , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Quality-Adjusted Life Years , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology
2.
BMC Anesthesiol ; 22(1): 46, 2022 02 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690973

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are limited data to detail the perioperative anesthetic management and the incidence of postoperative respiratory complications among patients requiring an anesthetic procedure while being SARS-CoV-2 positive or suspected. METHODS: An observational multicenter cohort study was performed including consecutive patients who were SARS-CoV-2 confirmed or suspected and who underwent scheduled and emergency anesthesia between March 17 and May 26, 2020. RESULTS: A total of 187 patients underwent anesthesia with SARS-CoV-2 confirmed or suspected, with ultimately 135 (72.2%) patients positive and 52 (27.8%) negative. The median SOFA score was 2 [0; 5], and the median ARISCAT score was 49 [36; 67]. The major respiratory complications rate was 48.7% (n = 91) with 40.4% (n = 21) and 51.9% (n = 70) in the SARS-CoV-2-negative and -positive groups, respectively (p = 0.21). Among both positive and negative groups, patients with a high ARISCAT risk score (> 44) had a higher risk of presenting major respiratory complications (p < 0.01 and p = 0.1, respectively). DISCUSSION: When comparing SARS-COV-2-positive and -negative patients, no significant difference was found regarding the rate of postoperative complications, while baseline characteristics strongly impact these outcomes. This finding suggests that patients should be scheduled for anesthetic procedures based on their overall risk of postoperative complication, and not just based on their SARS-CoV-2 status.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia , COVID-19/complications , Aged , Anesthesia/adverse effects , Cohort Studies , Elective Surgical Procedures , Emergency Medical Services , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Perioperative Care , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Registries , Respiratory Tract Diseases/complications , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome
3.
PLoS Med ; 19(2): e1003904, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686090

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Deaths in the first year of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in England and Wales were unevenly distributed socioeconomically and geographically. However, the full scale of inequalities may have been underestimated to date, as most measures of excess mortality do not adequately account for varying age profiles of deaths between social groups. We measured years of life lost (YLL) attributable to the pandemic, directly or indirectly, comparing mortality across geographic and socioeconomic groups. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used national mortality registers in England and Wales, from 27 December 2014 until 25 December 2020, covering 3,265,937 deaths. YLLs (main outcome) were calculated using 2019 single year sex-specific life tables for England and Wales. Interrupted time-series analyses, with panel time-series models, were used to estimate expected YLL by sex, geographical region, and deprivation quintile between 7 March 2020 and 25 December 2020 by cause: direct deaths (COVID-19 and other respiratory diseases), cardiovascular disease and diabetes, cancer, and other indirect deaths (all other causes). Excess YLL during the pandemic period were calculated by subtracting observed from expected values. Additional analyses focused on excess deaths for region and deprivation strata, by age-group. Between 7 March 2020 and 25 December 2020, there were an estimated 763,550 (95% CI: 696,826 to 830,273) excess YLL in England and Wales, equivalent to a 15% (95% CI: 14 to 16) increase in YLL compared to the equivalent time period in 2019. There was a strong deprivation gradient in all-cause excess YLL, with rates per 100,000 population ranging from 916 (95% CI: 820 to 1,012) for the least deprived quintile to 1,645 (95% CI: 1,472 to 1,819) for the most deprived. The differences in excess YLL between deprivation quintiles were greatest in younger age groups; for all-cause deaths, a mean of 9.1 years per death (95% CI: 8.2 to 10.0) were lost in the least deprived quintile, compared to 10.8 (95% CI: 10.0 to 11.6) in the most deprived; for COVID-19 and other respiratory deaths, a mean of 8.9 years per death (95% CI: 8.7 to 9.1) were lost in the least deprived quintile, compared to 11.2 (95% CI: 11.0 to 11.5) in the most deprived. For all-cause mortality, estimated deaths in the most deprived compared to the most affluent areas were much higher in younger age groups, but similar for those aged 85 or over. There was marked variability in both all-cause and direct excess YLL by region, with the highest rates in the North West. Limitations include the quasi-experimental nature of the research design and the requirement for accurate and timely recording. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we observed strong socioeconomic and geographical health inequalities in YLL, during the first calendar year of the COVID-19 pandemic. These were in line with long-standing existing inequalities in England and Wales, with the most deprived areas reporting the largest numbers in potential YLL.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Adult , Aged , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Cause of Death , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , England/epidemiology , Female , Health Status Disparities , Humans , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , Life Expectancy , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/mortality , Residence Characteristics , Respiratory Tract Diseases/mortality , Socioeconomic Factors , Wales/epidemiology
4.
Arch. med ; 21(1): 266-278, 2021/01/03.
Article in Spanish | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1677826

ABSTRACT

La pandemia COVID-19 ha causado grandes estragos en los sistemas de salud a nivel mundial. Desde la fisioterapia respiratoria, se propende por realizar intervenciones costo-efectivas basadas en la mejor evidencia disponible, para minimizar los efectos funcionales en dichos pacientes con COVID-19. Por ello, se revisó la literatura para cimentar una revisión teórica desde la funcionalidad en lo relacionado a la fisioterapia respiratoria frente a la pandemia. Los resultados incluyeron publicaciones y guías de manejo en español, inglés y portugués acerca de las acciones de los diferentes países frente a los compromisos funcionales que repercuten en la calidad de vida de estos pacientes. Se concluyó que la fisioterapia respiratoria aplica protocolos de intervención efectos en el COVID-19 para la mitigación de complicaciones físico y funcionales que mejoran la calidad de vida de los pacientes..Au


The COVID-19 pandemic has wreaked great havoc on health systems globally. From respiratory physiotherapy, it tends to carry out cost-effective interventions based on the best available evidence, to minimize the functional effects in said patients with COVID-19. For this reason, the literature was reviewed to establish a theoretical review from the functionality in relation to respiratory physiotherapy in the face of the pandemic. The results included publications and management guides in Spanish, English and Portuguese about the actions of the different countries in the face of functional compromises that affect the quality of life of these patients. It was concluded that respiratory physiotherapy applies intervention protocols effects in COVID-19 for the mitigation of physical and functional complications that improve the quality of life of patients..Au


Subject(s)
Humans , Respiratory Tract Diseases , Coronavirus Infections , Physical Therapy Specialty
5.
Biomolecules ; 12(2)2022 01 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1667042

ABSTRACT

The complement system (CS) is part of the human immune system, consisting of more than 30 proteins that play a vital role in the protection against various pathogens and diseases, including viral diseases. Activated via three pathways, the classical pathway (CP), the lectin pathway (LP), and the alternative pathway (AP), the complement system leads to the formation of a membrane attack complex (MAC) that disrupts the membrane of target cells, leading to cell lysis and death. Due to the increasing number of reports on its role in viral diseases, which may have implications for research on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), this review aims to highlight significant progress in understanding and defining the role of the complement system in four groups of diseases of viral etiology: (1) respiratory diseases; (2) acute liver failure (ALF); (3) disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC); and (4) vector-borne diseases (VBDs). Some of these diseases already present a serious global health problem, while others are a matter of concern and require the collaboration of relevant national services and scientists with the World Health Organization (WHO) to avoid their spread.


Subject(s)
Complement System Proteins , Virus Diseases/etiology , Animals , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/immunology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/virology , Humans , Liver Failure, Acute/immunology , Liver Failure, Acute/virology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/immunology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/virology , Vector Borne Diseases/immunology , Vector Borne Diseases/virology
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662662

ABSTRACT

Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) is a transcriptional activator of the cell protection gene that binds to the antioxidant response element (ARE). Therefore, Nrf2 protects cells and tissues from oxidative stress. Normally, Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) inhibits the activation of Nrf2 by binding to Nrf2 and contributes to Nrf2 break down by ubiquitin proteasomes. In moderate oxidative stress, Keap1 is inhibited, allowing Nrf2 to be translocated to the nucleus, which acts as an antioxidant. However, under unusually severe oxidative stress, the Keap1-Nrf2 mechanism becomes disrupted and results in cell and tissue damage. Oxide-containing atmospheric environment generally contributes to the development of respiratory diseases, possibly leading to the failure of the Keap1-Nrf2 pathway. Until now, several studies have identified changes in Keap1-Nrf2 signaling in models of respiratory diseases, such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)/acute lung injury (ALI), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), and asthma. These studies have confirmed that several Nrf2 activators can alleviate symptoms of respiratory diseases. Thus, this review describes how the expression of Keap1-Nrf2 functions in different respiratory diseases and explains the protective effects of reversing this expression.


Subject(s)
NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Respiratory Tract Diseases/metabolism , Animals , Antioxidants/metabolism , Humans , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Signal Transduction/physiology
8.
Ital J Pediatr ; 47(1): 232, 2021 Dec 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1630738

ABSTRACT

In this article, we describe the advances in the field of pediatrics that have been published in the Italian Journal of Pediatrics in 2020. We report progresses in understanding allergy, autoinflammatory disorders, critical care, endocrinology, genetics, infectious diseases, microbiota, neonatology, neurology, nutrition, orthopedics, respiratory tract illnesses, rheumatology in childhood.


Subject(s)
Pediatrics/trends , COVID-19 , Child Nutrition Sciences , Critical Care , Endocrinology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Infectious Disease Medicine , Neonatology , Neurology , Orthopedics , Rare Diseases , Respiratory Tract Diseases , Rheumatology
9.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 465, 2022 01 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1627057

ABSTRACT

We conducted retrospective cohort studies of patients with relapsing polychondritis (RP) twice in 2009 and 2019, using a physician questionnaire. We compared the patients' clinical statuses between the years. Age and gender were comparable between the two surveys. Mean disease duration was longer in 2019 survey (8.3 years) than that in 2009 survey (4.8 years, P < 0.001). The mortality rate declined in 2019 survey compared with those in 2009 survey (from 9.2 to 1.6%, P < 0.001). Incidence of airway involvement decreased in 2019 survey compared with that in 2009 survey (from 49 to 37%, P = 0.012). In 2019 survey, we found more frequent use of biological agents and immunosuppressants in patients with airway involvement. When we focused on RP patients with airway involvement, physicians in 2019 chose methotrexate and calcineurin inhibitors preferentially, compared with azathioprine and cyclophosphamide. Of note is that increased use of infliximab was observed in RP patients with airway involvement, but not in those without. Reduction of airway involvement and mortality in patients with RP was observed in 2019 survey. The reduction may associate with the frequent use of biologics including infliximab in RP patients with airway involvement.


Subject(s)
Polychondritis, Relapsing/complications , Polychondritis, Relapsing/drug therapy , Respiratory Tract Diseases/etiology , Adult , Azathioprine/therapeutic use , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cyclophosphamide/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Infliximab/therapeutic use , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Methotrexate/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Polychondritis, Relapsing/epidemiology , Polychondritis, Relapsing/mortality , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/mortality , Retrospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires
10.
Nat Med ; 28(1): 193-200, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585817

ABSTRACT

Identifying which children and young people (CYP) are most vulnerable to serious infection due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is important to guide protective interventions. To address this question, we used data for all hospitalizations in England among 0-17 year olds from 1 February 2019 to 31 January 2021. We examined how sociodemographic factors and comorbidities might be risk factors for pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) admission among hospitalizations due to the following causes: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and pediatric inflammatory multi-system syndrome temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 (PIMS-TS) in the first pandemic year (2020-2021); hospitalizations due to all other non-traumatic causes in 2020-2021; hospitalizations due to all non-traumatic causes in 2019-2020; and hospitalizations due to influenza in 2019-2020. Risk of PICU admission and death from COVID-19 or PIMS-TS in CYP was very low. We identified 6,338 hospitalizations with COVID-19, of which 259 were admitted to a PICU and eight CYP died. We identified 712 hospitalizations with PIMS-TS, of which 312 were admitted to a PICU and fewer than five CYP died. Hospitalizations with COVID-19 and PIMS-TS were more common among males, older CYP, those from socioeconomically deprived neighborhoods and those who were of non-White ethnicity (Black, Asian, Mixed or Other). The odds of PICU admission were increased in CYP younger than 1 month old and decreased among 15-17 year olds compared to 1-4 year olds with COVID-19; increased in older CYP and females with PIMS-TS; and increased for Black compared to White ethnicity in patients with COVID-19 and PIMS-TS. Odds of PICU admission in COVID-19 were increased for CYP with comorbidities and highest for CYP with multiple medical problems. Increases in odds of PICU admission associated with different comorbidities in COVID-19 showed a similar pattern to other causes of hospitalization examined and, thus, likely reflect background vulnerabilities. These findings identify distinct risk factors associated with PICU admission among CYP with COVID-19 or PIMS-TS that might aid treatment and prevention strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric/statistics & numerical data , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Adolescent , Age Factors , /statistics & numerical data , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , England/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Odds Ratio , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , /statistics & numerical data
11.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 12 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580419

ABSTRACT

A microarray-based assay to detect IgG and IgM antibodies against betacoronaviruses (SARS-CoV-2, SARS, MERS, OC43, and HKU1), other respiratory viruses and type I interferons (IFN-Is) was developed. This multiplex assay was applied to track antibody cross-reactivity due to previous contact with similar viruses and to identify antibodies against IFN-Is as the markers for severe COVID-19. In total, 278 serum samples from convalescent plasma donors, COVID-19 patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) and patients who recovered from mild/moderate COVID-19, vaccine recipients, prepandemic and pandemic patients with autoimmune endocrine disorders, and a heterogeneous prepandemic cohort including healthy individuals and chronically ill patients were analyzed. The anti-SARS-CoV-2 microarray results agreed well with the ELISA results. Regarding ICU patients, autoantibodies against IFN-Is were detected in 10.5% of samples, and 10.5% of samples were found to simultaneously contain IgM antibodies against more than two different viruses. Cross-reactivity between IgG against the SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid and IgG against the OC43 and HKU1 spike proteins was observed, resulting in positive signals for the SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid in prepandemic samples from patients with autoimmune endocrine disorders. The presence of IgG against the SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid in the absence of IgG against the SARS-CoV-2 spike RBD should be interpreted with caution.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Interferon Type I/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Viruses/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Autoantibodies/blood , Autoantibodies/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Cross Reactions , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Protein Array Analysis , Respiratory Tract Diseases/immunology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/virology , Viruses/classification
12.
J Trop Pediatr ; 67(6)2021 Dec 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550588

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare the clinical and laboratory findings in SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) with those of other respiratory viruses in critically ill children. METHODS: It is a single center retrospective descriptive study conducted in a 32-bed pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Our study was performed in Ankara City Hospital, Ankara, Turkey, between 1 March 2020, and 1 March 2021. Demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients were collected and we recorded the antibiotic use, antiviral treatments, respiratory and extracorporeal supports, PICU stay and survival rates. RESULTS: A total of 202 pediatric patients who tested positive for either COVID-19 or for another respiratory virus panel (RVP) were included in the study. Seventy-two patients were COVID-19 positive. The median age of COVID-19 positive patients and RVP positive patients was 97 and 17 months, respectively. Hypoxia was much more common in patients with RVP than in COVID-19 patients. Low oxygen saturation in arterial blood (SaO2), increased oxygen saturation index (OSI) and fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) needs were more significant in RVP patients than in COVID-19 patients. Respiratory support therapies, such as high-flow nasal cannula and non-invasive ventilation (NIV), were used more frequently in RVP patients than in COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSION: It is important to distinguish between COVID-19 and RVP cases in order to prioritize intensive care needs in these patients. In addition, non-Covid diseases should not be left aside in the pandemic and appropriate care should be provided to them.


COVID-19 originated in Wuhan, China, at the end of 2019 and has since spread around the world. During the key period of the pandemic from 1 March 2020, to 1 March 2021, the pediatric intensive care unit registered a total of 72 patients testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 and 130 patients positive for RVP on the respiratory virus panel. In this single-center study, we compared the clinical differences and course of the disease in pediatric intensive care patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 with patients diagnosed with respiratory tract viruses during the COVID-19 outbreak. Unlike previous studies, this is the first to compare the clinical manifestations of COVID-19 with other respiratory pathogens requiring intensive care. Respiratory support therapy, such as high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) and NIV, was prescribed more frequently in RVP patients than in COVID-19 patients. In our study, low oxygen saturation in the arterial blood (SaO2), increased OSI and increased fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) requirements were more significant in RVP patients than in COVID-19 patients. In parallel, the need for mechanical ventilation was higher in RVP patients than in COVID-19 patients. Therefore, we believe that RVP patients should be followed more carefully during this pandemic period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Tract Diseases/virology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child , Child, Preschool , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Infant , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Male , Pandemics , Respiratory Tract Diseases/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Turkey , Viruses/classification
14.
Ital J Pediatr ; 47(1): 220, 2021 Nov 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505868

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) affects all components of the respiratory system, including the neuromuscular breathing apparatus, conducting and respiratory airways, pulmonary vascular endothelium, and pulmonary blood flow. In contrast to other respiratory viruses, children have less severe symptoms when infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). A minority of children experience a post-infectious inflammatory syndrome, the pathology and long-term outcomes of which are poorly understood. The reason for the lower burden of symptomatic disease in children is not yet clear, but several pathophysiological characteristics are postulated. The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has brought distinct challenges to the care of children globally. Proper recommendations have been proposed for a range of non-asthmatic respiratory disorders in children, including primary ciliary dyskinesia and cystic fibrosis. These recommendations involve the continuation of the treatment during this period and ways to maintain stability. School closures, loss of follow-up visit attendance, and loss of other protective systems for children are the indirect outcomes of measures to mitigate the COVID-19 pandemic. Moreover, COVID-19 has reshaped the delivery of respiratory care in children, with non-urgent and elective procedures being postponed, and distancing imperatives have led to rapid scaling of telemedicine. The pandemic has seen an unprecedented reorientation in clinical trial research towards COVID-19 and a disruption in other trials worldwide, which will have long-lasting effects on medical science. In this narrative review, we sought to outline the most recent findings on the direct and indirect effects of SARS-CoV-2 pandemic on pediatric respiratory chronic diseases other than asthma, by critically revising the most recent literature on the subject.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Respiratory Tract Diseases/therapy , Adolescent , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Child , Child, Preschool , Chronic Disease , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Respiratory Tract Diseases/complications
15.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 148, 2020 Feb 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453043

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The influenza virus spreads rapidly around the world in seasonal epidemics, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. Influenza-related incidence data are limited in many countries in Africa despite established sentinel surveillance. This study aimed to address the information gap by estimating the burden and seasonality of medically attended influenza like illness in Ethiopia. METHOD: Influenza sentinel surveillance data collected from 3 influenza like illness (ILI) and 5 Severe Acute Respiratory Illness (SARI) sites from 2012 to 2017 was used for analysis. Descriptive statistics were applied for simple analysis. The proportion of medically attended influenza positive cases and incidence rate of ILI was determined using total admitted patients and catchment area population. Seasonality was estimated based on weekly trend of ILI and predicted threshold was done by applying the "Moving Epidemic Method (MEM)". RESULT: A total of 5715 medically attended influenza suspected patients who fulfills ILI and SARI case definition (77% ILI and 23% SARI) was enrolled. Laboratory confirmed influenza virus (influenza positive case) among ILI and SARI suspected case was 25% (1130/4426) and 3% (36/1289). Of which, 65% were influenza type A. The predominantly circulating influenza subtype were seasonal influenza A(H3N2) (n = 455, 60%) and Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 (n = 293, 38.81%). The estimated mean annual influenza positive case proportion and ILI incidence rate was 160.04 and 52.48 per 100,000 population. The Incidence rate of ILI was higher in the age group of 15-44 years of age ['Incidence rate (R) = 254.6 per 100,000 population', 95% CI; 173.65, 335.55] and 5-14 years of age [R = 49.5, CI 95%; 31.47, 130.43]. The seasonality of influenza has two peak seasons; in a period from October-December and from April-June. CONCLUSION: Significant morbidity of influenza like illness was observed with two peak seasons of the year and seasonal influenza A (H3N2) remains the predominantly circulating influenza subtype. Further study need to be considered to identify potential risks and improving the surveillance system to continue early detection and monitoring of circulating influenza virus in the country has paramount importance.


Subject(s)
Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/virology , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/isolation & purification , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype/isolation & purification , Laboratories , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/etiology , Seasons , Sentinel Surveillance , Young Adult
16.
Virol J ; 18(1): 202, 2021 10 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463255

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The effect of SARS-CoV-2 on existing respiratory pathogens in circulation remains uncertain. This study aimed to assess the impact of SARS-CoV-2 on the prevalence of respiratory pathogens among hospitalized children. METHODS: This study enrolled hospitalized children with acute respiratory infections in Shenzhen Children's Hospital from September to December 2019 (before the COVID-19 epidemic) and those from September to December 2020 (during the COVID-19 epidemic). Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected, and respiratory pathogens were detected using multiplex PCR. The absolute case number and detection rates of 11 pathogens were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 5696 children with respiratory tract infection received multiplex PCR examination for respiratory pathogens: 2298 from September to December 2019 and 3398 from September to December 2020. At least one pathogen was detected in 1850 (80.5%) patients in 2019, and in 2380 (70.0%) patients in 2020; the detection rate in 2020 was significantly lower than that in 2019.The Influenza A (InfA) detection rate was 5.6% in 2019, but 0% in 2020. The detection rates of Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Human adenovirus, and Human rhinovirus also decreased from 20% (460), 8.9% (206), and 41.8% (961) in 2019 to 1.0% (37), 2.1% (77), and 25.6% (873) in 2020, respectively. In contrast, the detection rates of Human respiratory syncytial virus, Human parainfluenza virus, and Human metapneumovirus increased from 6.6% (153), 9.9% (229), and 0.5% (12) in 2019 to 25.6% (873), 15.5% (530), and 7.2% (247) in 2020, respectively (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Successful containment of seasonal influenza as a result of COVID-19 control measures will ensure we are better equipped to deal with future outbreaks of both influenza and COVID-19.Caused by virus competition, the detection rates of Human respiratory syncytial virus, Human parainfluenza virus, and Human metapneumovirus increased in Shenzhen,that reminds us we need to take further monitoring and preventive measures in the next epidemic season.


Subject(s)
Antibiosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adenoviruses, Human/genetics , Adenoviruses, Human/isolation & purification , Adolescent , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Hospitalized , Child, Preschool , China , Enterovirus/genetics , Enterovirus/isolation & purification , Female , Humans , Infant , Influenza A virus/genetics , Influenza A virus/isolation & purification , Male , Metapneumovirus/genetics , Metapneumovirus/isolation & purification , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/genetics , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/isolation & purification , Nasopharynx/microbiology , Nasopharynx/virology , Prevalence , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses/genetics , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses/isolation & purification , Respiratory Tract Diseases/microbiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/virology , Respirovirus/genetics , Respirovirus/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
17.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 911: 174560, 2021 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1458663

ABSTRACT

The global incidence of respiratory diseases and complications is increasing. Therefore, new methods of treatment, as well as prevention, need to be investigated. A group of compounds that should be considered for use in respiratory diseases is cannabinoids. There are three groups of cannabinoids - plant-derived phytocannabinoids, synthetic cannabinoids, and endogenous endocannabinoids including the enzymes responsible for their synthesis and degradation. All cannabinoids exert their biological effects through either type 1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1) and/or type 2 cannabinoid receptors (CB2). In numerous studies (in vitro and in vivo), cannabinoids and inhibitors of endocannabinoid degradation have shown beneficial anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-cancer, and anti-fibrotic properties. Although in the respiratory system, most of the studies have focused on the positive properties of cannabinoids and inhibitors of endocannabinoid degradation. There are few research reports discussing the negative impact of these compounds. This review summarizes the properties and mechanisms of action of cannabinoids and inhibitors of endocannabinoid degradation in various models of respiratory diseases. A short description of the effects selected cannabinoids have on the human respiratory system and their possible use in the fight against COVID-19 is also presented. Additionally, a brief summary is provided of cannabinoid receptors properties and their expression in the respiratory system and cells of the immune system.


Subject(s)
Cannabinoids/pharmacology , Endocannabinoids/metabolism , Respiratory Tract Diseases/drug therapy , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cannabinoids/administration & dosage , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Humans , Models, Biological , Receptors, Cannabinoid/immunology , Receptors, Cannabinoid/metabolism , Respiratory Tract Diseases/metabolism
18.
Am J Med ; 134(10): 1252-1259.e3, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446365

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to widespread implementation of public health measures, such as stay-at-home orders, social distancing, and masking mandates. In addition to decreasing spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, these measures also impact the transmission of seasonal viral pathogens, which are common triggers of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations. Whether reduced viral prevalence mediates reduction in COPD exacerbation rates is unknown. METHODS: We performed retrospective analysis of data from a large, multicenter health care system to assess admission trends associated with community viral prevalence and with initiation of COVID-19 pandemic control measures. We applied difference-in-differences analysis to compare season-matched weekly frequency of hospital admissions for COPD prior to and after implementation of public health measures for COVID-19. Community viral prevalence was estimated using regional Centers for Disease Control and Prevention test positivity data and correlated to COPD admissions. RESULTS: Data involving 4422 COPD admissions demonstrated a season-matched 53% decline in COPD admissions during the COVID-19 pandemic, which correlated to community viral burden (r = 0.73; 95% confidence interval, 0.67-0.78) and represented a 36% greater decline over admission frequencies observed in other medical conditions less affected by respiratory viral infections (incidence rate ratio 0.64; 95% confidence interval, 0.57-0.71, P < .001). The post-COVID-19 decline in COPD admissions was most pronounced in patients with fewer comorbidities and without recurrent admissions. CONCLUSION: The implementation of public health measures during the COVID-19 pandemic was associated with decreased COPD admissions. These changes are plausibly explained by reduced prevalence of seasonal respiratory viruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons , Symptom Flare Up
19.
Rev. gaúch. enferm ; 42(spe): e20200162, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1410821

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To identify in the scientific literature the clinical overview of the pediatric population that tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and care recommendations and recommendations among children who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 in the scientific literature. Method: Rapid review based on the guidelines of the Joana Briggs Institute: elaboration of the research question, structured search of the literature in April 2020, in nine databases, selection and critical analysis of the eighteen primary studies (using two instruments to assess methodological quality), elaboration of the synthesis, incorporation of suggestions and dissemination. Result: The most frequent clinical overview was respiratory, gastrointestinal symptoms and fever. The images showed irregular frosted glass opacification. It is recommended to screen the pediatric population and family members who show signs and symptoms and to adopt isolation for more than fourteen days. Conclusion: The clinical overview in pediatric population is varied, not exclusively with respiratory symptoms, and a significant number of asymptomatic patients. The importance of new investigations is highlighted, such as randomized clinical trial or cohort studies, identifying their participation in the transmission of COVID-19.


RESUMEN Objetivo: Identificar en la literatura científica el estado clínico de la población pediátrica que probó positivo para el SARS-CoV-2 y las recomendaciones de atención. Método: Revisión rápida basada en las directrices del Instituto Joana Briggs: elaboración de la pregunta de investigación, búsqueda estructurada de la literatura en abril de 2020, en nueve bases de datos, selección y análisis crítico de los dieciocho estudios primarios (utilizando dos instrumentos para evaluar la calidad metodológica), elaboración de la síntesis, incorporación de sugerencias y difusión. Resultado: El cuadro clínico más frecuente fue respiratorio, síntomas gastrointestinales y fiebre. Las imágenes mostraron opacificación irregular de vidrio esmerilado. Se recomienda evaluar a población pediátrica y familiares que muestran signos y síntomas y adoptar aislamiento durante más de catorce días. Conclusiones: El cuadro clínico en la población pediátrica es variado, no exclusivamente con síntomas respiratorios, y un número importante de pacientes asintomáticos. Se destaca la importancia de nuevas investigaciones, como ensayos clínicos aleatorizados o estudios de cohorte, identificando su participación en la transmisión del COVID-19.


RESUMO Objetivo: Identificar, na literatura científica, o quadro clínico da população pediátrica que testou positivo para SARS-CoV-2 e recomendações de cuidados. Método: Revisão rápida baseada nas diretrizes da Joana Briggs Institute: elaboração da pergunta de investigação, busca estruturada da literatura no mês de abril de 2020, em nove bases de dados, seleção e análise crítica dos dezoito estudos primários (utilizando dois instrumentos para avaliação da qualidade metodológica), elaboração da síntese, incorporação das sugestões e divulgação. Resultado: O quadro clínico mais frequente foi sintomas respiratórios, gastrointestinais e febre. As imagens demonstraram opacificação irregular de vidro fosco. Recomenda-se triagem da população pediátrica e familiares que apresentam sinais e sintomas e adotar isolamento por período superior a quatorze dias. Conclusão: Quadro clínico na população pediátrica é variado, não exclusivamente com sintomas respiratórios, e número significativo de assintomáticos. Destaca-se importância de novas investigações, como ensaios clínicos randomizados ou estudos de coorte, identificando a participação dessas na transmissão da COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Pediatric Nursing , Coronavirus Infections , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/prevention & control , Respiratory Tract Diseases , Fever
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