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1.
Front Public Health ; 9: 740800, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775894

ABSTRACT

Background: Exposure to ambient particulate matter pollution (APMP) is a global health issue that directly affects the human respiratory system. Thus, we estimated the spatiotemporal trends in the burden of APMP-related respiratory diseases from 1990 to 2019. Methods: Based on the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019, data on the burden of APMP-related respiratory diseases were analyzed by age, sex, cause, and location. Joinpoint regression analysis was used to analyze the temporal trends in the burden of different respiratory diseases over the 30 years. Results: Globally, in 2019, APMP contributed the most to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), with 695.1 thousand deaths and 15.4 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs); however, the corresponding age-standardized death and DALY rates declined from 1990 to 2019. Similarly, although age-standardized death and DALY rates since 1990 decreased by 24% and 40%, respectively, lower respiratory infections (LRIs) still had the second highest number of deaths and DALYs attributable to APMP. This was followed by tracheal, bronchus, and lung (TBL) cancer, which showed increased age-standardized death and DALY rates during the past 30 years and reached 3.78 deaths per 100,000 persons and 84.22 DALYs per 100,000 persons in 2019. Among children aged < 5 years, LRIs had a huge burden attributable to APMP, whereas for older people, COPD was the leading cause of death and DALYs attributable to APMP. The APMP-related burdens of LRIs and COPD were relatively higher among countries with low and low-middle socio-demographic index (SDI), while countries with high-middle SDI showed the highest burden of TBL cancer attributable to APMP. Conclusions: APMP contributed substantially to the global burden of respiratory diseases, posing a significant threat to human health. Effective actions aimed at air pollution can potentially avoid an increase in the PM2.5-associated disease burden, especially in highly polluted areas.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution , Respiratory Tract Diseases , Adult , Aged , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Child , Child, Preschool , Global Burden of Disease , Humans , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Quality-Adjusted Life Years , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology
2.
BMC Anesthesiol ; 22(1): 46, 2022 02 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690973

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are limited data to detail the perioperative anesthetic management and the incidence of postoperative respiratory complications among patients requiring an anesthetic procedure while being SARS-CoV-2 positive or suspected. METHODS: An observational multicenter cohort study was performed including consecutive patients who were SARS-CoV-2 confirmed or suspected and who underwent scheduled and emergency anesthesia between March 17 and May 26, 2020. RESULTS: A total of 187 patients underwent anesthesia with SARS-CoV-2 confirmed or suspected, with ultimately 135 (72.2%) patients positive and 52 (27.8%) negative. The median SOFA score was 2 [0; 5], and the median ARISCAT score was 49 [36; 67]. The major respiratory complications rate was 48.7% (n = 91) with 40.4% (n = 21) and 51.9% (n = 70) in the SARS-CoV-2-negative and -positive groups, respectively (p = 0.21). Among both positive and negative groups, patients with a high ARISCAT risk score (> 44) had a higher risk of presenting major respiratory complications (p < 0.01 and p = 0.1, respectively). DISCUSSION: When comparing SARS-COV-2-positive and -negative patients, no significant difference was found regarding the rate of postoperative complications, while baseline characteristics strongly impact these outcomes. This finding suggests that patients should be scheduled for anesthetic procedures based on their overall risk of postoperative complication, and not just based on their SARS-CoV-2 status.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia , COVID-19/complications , Aged , Anesthesia/adverse effects , Cohort Studies , Elective Surgical Procedures , Emergency Medical Services , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Perioperative Care , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Registries , Respiratory Tract Diseases/complications , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome
4.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 465, 2022 01 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1627057

ABSTRACT

We conducted retrospective cohort studies of patients with relapsing polychondritis (RP) twice in 2009 and 2019, using a physician questionnaire. We compared the patients' clinical statuses between the years. Age and gender were comparable between the two surveys. Mean disease duration was longer in 2019 survey (8.3 years) than that in 2009 survey (4.8 years, P < 0.001). The mortality rate declined in 2019 survey compared with those in 2009 survey (from 9.2 to 1.6%, P < 0.001). Incidence of airway involvement decreased in 2019 survey compared with that in 2009 survey (from 49 to 37%, P = 0.012). In 2019 survey, we found more frequent use of biological agents and immunosuppressants in patients with airway involvement. When we focused on RP patients with airway involvement, physicians in 2019 chose methotrexate and calcineurin inhibitors preferentially, compared with azathioprine and cyclophosphamide. Of note is that increased use of infliximab was observed in RP patients with airway involvement, but not in those without. Reduction of airway involvement and mortality in patients with RP was observed in 2019 survey. The reduction may associate with the frequent use of biologics including infliximab in RP patients with airway involvement.


Subject(s)
Polychondritis, Relapsing/complications , Polychondritis, Relapsing/drug therapy , Respiratory Tract Diseases/etiology , Adult , Azathioprine/therapeutic use , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cyclophosphamide/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Infliximab/therapeutic use , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Methotrexate/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Polychondritis, Relapsing/epidemiology , Polychondritis, Relapsing/mortality , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/mortality , Retrospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires
5.
Nat Med ; 28(1): 193-200, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585817

ABSTRACT

Identifying which children and young people (CYP) are most vulnerable to serious infection due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is important to guide protective interventions. To address this question, we used data for all hospitalizations in England among 0-17 year olds from 1 February 2019 to 31 January 2021. We examined how sociodemographic factors and comorbidities might be risk factors for pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) admission among hospitalizations due to the following causes: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and pediatric inflammatory multi-system syndrome temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 (PIMS-TS) in the first pandemic year (2020-2021); hospitalizations due to all other non-traumatic causes in 2020-2021; hospitalizations due to all non-traumatic causes in 2019-2020; and hospitalizations due to influenza in 2019-2020. Risk of PICU admission and death from COVID-19 or PIMS-TS in CYP was very low. We identified 6,338 hospitalizations with COVID-19, of which 259 were admitted to a PICU and eight CYP died. We identified 712 hospitalizations with PIMS-TS, of which 312 were admitted to a PICU and fewer than five CYP died. Hospitalizations with COVID-19 and PIMS-TS were more common among males, older CYP, those from socioeconomically deprived neighborhoods and those who were of non-White ethnicity (Black, Asian, Mixed or Other). The odds of PICU admission were increased in CYP younger than 1 month old and decreased among 15-17 year olds compared to 1-4 year olds with COVID-19; increased in older CYP and females with PIMS-TS; and increased for Black compared to White ethnicity in patients with COVID-19 and PIMS-TS. Odds of PICU admission in COVID-19 were increased for CYP with comorbidities and highest for CYP with multiple medical problems. Increases in odds of PICU admission associated with different comorbidities in COVID-19 showed a similar pattern to other causes of hospitalization examined and, thus, likely reflect background vulnerabilities. These findings identify distinct risk factors associated with PICU admission among CYP with COVID-19 or PIMS-TS that might aid treatment and prevention strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric/statistics & numerical data , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Adolescent , Age Factors , /statistics & numerical data , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , England/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Odds Ratio , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , /statistics & numerical data
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 148, 2020 Feb 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453043

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The influenza virus spreads rapidly around the world in seasonal epidemics, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. Influenza-related incidence data are limited in many countries in Africa despite established sentinel surveillance. This study aimed to address the information gap by estimating the burden and seasonality of medically attended influenza like illness in Ethiopia. METHOD: Influenza sentinel surveillance data collected from 3 influenza like illness (ILI) and 5 Severe Acute Respiratory Illness (SARI) sites from 2012 to 2017 was used for analysis. Descriptive statistics were applied for simple analysis. The proportion of medically attended influenza positive cases and incidence rate of ILI was determined using total admitted patients and catchment area population. Seasonality was estimated based on weekly trend of ILI and predicted threshold was done by applying the "Moving Epidemic Method (MEM)". RESULT: A total of 5715 medically attended influenza suspected patients who fulfills ILI and SARI case definition (77% ILI and 23% SARI) was enrolled. Laboratory confirmed influenza virus (influenza positive case) among ILI and SARI suspected case was 25% (1130/4426) and 3% (36/1289). Of which, 65% were influenza type A. The predominantly circulating influenza subtype were seasonal influenza A(H3N2) (n = 455, 60%) and Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 (n = 293, 38.81%). The estimated mean annual influenza positive case proportion and ILI incidence rate was 160.04 and 52.48 per 100,000 population. The Incidence rate of ILI was higher in the age group of 15-44 years of age ['Incidence rate (R) = 254.6 per 100,000 population', 95% CI; 173.65, 335.55] and 5-14 years of age [R = 49.5, CI 95%; 31.47, 130.43]. The seasonality of influenza has two peak seasons; in a period from October-December and from April-June. CONCLUSION: Significant morbidity of influenza like illness was observed with two peak seasons of the year and seasonal influenza A (H3N2) remains the predominantly circulating influenza subtype. Further study need to be considered to identify potential risks and improving the surveillance system to continue early detection and monitoring of circulating influenza virus in the country has paramount importance.


Subject(s)
Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/virology , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/isolation & purification , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype/isolation & purification , Laboratories , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/etiology , Seasons , Sentinel Surveillance , Young Adult
7.
Virol J ; 18(1): 202, 2021 10 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463255

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The effect of SARS-CoV-2 on existing respiratory pathogens in circulation remains uncertain. This study aimed to assess the impact of SARS-CoV-2 on the prevalence of respiratory pathogens among hospitalized children. METHODS: This study enrolled hospitalized children with acute respiratory infections in Shenzhen Children's Hospital from September to December 2019 (before the COVID-19 epidemic) and those from September to December 2020 (during the COVID-19 epidemic). Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected, and respiratory pathogens were detected using multiplex PCR. The absolute case number and detection rates of 11 pathogens were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 5696 children with respiratory tract infection received multiplex PCR examination for respiratory pathogens: 2298 from September to December 2019 and 3398 from September to December 2020. At least one pathogen was detected in 1850 (80.5%) patients in 2019, and in 2380 (70.0%) patients in 2020; the detection rate in 2020 was significantly lower than that in 2019.The Influenza A (InfA) detection rate was 5.6% in 2019, but 0% in 2020. The detection rates of Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Human adenovirus, and Human rhinovirus also decreased from 20% (460), 8.9% (206), and 41.8% (961) in 2019 to 1.0% (37), 2.1% (77), and 25.6% (873) in 2020, respectively. In contrast, the detection rates of Human respiratory syncytial virus, Human parainfluenza virus, and Human metapneumovirus increased from 6.6% (153), 9.9% (229), and 0.5% (12) in 2019 to 25.6% (873), 15.5% (530), and 7.2% (247) in 2020, respectively (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Successful containment of seasonal influenza as a result of COVID-19 control measures will ensure we are better equipped to deal with future outbreaks of both influenza and COVID-19.Caused by virus competition, the detection rates of Human respiratory syncytial virus, Human parainfluenza virus, and Human metapneumovirus increased in Shenzhen,that reminds us we need to take further monitoring and preventive measures in the next epidemic season.


Subject(s)
Antibiosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adenoviruses, Human/genetics , Adenoviruses, Human/isolation & purification , Adolescent , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Hospitalized , Child, Preschool , China , Enterovirus/genetics , Enterovirus/isolation & purification , Female , Humans , Infant , Influenza A virus/genetics , Influenza A virus/isolation & purification , Male , Metapneumovirus/genetics , Metapneumovirus/isolation & purification , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/genetics , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/isolation & purification , Nasopharynx/microbiology , Nasopharynx/virology , Prevalence , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses/genetics , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses/isolation & purification , Respiratory Tract Diseases/microbiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/virology , Respirovirus/genetics , Respirovirus/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
8.
Am J Med ; 134(10): 1252-1259.e3, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446365

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to widespread implementation of public health measures, such as stay-at-home orders, social distancing, and masking mandates. In addition to decreasing spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, these measures also impact the transmission of seasonal viral pathogens, which are common triggers of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations. Whether reduced viral prevalence mediates reduction in COPD exacerbation rates is unknown. METHODS: We performed retrospective analysis of data from a large, multicenter health care system to assess admission trends associated with community viral prevalence and with initiation of COVID-19 pandemic control measures. We applied difference-in-differences analysis to compare season-matched weekly frequency of hospital admissions for COPD prior to and after implementation of public health measures for COVID-19. Community viral prevalence was estimated using regional Centers for Disease Control and Prevention test positivity data and correlated to COPD admissions. RESULTS: Data involving 4422 COPD admissions demonstrated a season-matched 53% decline in COPD admissions during the COVID-19 pandemic, which correlated to community viral burden (r = 0.73; 95% confidence interval, 0.67-0.78) and represented a 36% greater decline over admission frequencies observed in other medical conditions less affected by respiratory viral infections (incidence rate ratio 0.64; 95% confidence interval, 0.57-0.71, P < .001). The post-COVID-19 decline in COPD admissions was most pronounced in patients with fewer comorbidities and without recurrent admissions. CONCLUSION: The implementation of public health measures during the COVID-19 pandemic was associated with decreased COPD admissions. These changes are plausibly explained by reduced prevalence of seasonal respiratory viruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons , Symptom Flare Up
10.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16945, 2021 08 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1366831

ABSTRACT

The patterns of respiratory virus illness are expressed differently between temperate and tropical climates. Tropical outbreaks often peak in wet seasons. Temperate outbreaks typically peak during the winter. The prevailing causal hypotheses focus on sunlight, temperature and humidity variations. Yet no consistent factors have been identified to sufficiently explain seasonal virus emergence and decline at any latitude. Here we demonstrate close connections among global-scale atmospheric circulations, IgE antibody enhancement through seasonal pollen inhalation, and respiratory virus patterns at any populated latitude, with a focus on the US. Pollens emerge each Spring, and the renewed IgE titers in the population are argued to terminate each winter peak of respiratory illness. Globally circulated airborne viruses are postulated to subsequently deposit across the Southern US during lower zonal geostrophic winds each late Summer. This seasonally refreshed viral load is postulated to trigger a new influenza outbreak, once the existing IgE antibodies diminish to a critical value each Fall. Our study offers a new and consistent explanation for the seasonal diminishment of respiratory viral illnesses in temperate climates, the subdued seasonal signature in the tropics, the annually circulated virus phenotypes, and the northerly migration of influenza across the US every year. Our integrated geospatial and IgE hypothesis provides a new perspective for prediction, mitigation and prevention of the outbreak and spread of seasonal respiratory viruses including Covid-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Antigens, Plant , Atmosphere , Humans , Immunoglobulin E/metabolism , Pandemics , Pollen , Seasons , United States/epidemiology
11.
Clin Otolaryngol ; 46(6): 1331-1338, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1345940

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the relationship between viral load and the incidence of olfactory and gustatory dysfunction (OD and GD), the incidence of respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms and the recovery of OD and GD in COVID-19 patients. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: This study was conducted on 599 outpatients' cases in Golestan province between February and June 2020. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The incidence, severity (complete or partial) and recovery time of OD and GD and their associations with cycle threshold (CT) values of SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction were assessed. RESULTS: The mean age of patients was 38.27 ± 13.62 years. The incidence of general symptoms included myalgia 70.1%, headache 51.8%, fever 47.7% and dyspnoea 21.4%. 41.9% of patients had gastrointestinal symptoms, including abdominal pain 26.5%, diarrhoea 25.2%, nausea 20.5% and vomiting 12.9%. 12.2% of patients had comorbidity. The trimester recovery rates of OD and GD were 93.94% and 94.74% respectively. The mean recovery time of OD and GD was 14.56 ± 13.37 and 13.8 ± 3.77 days respectively. The mean CT value in all patients was 27.45 ± 4.55. There were significant associations between the mean of CT value with headache (p = 0.04), GD (p = 0.002) and OD (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The finding of this study indicates a possible association between viral load with incidence of OD and GD in COVID-19 patient's cases and assures the recovery of OD/GD in these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Viral Load , Adult , Female , Gastrointestinal Diseases/virology , Humans , Incidence , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/virology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Taste Disorders/virology
12.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 73(9): 1713-1719, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1326753

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: COVID-19 is a novel infectious disease with a broad spectrum of clinical severity. Patients with systemic vasculitis have an increased risk of serious infections and may be at risk of severe outcomes following COVID-19. We undertook this study to establish the risk factors for severe COVID-19 outcomes in these patients, including the impact of immunosuppressive therapies. METHODS: A multicenter cohort was developed through the participation of centers affiliated with national UK and Ireland vasculitis registries. Clinical characteristics and outcomes are described. Logistic regression was used to evaluate associations between potential risk factors and a severe COVID-19 outcome, defined as a requirement for advanced oxygen therapy, a requirement for invasive ventilation, or death. RESULTS: The cohort included 65 patients with systemic vasculitis who developed COVID-19 (median age 70 years, 49% women), of whom 25 patients (38%) experienced a severe outcome. Most patients (55 of 65 [85%]) had antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis (AAV). Almost all patients required hospitalization (59 of 65 [91%]), 7 patients (11%) were admitted to intensive care, and 18 patients (28%) died. Background glucocorticoid therapy was associated with severe outcomes (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 3.7 [95% confidence interval 1.1-14.9]; P = 0.047), as was comorbid respiratory disease (adjusted OR 7.5 [95% confidence interval 1.9-38.2]; P = 0.006). Vasculitis disease activity and nonglucocorticoid immunosuppressive therapy were not associated with severe outcomes. CONCLUSION: In patients with systemic vasculitis, glucocorticoid use at presentation and comorbid respiratory disease were associated with severe outcomes in COVID-19. These data can inform clinical decision-making relating to the risk of severe COVID-19 in this vulnerable patient group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Systemic Vasculitis/drug therapy , Aged , Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis/drug therapy , Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Registries , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Systemic Vasculitis/epidemiology
13.
Am J Med ; 134(10): 1247-1251, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1300607

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Masking, which is known to decrease the transmission of respiratory viruses, was not widely practiced in the United States until the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This provides a natural experiment to determine whether the percentage of community masking was associated with decreases in emergency department (ED) visits due to non-COVID viral illnesses (NCVIs) and related respiratory conditions. METHODS: In this observational study of ED encounters in a 11-hospital system in Maryland during 2019-2020, year-on-year ratios for all complaints were calculated to account for "lockdowns" and the global drop in ED visits due to the pandemic. Encounters for specific complaints were identified using the International Classification of Diseases, version 10. Encounters with a positive COVID test were excluded. Linear regression was used to determine the association of publicly available masking data with ED visits for NCVI and exacerbations of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), after adjusting for patient age, sex, and medical history. RESULTS: There were 285,967 and 252,598 ED visits across the hospital system in 2019 and 2020, respectively. There was a trend toward an association between the year-on-year ratio for all ED visits and the Maryland stay-at-home order (parameter estimate = -0.0804, P = .10). A 10% percent increase in the prevalence of community masking was associated with a 17.0%, 8.8%, and 9.4% decrease in ED visits for NCVI and exacerbations of asthma exacerbations and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, respectively (P < .001 for all). CONCLUSIONS: Increasing the prevalence of masking is associated with a decrease in ED visits for viral illnesses and exacerbations of asthma and COPD. These findings may be valuable for future public health responses, particularly in future pandemics with respiratory transmission or in severe influenza seasons.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Masks , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Maryland/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Eur J Med Res ; 26(1): 67, 2021 Jul 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295487

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Since the outbreak of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) began, necessary measures to prevent virus transmission and reduce mortality have been implemented, including mandatory public use of masks, regular hand-sanitizing and hand-washing, social distancing, avoidance of crowds, remote work, and cancellation of public events. During and after the introduction of COVID-19 lockout, we performed a systematic review of available published literature to investigate the incidence of seasonal influenza and other respiratory viral infections. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Scopus, Science Direct, Google Scholar, Research Gate, and the World Health Organization databases and websites were systematically searched for original studies concerning the impact of COVID-19 prevention means and measures on other common respiratory infectious diseases during the pandemic published by March 2021. RESULTS: The findings showed that the adherence to health protocols to prevent COVID-19 could help to reduce the incidence of other infectious diseases such as influenza, pneumonia, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. CONCLUSION: The implemented prevention measures and protocols might have reduced the incidence of influenza and some other common respiratory infections. However, controversies exist on this matter and future large population-based studies might provide further information to address these controversies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Humans , Incidence , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Respiratory Tract Diseases/prevention & control , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/prevention & control
15.
Respir Med ; 184: 106470, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230755

ABSTRACT

Patients recovering from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may not return to a pre-COVID functional status and baseline levels of healthcare needs after discharge from acute care hospitals. Since the long-term outcomes of COVID-19 can be more severe in patients with underlying cardiorespiratory diseases, we aimed at verifying the impact of a preexisting cardiorespiratory comorbidity on multidisciplinary rehabilitation in post-COVID-19 patients. We enrolled 95 consecutive patients referring to the Pulmonary Rehabilitation Unit of Istituti Clinici Scientifici Maugeri Spa SB, IRCCS of Telese Terme, Benevento, Italy after being discharged from the COVID-19 acute care ward and after recovering from acute COVID-19 pneumonia. Forty-nine of them were not suffering from underlying comorbidities, while 46 had a preexisting cardiorespiratory disease. Rehabilitation induced statistically significant improvements in respiratory function, blood gases and the ability to exercise both in patients without any preexisting comorbidities and in those with an underlying cardiorespiratory disease. Response to the rehabilitation cycle tended to be greater in those without preexisting comorbidities, but DLco%-predicted was the only parameter that showed a significant greater improvement when compared to the response in the group of patients with underlying cardiorespiratory comorbidity. This study suggests that multidisciplinary rehabilitation may be useful in post-COVID-19 patients regardless of the presence of preexisting cardiorespiratory comorbidities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/rehabilitation , Interdisciplinary Communication , Patient Care Team , Rehabilitation/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Carbon Monoxide/blood , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Female , Forced Expiratory Volume , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Lung/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Recovery of Function , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Treatment Outcome , Vital Capacity , Walk Test
17.
Rev Esp Quimioter ; 34(4): 365-370, 2021 Aug.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1200529

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To control the pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2, the implementation of social and hygienic confinement measures was determined in all countries. These measures reduce the circulation of most respiratory viruses that are transmitted preferentially by air and contact. METHODS: The impact of these measures on non-Covid respiratory viruses during the period August-December 2020 and 2019 has been comparatively analyzed. To all nasopharyngeal aspirates that were negative against SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR and the suspicion of acute respiratory infection persisted, were subjected to a new RT-PCR that simultaneously and differentially amplifies 21 different respiratory viruses. RESULTS: In the year of the pandemic, a 36.6% decrease was detected in the number of respiratory samples studied and 66% in their positivity in relation to 2019. All viruses showed reduction percentages of between 40-100%. The only viruses that circulated during and after national lockdown were rhinovirus (74.1%), adenovirus (10.1%), and enterovirus (9.6%). CONCLUSIONS: The measures used to control the SARS-CoV-2 infection have also affected the community circulation of most respiratory viruses including influenza and respiratory syncytial virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Hygiene , Physical Distancing , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Nasopharynx/virology , Pandemics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Spain/epidemiology
18.
IEEE/ACM Trans Comput Biol Bioinform ; 18(4): 1271-1280, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1199626

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a highly contagious disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The case-fatality rate is significantly higher in older patients and those with diabetes, cancer or cardiovascular disorders. The human proteins, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) and basigin (BSG), are involved in high-confidence host-pathogen interactions with SARS-CoV-2 proteins. We considered these three proteins as seed nodes and applied the random walk with restart method on the human interactome to construct a protein-protein interaction sub-network, which captures the effects of viral invasion. We found that 'Insulin resistance', 'AGE-RAGE signaling in diabetic complications' and 'adipocytokine signaling' were the common pathways associated with diabetes, cancer and cardiovascular disorders. The association of these critical pathways with aging and its related diseases explains the molecular basis of COVID-19 fatality. We further identified drugs that have effects on these proteins/pathways based on gene expression studies. We particularly focused on drugs that significantly downregulate ACE2 along with other critical proteins identified by the network-based approach. Among them, COL-3 had earlier shown activity against acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress, while entinostat and mocetinostat have been investigated for non-small-cell lung cancer. We propose that these drugs can be repurposed for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Computational Biology , Drug Repositioning , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Gene Expression Profiling/statistics & numerical data , Host Microbial Interactions/drug effects , Host Microbial Interactions/genetics , Host Microbial Interactions/physiology , Humans , Pandemics , Protein Interaction Maps/drug effects , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
19.
Int J Lab Hematol ; 43(6): 1284-1290, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1186165

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Patients with COVID-19 frequently exhibit a hypercoagulable state with high thrombotic risk, particularly those admitted to intensive care units (ICU). Thromboprophylaxis is mandatory in these patients; nevertheless, thrombosis still occurs in many cases. Thus, the problem of assessing an adequate level of anticoagulation in ICU patients becomes evident during the COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of this study was to evaluate the heparin resistance and the efficacy of heparin monitoring using an anti-Xa activity assay. METHODS: Thirty-seven heparin-treated patients admitted to ICU for SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia were retrospectively studied for antifactor Xa activity (anti-Xa), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), Antithrombin, Fibrinogen, D-Dimer, Factor VIII, von Willebrand Factor, and the total daily amount of heparin administered. The correlation between APTT and anti-Xa was evaluated for unfractionated heparins (UFH). The correlations between the daily dose of UFH or the dosage expressed as IU/kg b.w. for low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) and anti-Xa were also evaluated. RESULTS: Twenty-one patients received calcium heparin, 8 sodium heparin, and 8 LMWH. A moderate correlation was found between APTT and anti-Xa for UFH. APTT did not correlate with coagulation parameters. 62% of UFH and 75% of LMWH treated patients were under the therapeutic range. About 75% of patients could be considered resistant to heparin. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-COV2 pneumonia patients in ICU have frequently heparin resistance. Anti-Xa seems a more reliable method to monitor heparin treatment than APTT in acute patients, also because the assay is insensitive to the increased levels of fibrinogen, FVIII, and LAC that are common during the COVID-19 inflammatory state.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/blood , Drug Monitoring/methods , Heparin/therapeutic use , Intensive Care Units , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombophilia/drug therapy , Aged , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Drug Resistance , Factor Xa Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Factor Xa Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Female , Heparin/administration & dosage , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/administration & dosage , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Partial Thromboplastin Time , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Thrombophilia/blood , Thrombophilia/etiology , Thrombosis/epidemiology , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/prevention & control
20.
Respiration ; 100(7): 588-593, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171560

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: During the first COVID-19 wave, a considerable decline in hospital admissions was observed worldwide. AIM: This retrospective cohort study aimed to assess if there were any changes in the number of patients hospitalized for respiratory diseases in Greece during the first CO-VID-19 wave. METHODS: In the present study, we evaluated respiratory disease hospitalization rates across 9 tertiary hospitals in Greece during the study period (March-April 2020) and the corresponding period of the 2 previous years (2018-2019) that served as the control periods. Demographic data and discharge diagnosis were documented for every patient. RESULTS: Of the 1,307 patients who were hospitalized during the study period, 444 (35.5%) were males with a mean (±SD) age of 66.1 ± 16.6 years. There was a 47 and 46% reduction in all-cause respiratory morbidity compared to the corresponding periods of 2018 and 2019, respectively. The mean incidence rate for respiratory diseases during the study period was 21.4 admissions per day, and this rate was significantly lower than the rate during the same period in 2018 (40.8 admissions per day; incidence rate ratio [IRR], 0.525; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.491-0.562; p < 0.001) or the rate during 2019 (39.9 admissions per day; IRR, 0.537; 95% CI, 0.502-0.574; p < 0.001). The greatest reductions (%) in the number of daily admissions in 2020 were observed for sleep apnoea (87% vs. 2018 and 84% vs. 2019) followed by admissions for asthma (76% vs. 2018 and 79% vs. 2019) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (60% vs. 2018 and 51% vs. 2019), while the lowest reductions were detected in hospitalizations for pulmonary embolism (6% vs. 2018 and 23% vs. 2019) followed by tuberculosis (25% vs. both 2018 and 2019). DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: The significant reduction in respiratory admissions in 2020 raises the reasonable question of whether some patients may have avoided seeking medical attention during the COVID-19 pandemic and suggests an urgent need for transformation of healthcare systems during the pandemic to offer appropriate management of respiratory diseases other than COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization/trends , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Asthma/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , Greece/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Apnea Syndromes/epidemiology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology
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