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1.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1035812, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36703851

ABSTRACT

Objective: To systematically evaluate the risk factors of lower respiratory tract infection caused by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia for better clinical treatment. Methods: PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, China Journal full-text Database (CNKI), Wanfang Database (WanFang Data), VIP (VIP), and China Biomedical Literature Database (CBM) were selected and published by June 2022 about the risk factors of lower respiratory tract infection of S. maltophilia. Two researchers independently screened the literature, extracted data, and quality evaluation according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. RevMan 5.4 software was used for meta-analysis. Results: A total of 18 articles were included, including 10 in English and 8 in Chinese. Meta analysis showed that the risk factors of lower respiratory tract infection caused by S. maltophilia included disease severity, hospitalization days, use of glucocorticoids, invasive procedures, use of broad-spectrum antibiotics and use of more than 3 Antibiotics. The OR values of patients with hospitalization, mechanical ventilation, use of more than 3 Antibiotics, endotracheal intubation and tracheotomy were the highest. Specific hospitalization days (OR = 14.56, 95% CI: 6.12~23.01), mechanical ventilation (OR = 14.16, 95% CI: 5.85~34.3), use of more than 3 Antibiotics (OR = 6.21, 95% CI: 1.24~31.14), tracheal intubation (OR = 6.07, 95% CI: 1.97~3.64), tracheotomy (OR = 3.77, 95% CI: 1.09~13.04). Conclusion: There are many risk factors for lower respiratory tract infection of S. maltophilia, which can occur in patients with severe illness, high APACHE-II score, invasive procedures, and the need for broad-spectrum antibiotics. In terms of the host, these patients are characterized by impaired immune function, severe illness and long-term hospitalization, which objectively leads to the infection of S. maltophilia. Therefore, strengthening the monitoring, prevention and control of patients with risk factors of S. maltophilia infection is conducive to reducing the risk of infection and death.


Subject(s)
Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections , Respiratory Tract Infections , Stenotrophomonas maltophilia , Humans , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Risk Factors
2.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1028525, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36699876

ABSTRACT

Background: Lower respiratory infections (LRIs) cause a substantial mortality, morbidity and economic burden. The present study reported the global, regional and national burden of LRIs and their attributable risk factors in 204 countries and territories, between 1990 and 2019, by age, sex, etiology, and Socio-demographic Index (SDI). Methods: Using publicly available data from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study 2019, we reported the incidence, deaths and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), due to LRIs. Estimates were presented as counts and age-standardized rates per 100,000 population with their associated uncertainty intervals (UIs). Results: Globally, in 2019 there were 488.9 million (95% UI: 457.6 to 522.6) incident cases and 2.4 million (2.3-2.7) deaths due to LRIs. The global age-standardized incidence and death rates for LRIs were 6,295 (5,887.4-6,737.3) and 34.3 (31.1-37.9) per 100,000 in 2019, which represents a 23.9% (22.5-25.4) and 48.5% (42.9-54.0) decrease, respectively since 1990. In 2019, Guinea [12,390.4 (11,495.5-13,332.8)], Chad [12,208.1 (11,289.3-13,202.5)] and India [11,862.1 (11,087.0-12,749.0)] had the three highest age-standardized incidence rates of LRI. Equatorial Guinea [-52.7% (95% UI: -55.8 to -49.3)], Chile [-50.2% (95% UI: -53.4 to -47.0)] and Albania [-48.6% (95% UI: -51.7 to -45.3)] showed the largest decreases from 1990 to 2019. In 2019, a decrease in the incidence rate of LRI was observed at the global level up to the 25-29 age group, then the incidence rates increased with age. The burden of LRIs decreased with increasing SDI at both the regional and national levels. Globally, child wasting (33.1%), household air pollution from solid fuels (24.9%) and a lack of access to handwashing facilities (14.4%) made the largest contributions to the LRI burden in 2019. Conclusions: Although the burden of LRIs decreased over the period 1990-2019, LRIs still contribute to a large number of incident cases, deaths and DALYs. Preventative programs with a focus on reducing exposure to attributable risk factors should be implemented, especially in less developed countries.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution , Respiratory Tract Infections , Child , Humans , Risk Factors , Global Burden of Disease , Incidence , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology
3.
J Bras Pneumol ; 49(1): e20220235, 2023.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36700572

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence, outcomes, and predictors of multidrug-resistant nosocomial lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) in patients in an ICU. METHODS: This was an observational cohort study involving patients with nosocomial LRTI (health care-associated pneumonia, hospital-acquired pneumonia, or ventilator-associated pneumonia). Data were prospectively collected between 2015 and 2019. The multidrug-resistant pathogens (MDRPs) identified in the isolates studied included resistant to extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant and carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus at microbiological diagnosis. RESULTS: During the study period, 267 patients in the ICU were diagnosed with LRTI, microbiological confirmation of LRTI having been obtained in 237. Of these, 146 (62%) had at least one MDRP isolate. Patients infected with MDRP were found to have poorer outcomes than patients infected with susceptible strains, such as prolonged mechanical ventilation (18.0 days vs. 12.0 days; p < 0.001), prolonged ICU length of stay (23.0 days vs.16.0 days; p < 0.001), and higher mortality (73% vs. 53%; p < 0.001) when compared with patients infected with susceptible strains. Hospital length of stay ≥ 5 days (OR = 3.20; 95% CI: 1.39-7.39; p = 0.005) and prolonged use vasoactive drugs (OR = 3.15; 95% CI: 1.42-7.01; p = 0.004) were independent predictors of LRTI caused by MDRPs (LRTI-MDRP). The presence of LRTI-MDRP was found to be an independent predictor of death (OR = 2.311; 95% CI: 1.091-4.894; p = 0.028). CONCLUSIONS: Prolonged use of vasoactive drugs and prolonged hospital length of stay were independent predictors of LRTI-MDRP in this population of critically ill patients with very poor outcomes.


Subject(s)
Cross Infection , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated , Respiratory Tract Infections , Humans , Prevalence , Cross Infection/drug therapy , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Hospitals , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/epidemiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
4.
Ann Afr Med ; 22(1): 77-81, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36695226

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), frequently due to respiratory tract infection is the major cause of morbidity and mortality, and estimate suggests that it is currently the third leading cause of death worldwide. Aims and Objectives: This study aims to study the prevalence of nontubercular bacterial and fungal infections in patients of COPD. Materials and Methods: It is an observational study done for 1-year period from August 2017 to July 2018. A total of 100 COPD patients who fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria were analyzed in the present study. These cases were classified according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) combined assessment criteria and subjected to sputum or in some cases Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid examination for nontubercular bacterial and fungal pathogens. Serum galactomannan assay, bronchoscopy, and computed tomography chest were done in selected cases. Results: The age of the study population ranged from 40 to 85 years and the mean age was 60.01 ± 9.85 years. Majority of the patients were male (81.0%) and most (78.0%) of them were smokers. Most of the patients belonged to GOLD Grades 2 and 3. Forty-six percent of the patients did show pathogenic organisms in sputum examination. Out of these, 80.4% were bacterial, mainly Gram-negative organisms (Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter, Proteus, and Citrobacter) and 19.6% of cases were having fungal infections (Candida and Aspergillus). Conclusions: Increasing patient age, smoking habit, and severity of COPD were related to an increasing frequency of bacterial and fungal infections. Early detection and proper treatment could help in preventing the morbidity and mortality related to COPD.


Résumé Introduction: L'exacerbation aiguë de la maladie pulmonaire obstructive chronique (MPOC), souvent en raison de l'infection des voies respiratoires, est la principale cause de morbidité et de mortalité, et l'estimation suggère qu'il s'agit actuellement de la troisième cause de décès dans le monde. Objectifs et objectifs: Cette étude vise à étudier la prévalence des infections bactériennes et fongiques non tubulaires chez les patients de la MPOC. Matériaux et méthodes: Il s'agit d'une étude d'observation réalisée pour une période de 1 an d'août 2017 à juillet 2018. Un total de 100 patients atteints de MPOC qui remplissaient les critères d'inclusion et d'exclusion ont été analysés dans la présente étude. Ces cas ont été classés selon l'initiative globale des critères d'évaluation combinés chroniques obstructifs (OR) et soumis à des expectorations ou dans certains cas examen des liquides de lavage bronchoalvéolaire (BAL) pour les agents pathogènes bactéries et fongiques non tubulaires. Le test de galactomannane sérique, la bronchoscopie et le poitrine de tomodensitométrie ont été effectués dans certains cas. Résultats: L'âge de la population d'étude variait de 40 à 85 ans et l'âge moyen était de 60,01 ± 9,85 ans. La majorité des patients étaient des hommes (81,0%) et la plupart (78,0%) d'entre eux étaient des fumeurs. La plupart des patients appartenaient à GOLD GRADES 2 et 3. Quarante-six pour cent des patients ont montré des organismes pathogènes à l'examen des expectorations. Parmi ceux-ci, 80,4% étaient des organismes bactériens, principalement à Gram - négatifs (Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter, Proteus et Citrobacter) et 19,6% des cas avaient des infections fongiques (Candida et 23 aspergillus). Conclusions: L'âge croissant du patient, l'habitude du tabagisme et la gravité de la MPOC étaient liés à une fréquence croissante des infections bactériennes et fongiques. La détection précoce et le traitement approprié pourraient aider à prévenir la morbidité et la mortalité liées à la MPOC. Mots-clés: Maladie pulmonaire obstructive chronique, infection fongique, initiative mondiale pour la maladie pulmonaire obstructive chronique, infection bactérienne non tuberculeuse.


Subject(s)
Mycoses , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Respiratory Tract Infections , Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Adult , Aged, 80 and over , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Smoking , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/microbiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/microbiology
5.
Viruses ; 15(1)2022 Dec 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36680053

ABSTRACT

Three epidemic waves of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) occurred in Madagascar from March 2020 to May 2022, with a positivity rate of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) of 21% to 33%. Our study aimed to identify the impact of COVID-19 on the epidemiology of seasonal respiratory viruses (RVs) in Madagascar. We used two different specimen sources (SpS). First, 2987 nasopharyngeal (NP) specimens were randomly selected from symptomatic patients between March 2020 and May 2022 who tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 and were tested for 14 RVs by multiplex real-time PCR. Second, 6297 NP specimens were collected between March 2020 and May 2022 from patients visiting our sentinel sites of the influenza sentinel network. The samples were tested for influenza, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and SARS-CoV-2. From SpS-1, 19% (569/2987) of samples tested positive for at least one RV. Rhinovirus (6.3%, 187/2987) was the most frequently detected virus during the first two waves, whereas influenza predominated during the third. From SpS-2, influenza, SARS-CoV-2, and RSV accounted for 5.4%, 24.5%, and 39.4% of the detected viruses, respectively. During the study period, we observed three different RV circulation profiles. Certain viruses circulated sporadically, with increased activity in between waves of SARS-CoV-2. Other viruses continued to circulate regardless of the COVID-19 situation. Certain viruses were severely disrupted by the spread of SARS-CoV-2. Our findings underline the importance and necessity of maintaining an integrated disease surveillance system for the surveillance and monitoring of RVs of public health interest.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Viruses , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Pandemics , Madagascar/epidemiology , Seasons , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Viruses/genetics , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/genetics
6.
JAMA Netw Open ; 6(1): e2250634, 2023 Jan 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36662530

ABSTRACT

Importance: Little is known about the burden and outcomes of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-positive acute respiratory infection (ARI) in community-dwelling older adults. Objective: To assess the incidence of RSV-positive ARI before and during the COVID-19 pandemic, and to assess outcomes for RSV-positive ARI in older adults. Design, Setting, and Participants: This was a community-based cohort study of adults residing in southeast Minnesota that followed up with 2325 adults aged 50 years or older for 2 RSV seasons (2019-2021) to assess the incidence of RSV-positive ARI. The study assessed outcomes at 2 to 4 weeks, 6 to 7 months, and 12 to 13 months after RSV-positive ARI. Exposure: RSV-positive and -negative ARI. Main Outcomes and Measures: RSV status was the main study outcome. Incidence and attack rates of RSV-positive ARI were calculated during each RSV season, including before (October 2019 to April 2020) and during (October 2020 to April 2021) COVID-19 pandemic, and further calculated during non-RSV season (May to September 2021) for assessing impact of COVID-19. The self-reported quality of life (QOL) by Short-Form Health Survey-36 (SF-36) and physical functional measures (eg, 6-minute walk and spirometry) at each time point was assessed. Results: In this study of 2325 participants, the median (range) age of study participants was 67 (50-98) years, 1380 (59%) were female, and 2240 (96%) were non-Hispanic White individuals. The prepandemic incidence rate of RSV-positive ARI was 48.6 (95% CI, 36.9-62.9) per 1000 person-years with a 2.50% (95% CI, 1.90%-3.21%) attack rate. No RSV-positive ARI case was identified during the COVID-19 pandemic RSV season. Incidence of 10.2 (95% CI, 4.1-21.1) per 1000 person-years and attack rate of 0.42%; (95% CI, 0.17%-0.86%) were observed during the summer of 2021. Based on prepandemic RSV season results, participants with RSV-positive ARI (vs matched RSV-negative ARI) reported significantly lower QOL adjusted mean difference (limitations due to physical health, -16.7 [95% CI, -31.8 to -1.8]; fatigue, -8.4 [95% CI, -14.3 to -2.4]; and difficulty in social functioning, -11.9 [95% CI, -19.8 to -4.0] within 2 to 4 weeks after RSV-positive ARI [ie, short-term outcome]). Compared with participants with RSV-negative ARI, those with RSV-positive ARI also had lower QOL (fatigue: -4.0 [95% CI, -8.5 to -1.3]; difficulty in social functioning, -5.8 [95% CI, -10.3 to -1.3]; and limitation due to emotional problem, -7.0 [95% CI, -12.7 to -1.3] at 6 to 7 months after RSV-positive ARI [intermediate-term outcome]; fatigue, -4.4 [95% CI, -7.3 to -1.5]; difficulty in social functioning, -5.2 [95% CI, -8.7 to -1.7] and limitation due to emotional problem, -5.7 [95% CI, -10.7 to -0.6] at 12-13 months after RSV-positive ARI [ie, long-term outcomes]) independent of age, sex, race and/or ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and high-risk comorbidities. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, the burden of RSV-positive ARI in older adults during the pre-COVID-19 period was substantial. After a reduction of RSV-positive ARI incidence from October 2020 to April 2021, RSV-positive ARI re-emerged during the summer of 2021. RSV-positive ARI was associated with significant long-term lower QOL beyond the short-term lower QOL in older adults.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Tract Infections , Humans , Female , Aged , Male , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Incidence , Quality of Life , Cohort Studies , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Health Surveys
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 23(1): 41, 2023 Jan 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36670378

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to demonstrate both the four-year prevalence trend of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) in a large tertiary hospital and the trend regarding the prevalence of HAIs following the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in order to provide evidence of hospital infection management during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Based on the hospital's electronic nosocomial infection databases related to HAIs, we retrospectively identified the HAI cases to assess the epidemiological characteristics of HAIs from January 1, 2018, to December 31, 2021, in a large tertiary hospital in China. Similarly, the trends of HAIs after the COVID-19 outbreak and the seasonal variation of HAIs were further analyzed. RESULTS: The HAI cases (n = 7833) were identified from the inpatients (n = 483,258) during the 4 years. The most frequently occurring underlying cause of HAIs was respiratory tract infections (44.47%), followed by bloodstream infections (11.59%), and urinary tract infections (8.69%). The annual prevalence of HAIs decreased from 2.39% in 2018 to 1.41% in 2021 (P = 0.032), with the overall prevalence of HAIs significantly decreasing since the outbreak of COVID-19 (2.20% in 2018-2019 vs. 1.44% in 2020-2021, P < 0.001). The prevalence of respiratory tract infections decreased most significantly; whereas, overall, the prevalence of HAIs was significantly greater during the winter compared with the rest of the year. CONCLUSIONS: Not only did the annual prevalence of HAIs decrease from 2018 to 2021, but it also significantly decreased since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, particularly respiratory tract infections. These results provide evidence for the need to prevent HAIs, especially during the winter season.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Respiratory Tract Infections , Humans , Tertiary Care Centers , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care
8.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 57(1): 35-42, 2023 Jan 06.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36655255

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the epidemiological characteristics of human adenovirus (HADV) 2, 3 and 7 in hospitalized children with respiratory infection. Methods: A total of 25 686 children with respiratory infection hospitalized at Children's Hospital of Hebei Province from January 2018 to December 2020 were retrospectively included.Deep sputum or nasopharyngeal aspirates of those children were collected. Then thirteen common respiratory pathogens were detected by multiplex PCR. 510 HADV positive specimens were randomly selected via random number and classified for type 2, 3 and 7 using a multiplex real-time quantitative PCR. SPSS 21.0 software was used to perform all of the statistical analyses. Enumeration data were expressed by frequency and percentage. χ2 test was used for comparison between groups. Results: The HADV-positive rate was 7.99% (2 052/25 686). Children at age 3-<6 years had the highest HADV-positive rate (11.44%). The HADV-positive rate in 2019 was highest (10.64%). Among the 510 HADV-positive specimens, the proportion of type 3 was the highest (31.16%), followed by type 7 (21.37%) and type 2 (11.18%). The rate of type 2 in 2019 was significantly lower than that in 2018 and 2020 (χ2=8.954 and 16.354; P=0.003 and <0.01), while the rate of type 3 was significantly higher than that in 2018 and 2020 (χ2=5.248 and 4.811; P=0.022 and 0.028). The rate of type 2, type 3 and type 7 were lowest in winter, spring and autumn, respectively. The rate of type 2 increased significantly in autumn and the rate of type 3 and type 7 increased significantly in winter.The co-detection rate of HADV with other respiratory pathogens was 43.33%(221/510). Among, the co-detection rate of type 3 was highest (47.32%), and the co-detection rate of type 2, 3 and 7 was significantly higher than the alone detection rate (χ2=20.438, P<0.01; χ2=42.105, P<0.01; χ2=27.573, P<0.01).The proportion of severe pneumonia in children with type 7 positive (15.89%) was higher than that in children with non-type 7 positive (8.23%) (χ2=5.260, P=0.022). Conclusion: HADV is one of the important pathogens of children with respiratory infection in Children's Hospital of Hebei Province. The susceptible population of HADV is preschool children aged 3 to 6 years. HADV often co-detects with other respiratory pathogens. Type 3 and 7 is likely to be the dominant genotypes in this region, and type 7 may be one of the risk factors of severe pneumonia in children.


Subject(s)
Adenovirus Infections, Human , Adenoviruses, Human , Pneumonia , Respiratory Tract Infections , Child, Preschool , Child , Humans , Infant , Adenoviruses, Human/genetics , Child, Hospitalized , Retrospective Studies , Adenovirus Infections, Human/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Hospitals
9.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 868, 2023 Jan 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36650192

ABSTRACT

Although substantial progress has been made in reducing child mortality over the last three decades, the magnitude of the problem remains immense. Ethiopia is one of the countries with a high under-five mortality rate due to childhood illnesses including acute respiratory infections, diarrhea, and fever that varies from place to place. It is vital to have evidence of the factors associated with childhood illnesses and the spatial distribution across the country to prioritize and design targeted interventions. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the spatial cluster distribution and associated factors with common childhood illnesses. Secondary data analysis based on the 2016 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey data was carried out. A total weighted sample of 10,417 children was included. The study used ArcGIS and SaTScan software to explore spatial distribution. For associated factors, a multilevel binary logistic regression model was fitted using STATA V.14 software. Adjusted Odds Ratios (AOR) with a 95% Confidence Interval (CI) and p-value ≤ 0.05 in the multivariable model were used to declare significant factors associated with the problem. ICC, MOR, PCV, and deviance (-2LLR) were used to check model fitness and model comparison. In this study, the prevalence of common childhood illnesses among under-five children was 22.5% (95% CI: 21.6-23.3%). The spatial analysis depicted that common childhood illnesses have significant spatial variation across Ethiopia. The SaTScan analysis identified significant primary clusters in Tigray and Northern Amhara regions (log-likelihood ratio (LLR) = 60.19, p < 0.001). In the multilevel analysis, being rural residence [AOR = 1.39, 95% CI (1.01-1.98)], small child size at birth [AOR = 1.36, 95% CI (1.21-1.55)], high community poverty [AOR = 1.26, 95% CI (1.06-1.52)], mothers aged 35-49 [AOR = 0.81, 95% CI (0.69-0.94)], the household had electricity [AOR = 0.77, 95% CI (0.61-0.98)], the household had a refrigerator [AOR = 0.60, 95% CI (0.42-0.87)], improved drinking water [AOR = 0.82, 95% CI (0.70-0.95)], improved toilet [AOR = 0.72, 95% CI (0.54-0.94)], average child size at birth [AOR = 0.83, 95% CI (0.75-0.94)] were significantly associated with common childhood illnesses. Common childhood illnesses had spatial variations across Ethiopia. Hotspot areas of the problem were found in the Tigray, Northern Amhara, and Northeast SNNPR. Both individual and community-level factors affected common childhood illnesses distribution and prevalence in Ethiopia. Therefore, public health intervention should target the hotspot areas of common childhood illnesses to reduce their incidence in the country.


Subject(s)
Mothers , Respiratory Tract Infections , Infant, Newborn , Female , Humans , Child , Multilevel Analysis , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Birth Weight , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Spatial Analysis , Health Surveys
10.
Environ Health ; 22(1): 6, 2023 Jan 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36641448

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are few studies on the effects of air pollutants on acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRI) in children. Here, we investigated the relationship of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), inhalable particulate matter (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) with the daily number of hospitalizations for ALRI in children in Sichuan Province, China, and to estimate the economic burden of disease due to exposure to air pollutants. METHODS: We collected records of 192,079 cases of childhood ALRI hospitalization between January 1, 2017 and December 31, 2018 from nine municipal/prefecture medical institutions as well as the simultaneous meteorological and air pollution data from 183 monitoring sites in Sichuan Province. A time series-generalized additive model was used to analyze exposure responses and lagged effects while assessing the economic burden caused by air pollutant exposure after controlling for long-term trends, seasonality, day of the week, and meteorological factors. RESULTS: Our single-pollutant model shows that for each 10 µg/m3 increase in air pollutant concentration (1 µg/m3 for SO2), the effect estimates of PM2.5, PM10, SO2, and NO2 for pneumonia reached their maximum at lag4, lag010, lag010, and lag07, respectively, with relative risk (RR) values of 1.0064 (95% CI, 1.0004-1.0124), 1.0168(95% CI 1.0089-1.0248), 1.0278 (95% CI 1.0157-1.0400), and 1.0378 (95% CI, 1.0072-1.0692). By contrast, the effect estimates of PM2.5, PM10, SO2, and NO2 for bronchitis all reached their maximum at lag010, with RRs of 1.0133 (95% CI 1.0025-1.0242), 1.0161(95% CI 1.0085-1.0238), 1.0135 (95% CI 1.0025-1.0247), and 1.1133(95% CI 1.0739-1.1541). In addition, children aged 5-14 years were more vulnerable to air pollutants than those aged 0-4 years (p < 0.05). According to the World Health Organization's air quality guidelines, the number of ALRI hospitalizations attributed to PM2.5, PM10, and NO2 pollution during the study period was 7551, 10,151, and 7575, respectively, while the incurring economic burden was CNY 2847.06, 3827.27, and 2855.91 million. CONCLUSION: This study shows that in Sichuan Province, elevated daily average concentrations of four air pollutants lead to increases in numbers of childhood ALRI hospitalizations and cause a serious economic burden.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , Respiratory Tract Infections , Child , Humans , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollutants/analysis , Nitrogen Dioxide/adverse effects , Nitrogen Dioxide/analysis , Financial Stress , Air Pollution/analysis , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/analysis , China/epidemiology
11.
J Glob Health ; 13: 04001, 2023 Jan 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36637855

ABSTRACT

Background: Globally, the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common etiologic agent of acute respiratory illnesses in children. However, its burden has not been well addressed in developing countries. We aimed to estimate the molecular epidemiology of RSV in children less than 18 years of age with acute respiratory infections in Africa by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods: We systematically searched PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL, and Global Index Medicus databases to identify studies published from January 1, 2002, to April 27, 2022, following the PRISMA 2020 guideline. We assessed the study quality using the Joanna Brigg's Institute (JBI) critical appraisal checklists. We conducted a qualitative synthesis by describing the characteristics of included studies and performed the quantitative synthesis with random effects model using STATA-14. We checked for heterogeneity with Q statistics, quantified by I2, and determined the prediction interval. We performed subgroup analyses to explain the sources of heterogeneity and assessed publication biases by funnel plots augmented with Egger's test. Results: Eighty-eight studies with 105 139 participants were included in the review. The overall pooled prevalence of RSV in children <18 years of age was 23% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 20, 25%). Considerable heterogeneity was present across the included studies. The adjusted prediction interval was found to be 19%-27%. Heterogeneities were explained by subgroups analyses. The highest prevalence of RSV was found among inpatients, 28% (95% CI = 25, 31%) compared with inpatients/outpatients and outpatients, with statistically significant differences (P < 0.01). The RSV estimate was also highest among those with acute lower respiratory tract illnesses (ALRTIs), 28% (95% CI = 25, 31%) compared with acute upper respiratory tract illnesses (AURTIs) and both acute upper/lower respiratory manifestations, with statistically different prevalence (P < 0.01). RSV infection estimates in each sub-region of Africa were statistically different (P < 0.01). There were no statistically significant differences in RSV infections by designs, specimen types, and specimen conditions, despite them contributing to heterogeneity. Conclusions: We found a high prevalence of RSV in pediatric populations with acute respiratory tract illnesses in Africa, highlighting that the prevention and control of RSV infections in children deserve more attention. Registration: PROSPERO CRD42022327054.


Subject(s)
Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Child , Humans , Infant , Molecular Epidemiology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/genetics , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Africa/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology
12.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 42(2): e52-e53, 2023 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36638407

ABSTRACT

The epidemiology and clinical manifestations of human metapneumovirus are not well studied in infants younger than 60 days of age. In this retrospective review of infants admitted for sepsis evaluation, we identified HMPV less frequently than other viral etiologies via nasopharyngeal multiplex polymerase chain reaction testing; in only 16 (1.9%) infants. Two infants had apneic episodes, but none had wheezing.


Subject(s)
Metapneumovirus , Paramyxoviridae Infections , Sepsis , Humans , Infant , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Metapneumovirus/genetics , Metapneumovirus/isolation & purification , Nasopharynx , Paramyxoviridae Infections/diagnosis , Paramyxoviridae Infections/epidemiology , Paramyxoviridae Infections/virology , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sepsis/diagnosis , Sepsis/epidemiology , Sepsis/etiology , Sepsis/virology , Age Factors
13.
Saudi Med J ; 44(1): 74-79, 2023 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36634950

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To explore the differences between COVID-19 and upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) in the pediatric population, emphasizing smell and taste disturbances. METHODS: A case-control study included 468 patients, 234 with COVID-19 (cases) and 234 with URTI (controls) at a tertiary hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from 2020-2021. Patients with bacterial URTI, lower tract respiratory infections, and speech or developmental delays were excluded. Statistical analysis was carried out using Statistical Analysis System, 9.2 version. A p-value of ≤0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: The male-to-female ratio was almost equal, with a mean age of 9.90±2.34. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that a change in taste significantly increases the probability of COVID-19 by 21.98 times. On the other hand, sore throat (81.5%), dyspnea (63.5%), nasal obstruction (72.7%), and otalgia significantly (74.8%) decrease the likelihood of COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Taste disturbances increase the probability of COVID-19 infections, whereas sore throat, dyspnea, nasal obstruction, and otalgia increase the likelihood of other URTIs. The described differences might aid physicians in their differential diagnosis and treatment during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nasal Obstruction , Pharyngitis , Respiratory Tract Infections , Humans , Male , Child , Female , COVID-19/epidemiology , Earache , Case-Control Studies , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Pain , Dyspnea
14.
Virol J ; 20(1): 4, 2023 Jan 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36624458

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Under the pressure of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) targeting severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, the prevalence of human adenovirus (HAdV) was monitored before and after NPIs launched on Jan 24, 2020 in pediatric patients in Beijing, China. METHODS: Respiratory samples collected from children hospitalized with acute respiratory infections from Jan 2015 to Dec 2021 were screened by direct immunofluorescence test or capillary electrophoresis-based multiplex PCR assay. The hexon, penton base, and fiber genes were amplified from HAdV positive specimens, then sequenced. For HAdV typing, phylogenetic trees were built by MEGA X. Then clinical data of HAdV positive cases were collected. All data were evaluated using SPSS Statistics 22.0 software. RESULTS: A total of 16,097 children were enrolled and 466 (2.89%, 466/16,097) were HAdV-positive. The positive rates of HAdV varied, ranging from 4.39% (151/3,438) in 2018 to1.25% (26/2,081) in 2021, dropped from 3.19% (428/13,408) to 1.41% (38/2,689) from before to after NPIs launched (P < 0.001). There were 350 cases typed into nine types of species B, C, or E and 34 recorded as undetermined. Among them, HAdV-B3 (51.56%, 198/384) was the most prevalent types from 2015 to 2017, and HAdV-B7 (29.17%, 112/384) co-circulated with HAdV-B3 from 2018 to 2019. After NPIs launched, HAdV-B3 and B7 decreased sharply with HAdV-B7 undetected in 2021, while HAdV-C1 became the dominant one and the undetermined were more. CONCLUSIONS: The endemic pattern of HAdV changed in Beijing because of the NPIs launched for COVID-19. Especially, the dominant types changed from HAdV-B to HAdV-C.


Subject(s)
Adenovirus Infections, Human , Adenoviruses, Human , COVID-19 , Respiratory Tract Infections , Child , Humans , Beijing/epidemiology , Adenoviruses, Human/genetics , Phylogeny , Adenovirus Infections, Human/epidemiology , Adenovirus Infections, Human/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction
15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(1)2022 Dec 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36612552

ABSTRACT

Personal and household hygiene measures are important for preventing upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) and other infectious diseases, including coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). An online survey recruited 414 eligible parents in Hong Kong to study their hygiene knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAPs) regarding the prevention of URTIs among their children. The average knowledge score was high (10.2/12.0), but some misconceptions were identified. The majority of the participants agreed that good personal hygiene (93.5%) and good environmental hygiene (92.8%) can prevent URTIs. The average score for hand hygiene practices was high (3.78/4.00), but only 56.8% of the parents always performed hand hygiene before touching their mouths, noses, or eyes. In terms of environmental hygiene, only some household items were disinfected with disinfectants (door handles in 69.8% of the households, toilet seats in 60.4% of the households, the floor in 42.8% of the households, dining chairs in 24.2% of the households, and dining tables in 20.5% of the households). A higher knowledge score was associated with parents having tertiary educational levels or above, working as healthcare professionals, living in private residential flats or staff quarters, or having household incomes of HKD 70,000 or above. The results of multiple regression analyses also indicated that parents who were healthcare professionals and with higher household income had a better parental knowledge of hygiene measures after adjusting the attitude score. For hand hygiene, parents who achieved higher attitude scores obtained higher practice scores. Under the fifth wave of the COVID-19 epidemic, there were some misconceptions regarding hygiene among parents. Any health promotion program should target parents regarding taking proper personal and household hygienic measures, especially for those who had relatively lower socio-economic status and/or from a non-healthcare background. Motivating attitudes toward hand hygiene can lead to better practices.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hand Hygiene , Respiratory Tract Infections , Humans , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , Hygiene , Surveys and Questionnaires
16.
BMC Pulm Med ; 23(1): 2, 2023 Jan 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36600241

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lower respiratory infections (LRIs) cause substantial mortality and morbidity. The present study reported and analysed the burden of LRIs in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region between 1990 and 2019, by age, sex, etiology, and socio-demographic index (SDI). METHODS: The data used in this study were sourced from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study 2019. The annual incidence, deaths, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) due to LRIs were presented as counts and age-standardised rates per 100,000 population, along with their 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs). The average annual percent changes (AAPC) in the age-standardised incidence, death and DALYs rates were calculated using Joinpoint software and correlations (Pearson's correlation coefficient) between the AAPCs and SDIs were calculated using Stata software. RESULTS: In 2019, there were 34.1 million (95% UI 31.7-36.8) incident cases of LRIs in MENA, with an age-standardised rate of 6510.2 (95% UI 6063.6-6997.8) per 100,000 population. The number of regional DALYs was 4.7 million (95% UI 3.9-5.4), with an age-standardised rate of 888.5 (95% UI 761.1-1019.9) per 100,000 population, which has decreased since 1990. Furthermore, Egypt [8150.8 (95% UI 7535.8-8783.5)] and Afghanistan [61.9 (95% UI 52.1-72.6)] had the highest age-standardised incidence and death rates, respectively. In 2019, the regional incidence and DALY rates were highest in the 1-4 age group, in both females and males. In terms of deaths, pneumococcus and H. influenza type B were the most and least common types of LRIs, respectively. From 1990 to 2019, the burden of LRIs generally decreased with increasing SDI. There were significant positive correlations between SDI and the AAPCs for the age-standardised incidence, death and DALY rates (p < 0.05). Over the 1990-2019 period, the regional incidence, deaths and DALYs attributable to LRIs decreased with AAPCs of - 1.19% (- 1.25 to - 1.13), - 2.47% (- 2.65 to - 2.28) and - 4.21% (- 4.43 to - 3.99), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The LRI-associated burden in the MENA region decreased between 1990 and 2019. SDI had a significant positive correlation with the AAPC and pneumococcus was the most common underlying cause of LRIs. Afghanistan, Yemen and Egypt had the largest burdens in 2019. Further studies are needed to investigate the effectiveness of healthcare interventions and programs to control LRIs and their risk factors.


Subject(s)
Global Burden of Disease , Respiratory Tract Infections , Male , Female , Humans , Quality-Adjusted Life Years , Risk Factors , Incidence , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Africa, Northern/epidemiology , Middle East/epidemiology , Prevalence
17.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0278932, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36595501

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate the impact of the prolonged COVID-19 pandemic on outpatient antibiotic prescriptions for pediatric respiratory infections at an acute care hospital in Japan in order to direct future pediatric outpatient antibiotic stewardship. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and the FilmArray Respiratory Panel (RP) on outpatient antibiotic prescriptions was assessed from January 2019 to December 2021 using an interrupted time series analysis of children <20 years. The overall antimicrobial prescription rate decreased from 38.7% to 22.4% from the pre-pandemic period to the pandemic. The pandemic (relative risk [RR] level, 0.97 [0.58-1.61]; P = 0.90; RR slope, 1.05 [0.95-1.17] per month; P = 0.310) and FilmArray RP (RR level, 0.90 [0.46-1.75]; P = 0.75; RR slope, 0.95 [0.85-1.06] per month; P = 0.330) had no significant effect on the monthly antibiotic prescription rates. The COVID-19 pandemic was not significantly related to the antibiotic prescription rate, suggesting that it did not impact physicians' behavior toward antibiotic prescriptions. Replacing rapid antigen tests with the FilmArray RP introduced on December 1, 2020, did not affect the magnitude of the reduction in antibiotic prescription rate for pediatric respiratory infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Tract Infections , Child , Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Outpatients , COVID-19/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Drug Prescriptions , Practice Patterns, Physicians'
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(51): e32423, 2022 Dec 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36595873

ABSTRACT

Lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) is still a threat to human health. Metagenomics next-generation sequencing (NGS) provides an efficient and unbiased way to identify LRTI pathogens, and has been shown to have several advantages over traditional methods. However, its application is currently limited in low-resource settings. Our aim was to collect and analyze data on LRTI cases at a county-level community hospital in Eastern China over one year, in order to compare the efficiency of NGS and traditional methods including culture, nucleic acid amplification and antibody techniques. We performed NGS of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) for pathogen identification in 71 patients with LRTI. We compared the detection rates, identified pathogens, and turnaround time of NGS with traditional methods. Pathogens were detected using traditional methods in 19 cases, and the results were compared with those obtained with the NGS technique in 60 cases. The pathogen detection rate of NGS (84.5%) was much higher than that of the traditional methods (26.8%). Moreover, with the traditional methods considered the gold standard, the consistency rate between NGS and traditional methods was 68.4%. For the 19 cases in which the traditional method was used, the main pathogens included invasive Aspergillus (5 cases), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (3 cases), Candida albicans (3 cases), and Staphylococcus aureus (2 cases). Among the 60 cases detected by NGS, the main pathogens included Mycobacterium (12 cases), Streptococcus pneumoniae (5 cases), Klebsiella pneumoniae (3 cases), P. aeruginosa (3 cases), Haemophilus influenzae (3 cases), and S. aureus (3 cases), Aspergillus (9 cases), Pneumocystis jiroveci (5 cases), C. albicans (3 cases), Human Papilloma Virus (9 cases), Epstein-Barr virus (8 cases), and parvovirus (6 cases). In addition, 2 cases of chlamydia and 1 case of mycoplasma infection were detected by NGS. The time taken to perform the NGS tests was significantly shorter than that taken with the traditional method. NGS analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, in combination with traditional pathogen detection methods, can improve the efficiency of pathogen detection. More attention should be paid to the regional epidemic characteristics of infectious pathogens in LRTI.


Subject(s)
Epstein-Barr Virus Infections , Respiratory Tract Infections , Humans , Staphylococcus aureus , Hospitals, Community , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/microbiology , China/epidemiology , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing
19.
Front Public Health ; 10: 906248, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36582369

ABSTRACT

Background: In India, acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are a leading cause of mortality in children under 5 years. Mapping the hotspots of ARIs and the associated risk factors can help understand their association at the district level across India. Methods: Data on ARIs in children under 5 years and household variables (unclean fuel, improved sanitation, mean maternal BMI, mean household size, mean number of children, median months of breastfeeding the children, percentage of poor households, diarrhea in children, low birth weight, tobacco use, and immunization status of children) were obtained from the National Family Health Survey-4. Surface and ground-monitored PM2.5 and PM10 datasets were collected from the Global Estimates and National Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Programme. Population density and illiteracy data were extracted from the Census of India. The geographic information system was used for mapping, and ARI hotspots were identified using the Getis-Ord Gi* spatial statistic. The quasi-Poisson regression model was used to estimate the association between ARI and household, children, maternal, environmental, and demographic factors. Results: Acute respiratory infections hotspots were predominantly seen in the north Indian states/UTs of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Delhi, Haryana, Punjab, and Chandigarh, and also in the border districts of Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh, and Jammu and Kashmir. There is a substantial overlap among PM2.5, PM10, population density, tobacco smoking, and unclean fuel use with hotspots of ARI. The quasi-Poisson regression analysis showed that PM2.5, illiteracy levels, diarrhea in children, and maternal body mass index were associated with ARI. Conclusion: To decrease ARI in children, urgent interventions are required to reduce the levels of PM2.5 and PM10 (major environmental pollutants) in the hotspot districts. Furthermore, improving sanitation, literacy levels, using clean cooking fuel, and curbing indoor smoking may minimize the risk of ARI in children.


Subject(s)
Respiratory Tract Infections , Female , Humans , Child , Child, Preschool , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Risk Factors , India/epidemiology , Particulate Matter , Diarrhea
20.
Clin Med Res ; 20(4): 185-194, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36581396

ABSTRACT

Objective: In 2019, the American Thoracic Society and Infectious Diseases Society of America updated clinical practice guidelines for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). In contrast to guidelines published in 2007, macrolide monotherapy for outpatients was made a conditional recommendation based on resistance levels. Local knowledge of current antimicrobial susceptibility is needed to guide management of CAP and other bacterial respiratory pathogens. The purpose of this study was to investigate antimicrobial susceptibility profiles and trending for Wisconsin Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates.Design: Multi-center laboratory surveillance, with testing at a central location utilizing standardized susceptibility testing protocols.Methods: Data published by the Wisconsin Department of Health Services (DHS) were augmented with data from the Surveillance of Wisconsin Organisms for Trends in Antimicrobial Resistance and Epidemiology (SWOTARE) program. Data were stratified by invasive or non-invasive sources, as well as DHS region and compared to data compiled from 2006-2010.Results: Susceptibility rates for ≥ 916 invasive S. pneumoniae assessed from 2016-2020 were greater than 91% for ceftriaxone, tetracycline, and fluoroquinolone agents and were generally higher than those from 354 non-invasive isolates. Low susceptibility rates were observed for invasive isolates of penicillin (78.7%) and erythromycin (64.8%) and were even lower for non-invasive isolates (73.8% and 59.9%, respectively). This erythromycin susceptibility rate was a significant reduction from that observed in 2006-2010 (80.4; P < 0.0002). 24.8% of isolates generated an erythromycin MIC ≥ 8 µg/mL. Statewide geographic variability was noted.Conclusions: Rates of S. pneumoniae susceptibility to parenteral penicillins and cephems, and oral tetracycline and fluoroquinolone agents, remain high throughout Wisconsin. However, low oral penicillin susceptibility rates, taken together with declining macrolide susceptibility rates, should cause clinicians to consider alternative treatment options for respiratory tract infections, especially with macrolides.


Subject(s)
Pneumonia , Respiratory Tract Infections , Humans , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Wisconsin/epidemiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/microbiology , Penicillins/therapeutic use , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Erythromycin/therapeutic use , Macrolides/therapeutic use , Fluoroquinolones/therapeutic use , Tetracyclines/therapeutic use
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