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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(15)2022 Jul 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957290

ABSTRACT

Despite some preliminary studies of the available herbal medicine preparations and their curative effects on COVID-19, experts still fear that unproper use of such homemade medicines could do more harm than good to people relying on unproven alternatives of questionable efficacy. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety of herbal medicines used for respiratory system disorders in the Pasvalys district during the COVID-19 pandemic in Lithuania. An archival source was also studied, looking for possible recipes for the treatment and prevention of respiratory diseases in Lithuanian traditional medicine, emphasizing the safety guidelines. The survey was conducted using the deep interview method. The respondents mentioned 60 species of medicinal plants from 29 different families used for the treatment and prevention of respiratory system disorders (for cough mostly, 51.70% of all indications). Twenty eight out of 60 plant species were not included in the European Medicines Agency monographs and only 50% of all included species were used as indicated by the European Medicines Agency for respiratory system disorders. The trends in the ethnopharmacological choices of modern consumers and the analysis of archival sources can be a great source of ideas for new herbal-based pharmaceutical preparations for COVID-19 symptoms in Lithuania considering the safety recommendations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Plants, Medicinal , Respiratory Tract Diseases , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Herbal Medicine , Humans , Lithuania/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Phytotherapy , Plant Preparations/therapeutic use , Respiratory System , Respiratory Tract Diseases/drug therapy , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology
2.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 911: 174560, 2021 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1458663

ABSTRACT

The global incidence of respiratory diseases and complications is increasing. Therefore, new methods of treatment, as well as prevention, need to be investigated. A group of compounds that should be considered for use in respiratory diseases is cannabinoids. There are three groups of cannabinoids - plant-derived phytocannabinoids, synthetic cannabinoids, and endogenous endocannabinoids including the enzymes responsible for their synthesis and degradation. All cannabinoids exert their biological effects through either type 1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1) and/or type 2 cannabinoid receptors (CB2). In numerous studies (in vitro and in vivo), cannabinoids and inhibitors of endocannabinoid degradation have shown beneficial anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-cancer, and anti-fibrotic properties. Although in the respiratory system, most of the studies have focused on the positive properties of cannabinoids and inhibitors of endocannabinoid degradation. There are few research reports discussing the negative impact of these compounds. This review summarizes the properties and mechanisms of action of cannabinoids and inhibitors of endocannabinoid degradation in various models of respiratory diseases. A short description of the effects selected cannabinoids have on the human respiratory system and their possible use in the fight against COVID-19 is also presented. Additionally, a brief summary is provided of cannabinoid receptors properties and their expression in the respiratory system and cells of the immune system.


Subject(s)
Cannabinoids/pharmacology , Endocannabinoids/metabolism , Respiratory Tract Diseases/drug therapy , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cannabinoids/administration & dosage , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Humans , Models, Biological , Receptors, Cannabinoid/immunology , Receptors, Cannabinoid/metabolism , Respiratory Tract Diseases/metabolism
3.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 16: 4063-4072, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278261

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Ivermectin is an FDA-approved broad-spectrum anti-parasitic agent that has been shown to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication in vitro. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the therapeutic efficacy of ivermectin mucoadhesive nanosuspension intranasal spray in treatment of patients with mild COVID-19. METHODS: This clinical trial included 114 patients diagnosed as mild COVID-19. Patients were divided randomly into two age and sex-matched groups; group A comprising 57 patients received ivermectin nanosuspension nasal spray twice daily plus the Egyptian protocol of treatment for mild COVID-19 and group B comprising 57 patients received the Egyptian protocol for mild COVID-19 only. Evaluation of the patients was performed depending on improvement of presenting manifestations, negativity of two consecutive pharyngeal swabs for the COVID-19 nucleic acid via rRT-PCR and assessments of hematological and biochemical parameters in the form of complete blood counts, C-reactive protein, serum ferritin and d-dimer which were performed at presentation and 7 days later. RESULTS: Of the included patients confirmed with mild COVID-19, 82 were males (71.9%) and 32 females (28.1%) with mean age 45.1 ± 18.9. In group A, 54 patients (94.7%) achieved 2 consecutive negative PCR nasopharyngeal swabs in comparison to 43 patients (75.4%) in group B with P = 0.004. The durations of fever, cough, dyspnea and anosmia were significantly shorter in group A than group B, without significant difference regarding the duration of gastrointestinal symptoms. Duration taken for nasopharyngeal swab to be negative was significantly shorter in group A than in group B (8.3± 2.8 days versus 12.9 ± 4.3 days; P = 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Local use of ivermectin mucoadhesive nanosuspension nasal spray is safe and effective in treatment of patients with mild COVID-19 with rapid viral clearance and shortening the anosmia duration. CLINICALTRIALSGOV IDENTIFIER: NCT04716569; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04716569.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Ivermectin/therapeutic use , Respiratory Tract Diseases/drug therapy , Adult , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Cough/drug therapy , Cough/virology , Egypt , Female , Fever/drug therapy , Fever/virology , Humans , Ivermectin/administration & dosage , Ivermectin/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Nanostructures/administration & dosage , Nanostructures/chemistry , Nasal Sprays , Nasopharynx/virology , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Tract Diseases/etiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/virology , Treatment Outcome
4.
Mar Drugs ; 18(11)2020 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-940583

ABSTRACT

Respiratory diseases place an immense burden on global health and there is a compelling need for the discovery of new compounds for therapeutic development. Here, we identify research priorities by critically reviewing pre-clinical and clinical studies using extracts and compounds derived from molluscs, as well as traditional molluscan medicines, used in the treatment of respiratory diseases. We reviewed 97 biomedical articles demonstrating the anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anticancer, and immunomodulatory properties of >320 molluscan extracts/compounds with direct relevance to respiratory disease, in addition to others with promising bioactivities yet to be tested in the respiratory context. Of pertinent interest are compounds demonstrating biofilm inhibition/disruption and antiviral activity, as well as synergism with approved antimicrobial and chemotherapeutic agents. At least 100 traditional medicines, incorporating over 300 different mollusc species, have been used to treat respiratory-related illness in cultures worldwide for thousands of years. These medicines provide useful clues for the discovery of bioactive components that likely underpin their continued use. There is particular incentive for investigations into anti-inflammatory compounds, given the extensive application of molluscan traditional medicines for symptoms of inflammation, and shells, which are the principal molluscan product used in these preparations. Overall, there is a need to target research toward specific respiratory disease-related hypotheses, purify bioactive compounds and elucidate their chemical structures, and develop an evidence base for the integration of quality-controlled traditional medicines.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/isolation & purification , Mollusca/chemistry , Respiratory Tract Diseases/drug therapy , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Drug Discovery , Humans , Inflammation/drug therapy , Medicine, Traditional , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications
5.
Curr Opin Pharmacol ; 56: 85-92, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-985149

ABSTRACT

Nanotechnology in medicine-nanomedicine-is extensively employed to diagnose, treat, and prevent pulmonary diseases. Over the last few years, this brave new world has made remarkable progress, offering opportunities to address historical clinical challenges in pulmonary diseases including multidrug resistance, adverse side effects of conventional therapeutic agents, novel imaging, and earlier disease detection. Nanomedicine is also being applied to tackle the new emerging infectious diseases, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV), influenza A virus subtype H1N1 (A/H1N1), and more recently, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In this review we provide both a historical overview of the application of nanomedicine to respiratory diseases and more recent cutting-edge approaches such as nanoparticle-mediated combination therapies, novel double-targeted nondrug delivery system for targeting, stimuli-responsive nanoparticles, and theranostic imaging in the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary diseases.


Subject(s)
Nanotechnology/methods , Pulmonary Medicine/methods , Respiratory Tract Diseases/drug therapy , Animals , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Drug Carriers , Drug Resistance/physiology , Humans
6.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 55(2): 360-368, 2020 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064413

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The use of medications to treat respiratory conditions of extreme prematurity is often based upon studies of adults or children over 2 years of age. Little is known about the spectrum of medications used or dosing ranges. To inform the design of future studies, we conducted a prospective analysis of respiratory medication exposure among 832 extremely low gestational age neonates. METHODS: The prematurity and respiratory outcomes program (PROP) enrolled neonates less than 29-week gestation from 6 centers incorporating 13 clinical sites. We collected recorded daily "respiratory" medications given along with dosing information through 40-week postmenstrual age or neonatal intensive care unit discharge if earlier. RESULTS: PROP participants were exposed to a wide range of respiratory medications, often at doses beyond published recommendations. Nearly 50% received caffeine and furosemide beyond published recommendations for cumulative dose. Those who developed bronchopulmonary dysplasia were more likely to receive treatment with respiratory medications. However, more than 30% of PROP subjects that did not develop bronchopulmonary dysplasia also were treated with diuretics, systemic steroids, and other respiratory medications. CONCLUSION: Extremely preterm neonates in PROP were exposed to high doses of medications at levels known to generate significant adverse effects. With limited evidence for efficacy, there is an urgent need for controlled trials in this vulnerable patient population.


Subject(s)
Infant, Premature , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia/drug therapy , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Gestational Age , Humans , Infant , Infant, Low Birth Weight , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature, Diseases/drug therapy , Male , Patient Discharge , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Tract Diseases/drug therapy , Steroids/therapeutic use
7.
J Nutr Biochem ; 90: 108571, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1001603

ABSTRACT

Vitamin D is customarily involved in maintaining bone and calcium homeostasis. However, contemporary studies have identified the implication of vitamin D in several cellular processes including cellular proliferation, differentiation, wound healing, repair and regulatory systems inclusive of host defence, immunity, and inflammation. Multiple studies have indicated corelations between low serum levels of vitamin D, perturbed pulmonary functions and enhanced incidences of inflammatory diseases. Almost all of the pulmonary diseases including acute lung injury, cystic fibrosis, asthma, COPD, Pneumonia and Tuberculosis, all are inflammatory in nature. Studies have displayed strong inter-relations with vitamin D deficiency and progression of lung disorders; however, the underlying mechanism is still unknown. Vitamin D has emerged to possess inhibiting effects on pulmonary inflammation while exaggerating innate immune defenses by strongly influencing functions of inflammatory cells including dendritic cells, monocyte/macrophages, T cells, and B cells along with structural epithelial cells. This review dissects the effects of vitamin D on the inflammatory cells and their therapeutic relevance in pulmonary diseases. Although, the data obtained is very limited and needs further corroboration but presents an exciting area of further research. This is because of its ease of supplementation and development of personalized medicine which could lead us to an effective adjunct and cost-effective method of therapeutic modality for highly fatal pulmonary diseases.


Subject(s)
Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology , Vitamin D/blood , Acute Lung Injury/epidemiology , Animals , Asthma/epidemiology , Cystic Fibrosis/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Inflammation/epidemiology , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/drug therapy , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Vitamin D/administration & dosage , Vitamin D/metabolism , Vitamin D Deficiency/drug therapy
8.
Expert Opin Ther Pat ; 30(11): 807-824, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-744458

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Type II transmembrane serine proteases (TTSPs) of the human respiratory tract generate high interest owing to their ability, among other roles, to cleave surface proteins of respiratory viruses. This step is critical in the viral invasion of coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2 responsible for COVID-19, but also influenza viruses and reoviruses. Accordingly, these cell surface enzymes constitute appealing therapeutic targets to develop host-based therapeutics against respiratory viral diseases. Additionally, their deregulated levels or activity has been described in non-viral diseases such as fibrosis, cancer, and osteoarthritis, making them potential targets in these indications. AREAS COVERED: Areas covered: This review includes WIPO-listed patents reporting small molecules and peptide-based inhibitors of type II transmembrane serine proteases of the respiratory tract. EXPERT OPINION: Expert opinion: Several TTSPs of the respiratory tract represent attractive pharmacological targets in the treatment of respiratory infectious diseases (notably COVID-19 and influenza), but also against idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and lung cancer. The current emphasis is primarily on TMPRSS2, matriptase, and hepsin, yet other TTSPs await validation. Compounds listed herein are predominantly peptidomimetic inhibitors, some with covalent reversible mechanisms of action and high potencies. Their selectivity profile, however, are often only partially characterized. Preclinical data are promising and warrant further advancement in the above diseases.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Patents as Topic , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Respiratory Tract Diseases/drug therapy , Respiratory Tract Diseases/etiology , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Serine Proteinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , Respiratory Tract Diseases/enzymology
9.
Am J Rhinol Allergy ; 35(1): 122-131, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-697001

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Viral respiratory tract infections are associated with a significant burden of disease and represent one of the leading causes of mortality worldwide. The current Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic highlights the devastating toll that respiratory viruses have on humanity and the desperate need to understand the biological characteristics that define them in order to develop efficacious treatments and vaccines. To date, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has infected nearly 600 times more people and resulted in 200 times more deaths relative to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) combined. OBJECTIVE: Through this review, we aim to summarize the key characteristics of respiratory viruses that hold global significance, with a focus on SARS-CoV-2. Our goal is to disseminate our current knowledge of these infectious agents to otolaryngologists, in particular rhinologists, practicing in the COVID-19 era. METHODS: The general and clinical characteristics of selected respiratory viruses along with available viral treatments and vaccines are reviewed. RESULTS: There has been significant progress in our understanding of the epidemiology and pathogenesis of various respiratory viruses. However, despite the advancement in knowledge, efficacious vaccines and antiviral treatments remain elusive for most respiratory viruses. The dire need for these scientific discoveries is highlighted by the recent COVID-19 pandemic, which has prompted investigators worldwide to conduct clinical trials at an accelerated timeline in an effort to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Rhinologists will continue to remain on the front-lines of pandemics associated with respiratory viruses. CONCLUSION: In light of these unprecedented times, the need to understand the nuances of these viral respiratory pathogens, especially SARS-CoV-2, cannot be overemphasized. This knowledge base is of particular importance to otolaryngologists, whose expertise in the upper airway coincides with the anatomic tropism of these infectious agents.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , Otolaryngologists , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/virology , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Humans , Otolaryngologists/standards , Otolaryngologists/trends , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Respiratory Tract Diseases/drug therapy , Respiratory Tract Diseases/prevention & control , Respiratory Tract Diseases/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Viral Vaccines/therapeutic use , Viruses/classification , Viruses/pathogenicity
10.
Pharmacol Res ; 157: 104881, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-165166

ABSTRACT

The average respiration rate for an adult is 12-20 breaths per minute, which constantly exposes the lungs to allergens and harmful particles. As a result, respiratory diseases, which includes asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and acute lower respiratory tract infections (LTRI), are a major cause of death worldwide. Although asthma, COPD and LTRI are distinctly different diseases with separate mechanisms of disease progression, they do share a common feature - airway inflammation with intense recruitment and activation of granulocytes and mast cells. Neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, and mast cells are crucial players in host defense against pathogens and maintenance of lung homeostasis. Upon contact with harmful particles, part of the pulmonary defense mechanism is to recruit these cells into the airways. Despite their protective nature, overactivation or accumulation of granulocytes and mast cells in the lungs results in unwanted chronic airway inflammation and damage. As such, understanding the bright and the dark side of these leukocytes in lung physiology paves the way for the development of therapies targeting this important mechanism of disease. Here we discuss the role of granulocytes in respiratory diseases and summarize therapeutic strategies focused on granulocyte recruitment and activation in the lungs.


Subject(s)
Granulocytes/drug effects , Respiratory System Agents/therapeutic use , Respiratory System/drug effects , Respiratory Tract Diseases/drug therapy , Animals , Chemotaxis, Leukocyte/drug effects , Granulocytes/immunology , Granulocytes/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Phenotype , Respiratory System/immunology , Respiratory System/metabolism , Respiratory System/physiopathology , Respiratory System Agents/adverse effects , Respiratory Tract Diseases/immunology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/metabolism , Respiratory Tract Diseases/physiopathology , Signal Transduction
11.
Chem Biol Interact ; 325: 109125, 2020 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-165367

ABSTRACT

The apparent predicament of the representative chemotherapy for managing respiratory distress calls for an obligatory deliberation for identifying the pharmaceuticals that effectively counter the contemporary intricacies associated with target disease. Multiple, complex regulatory pathways manifest chronic pulmonary disorders, which require chemotherapeutics that produce composite inhibitory effect. The cost effective natural product based molecules hold a high fervor to meet the prospects posed by current respiratory-distress therapy by sparing the tedious drug design and development archetypes, present a robust standing for the possible replacement of the fading practice of poly-pharmacology, and ensure the subversion of a potential disease relapse. This study summarizes the experimental evidences on natural products moieties and their components that illustrates therapeutic efficacy on respiratory disorders.


Subject(s)
Molecular Targeted Therapy/methods , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/drug therapy , Animals , Chronic Disease , Humans , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Respiratory Tract Diseases/immunology
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