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1.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264220, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745322

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Assess the IntelliSep Index (ISI) for risk stratification of patients presenting to the Emergency Department (ED) with respiratory symptoms suspected of COVID-19 during the pandemic. METHODS: An observational single-center study of prospective cohort of patients presenting to the ED during the early COVID-19 pandemic with respiratory symptoms and a CBC drawn within 4.5 hours of initial vital signs. A sample of this blood was aliquoted for performance of the ISI, and patients were followed for clinical outcomes. The study required no patient-centered activity beyond standard of care and treating clinicians were unaware of study enrollment and ISI test results. MAIN FINDINGS: 282 patients were included. The ISI ranges 0.1 to 10.0, with three interpretation bands indicating risk of adverse outcome: low (green), 0.1-4.9; intermediate (yellow), 5.0-6.2; and high (red), 6.3-10.0. Of 193 (68.4%) tested for SARS-CoV-2, 96 (49.7%) were positive. The ISI resulted in 182 (64.5%) green, 54 (18.1%) yellow, and 46 (15.6%) red band patients. Green band patients had a 1.1% (n = 2) 3-day mortality, while yellow and red band had 3.7% (n = 2, p > .05) and 10.9% (n = 5, p < .05) 3-day mortalities, respectively. Fewer green band patients required admission (96 [52.7%]) vs yellow (44 [81.5%]) and red (43 [93.5%]). Green band patients had more hospital free days (median 23 (Q1-Q3 20-25) than yellow (median 22 [Q1-Q3 0-23], p < 0.05) and red (median 21 [Q1-Q3 0-24], p < 0.01). SOFA increased with interpretation band: green (2, [Q1-Q3 0-4]) vs yellow (4, [Q1-Q3 2-5], p < 0.001) and red (5, [Q1-Q3 3-6]) p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The ISI rapidly risk-stratifies patients presenting to the ED during the early COVID-19 pandemic with signs or suspicion of respiratory infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/etiology , Aged , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Tract Infections/immunology , Respiratory Tract Infections/mortality
2.
BMJ ; 376: e067519, 2022 01 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622028

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of the covid-19 pandemic on hospital admission rates and mortality outcomes for childhood respiratory infections, severe invasive infections, and vaccine preventable disease in England. DESIGN: Population based observational study of 19 common childhood respiratory, severe invasive, and vaccine preventable infections, comparing hospital admission rates and mortality outcomes before and after the onset of the pandemic in England. SETTING: Hospital admission data from every NHS hospital in England from 1 March 2017 to 30 June 2021 with record linkage to national mortality data. POPULATION: Children aged 0-14 years admitted to an NHS hospital with a selected childhood infection from 1 March 2017 to 30 June 2021. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: For each infection, numbers of hospital admissions every month from 1 March 2017 to 30 June 2021, percentage changes in the number of hospital admissions before and after 1 March 2020, and adjusted odds ratios to compare 60 day case fatality outcomes before and after 1 March 2020. RESULTS: After 1 March 2020, substantial and sustained reductions in hospital admissions were found for all but one of the 19 infective conditions studied. Among the respiratory infections, the greatest percentage reductions were for influenza (mean annual number admitted between 1 March 2017 and 29 February 2020 was 5379 and number of children admitted from 1 March 2020 to 28 February 2021 was 304, 94% reduction, 95% confidence interval 89% to 97%), and bronchiolitis (from 51 655 to 9423, 82% reduction, 95% confidence interval 79% to 84%). Among the severe invasive infections, the greatest reduction was for meningitis (50% reduction, 47% to 52%). For the vaccine preventable infections, reductions ranged from 53% (32% to 68%) for mumps to 90% (80% to 95%) for measles. Reductions were seen across all demographic subgroups and in children with underlying comorbidities. Corresponding decreases were also found for the absolute numbers of 60 day case fatalities, although the proportion of children admitted for pneumonia who died within 60 days increased (age-sex adjusted odds ratio 1.71, 95% confidence interval 1.43 to 2.05). More recent data indicate that some respiratory infections increased to higher levels than usual after May 2021. CONCLUSIONS: During the covid-19 pandemic, a range of behavioural changes (adoption of non-pharmacological interventions) and societal strategies (school closures, lockdowns, and restricted travel) were used to reduce transmission of SARS-CoV-2, which also reduced admissions for common and severe childhood infections. Continued monitoring of these infections is required as social restrictions evolve.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , England/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infections/mortality , Male , Quarantine , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/mortality
3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 23741, 2021 12 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1565734

ABSTRACT

The mechanisms explaining excess morbidity and mortality in respiratory infections among males are poorly understood. Innate immune responses are critical in protection against respiratory virus infections. We hypothesised that innate immune responses to respiratory viruses may be deficient in males. We stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 345 participants at age 16 years in a population-based birth cohort with three live respiratory viruses (rhinoviruses A16 and A1, and respiratory syncytial virus) and two viral mimics (R848 and CpG-A, to mimic responses to SARS-CoV-2) and investigated sex differences in interferon (IFN) responses. IFN-α responses to all viruses and stimuli were 1.34-2.06-fold lower in males than females (P = 0.018 - < 0.001). IFN-ß, IFN-γ and IFN-induced chemokines were also deficient in males across all stimuli/viruses. Healthcare records revealed 12.1% of males and 6.6% of females were hospitalized with respiratory infections in infancy (P = 0.017). In conclusion, impaired innate anti-viral immunity in males likely results in high male morbidity and mortality from respiratory virus infections.


Subject(s)
Imidazoles/immunology , Immunity, Innate , Oligodeoxyribonucleotides/immunology , Picornaviridae Infections/immunology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/immunology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/immunology , Rhinovirus/immunology , Adolescent , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Interferons/immunology , Interferons/metabolism , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , Male , Picornaviridae Infections/mortality , Picornaviridae Infections/virology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/mortality , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/virology , Respiratory Tract Infections/immunology , Respiratory Tract Infections/mortality , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors
4.
Nat Hum Behav ; 6(1): 55-63, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1541210

ABSTRACT

The effects of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) public health policies on non-COVID-19-related mortality are unclear. Here, using death registries based on 300 million Chinese people and a difference-in-differences design, we find that China's strict anti-contagion policies during the COVID-19 pandemic significantly reduced non-COVID-19 mortality outside Wuhan (by 4.6%). The health benefits persisted and became even greater after the measures were loosened: mortality was reduced by 12.5% in the medium term. Significant changes in people's behaviours (for example, wearing masks and practising social distancing) and reductions in air pollution and traffic accidents could have driven these results. We estimate that 54,000 lives could have been saved from non-COVID-19 causes during the 50 days of strict policies and 293,000 in the subsequent 115 days. The results suggest that virus countermeasures not only effectively controlled COVID-19 in China but also brought about unintended and substantial public health benefits.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Mortality/trends , Neoplasms/mortality , Respiratory Tract Infections/mortality , Wounds and Injuries/mortality , Accidents, Traffic/trends , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Air Pollution/statistics & numerical data , Cause of Death , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Masks , Middle Aged , Physical Distancing , Public Health , Registries , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
5.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 204(12): 1379-1390, 2021 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430274

ABSTRACT

Rationale: Alteration of human respiratory microbiota had been observed in coronavirus disease (COVID-19). How the microbiota is associated with the prognosis in COVID-19 is unclear. Objectives: To characterize the feature and dynamics of the respiratory microbiota and its associations with clinical features in patients with COVID-19. Methods: We conducted metatranscriptome sequencing on 588 longitudinal oropharyngeal swab specimens collected from 192 patients with COVID-19 (including 39 deceased patients) and 95 healthy controls from the same geographic area. Meanwhile, the concentration of 27 cytokines and chemokines in plasma was measured for patients with COVID-19. Measurements and Main Results: The upper respiratory tract (URT) microbiota in patients with COVID-19 differed from that in healthy controls, whereas deceased patients possessed a more distinct microbiota, both on admission and before discharge/death. The alteration of URT microbiota showed a significant correlation with the concentration of proinflammatory cytokines and mortality. Specifically, Streptococcus-dominated microbiota was enriched in recovered patients, and showed high temporal stability and resistance against pathogens. In contrast, the microbiota in deceased patients was more susceptible to secondary infections and became more deviated from the norm after admission. Moreover, the abundance of S. parasanguinis on admission was significantly correlated with prognosis in nonsevere patients (lower vs. higher abundance, odds ratio, 7.80; 95% CI, 1.70-42.05). Conclusions: URT microbiota dysbiosis is a remarkable manifestation of COVID-19; its association with mortality suggests it may reflect the interplay between pathogens, symbionts, and the host immune status. Whether URT microbiota could be used as a biomarker for diagnosis and prognosis of respiratory diseases merits further investigation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/microbiology , COVID-19/mortality , Microbiota , Respiratory Tract Infections/microbiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/mortality , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 4499, 2021 02 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1383120

ABSTRACT

The purpose of the study was to compare clinical characteristics and mortality among adults infected with human coronaviruses (HCoV) 229E and OC43. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of adults (≥ 18 years) admitted to the ward of a university teaching hospital for suspected viral infection from October 2012 to December 2017. Multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to test for respiratory viruses. Multivariate logistic regression was used to compare mortality among patients with HCoV 229E and HCoV OC43 infections. The main outcome was 30-day all-cause mortality. Of 8071 patients tested, 1689 were found to have a respiratory virus infection. Of these patients, 133 had HCoV infection, including 12 mixed infections, 44 HCoV 229E infections, and 77 HCoV OC43 infections. HCoV 229E infections peaked in January and February, while HCoV OC43 infections occurred throughout the year. The 30-day all-cause mortality was 25.0% among patients with HCoV 229E infection, and 9.1% among patients with HCoV OC43 infection (adjusted odds ratio: 3.58, 95% confidence interval: 1.19-10.75). Infections with HCoVs 229E and OC43 appear to have different seasonal patterns, and HCoV 229E might be more virulent than HCoV OC43.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus 229E, Human/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus OC43, Human/genetics , Aged , Coinfection/mortality , Coinfection/virology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Respiratory Tract Infections/mortality , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Retrospective Studies
7.
Front Immunol ; 12: 621440, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305640

ABSTRACT

The risk of severe outcomes following respiratory tract infections is significantly increased in individuals over 60 years, especially in those with chronic medical conditions, i.e., hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, dementia, chronic respiratory disease, and cancer. Down Syndrome (DS), the most prevalent intellectual disability, is caused by trisomy-21 in ~1:750 live births worldwide. Over the past few decades, a substantial body of evidence has accumulated, pointing at the occurrence of alterations, impairments, and subsequently dysfunction of the various components of the immune system in individuals with DS. This associates with increased vulnerability to respiratory tract infections in this population, such as the influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19), and bacterial pneumonias. To emphasize this link, here we comprehensively review the immunobiology of DS and its contribution to higher susceptibility to severe illness and mortality from respiratory tract infections.


Subject(s)
Down Syndrome/immunology , Immune System/physiology , Orthomyxoviridae/physiology , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses/physiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Diseases/immunology , Adult , Animals , COVID-19 , Down Syndrome/genetics , Down Syndrome/mortality , Humans , Pneumonia , Respiratory Tract Infections/genetics , Respiratory Tract Infections/mortality , Risk , Virus Diseases/genetics , Virus Diseases/mortality
8.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 54(2): 253-260, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1203183

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Transplant recipients are vulnerable to life-threatening community-acquired respiratory viruses (CA-RVs) infection (CA-RVI). Even if non-transplant critically ill patients in intensive care unit (ICU) have serious CA-RVI, comparison between these groups remains unclear. We aimed to evaluate clinical characteristics and mortality of CA-RVI except seasonal influenza A/B in transplant recipients and non-transplant critically ill patients in ICU. METHODS: We collected 37,777 CA-RVs multiplex real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction test results of individuals aged ≥18 years from November 2012 to November 2017. The CA-RVs tests included adenovirus, coronavirus 229E/NL63/OC43, human bocavirus, human metapneumovirus, parainfluenza virus 1/2/3, rhinovirus, and respiratory syncytial virus A/B. RESULTS: We found 286 CA-RVI cases, including 85 solid organ transplantation recipients (G1), 61 hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients (G2), and 140 non-transplant critically ill patients in ICU (G3), excluding those with repeated isolation within 30 days. Adenovirus positive rate and infection cases were most prominent in G2 (p < 0.001). The median time interval between transplantation and CA-RVI was 30 and 20 months in G1 and G2, respectively. All-cause in-hospital mortality was significantly higher in G3 than in G1 or G2 (51.4% vs. 28.2% or 39.3%, p = 0.002, respectively). The mechanical ventilation (MV) was the independent risk factor associated with all-cause in-hospital mortality in all three groups (hazard ratio, 3.37, 95% confidence interval, 2.04-5.56, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the importance of CA-RVs diagnosis in transplant recipients even in long-term posttransplant period, and in non-transplant critically ill patients in ICU with MV.


Subject(s)
Community-Acquired Infections/etiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/etiology , Transplant Recipients , Adult , Aged , Cohort Studies , Community-Acquired Infections/mortality , Community-Acquired Infections/virology , Critical Illness , Disease Susceptibility , Female , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Male , Middle Aged , Organ Transplantation/adverse effects , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/mortality , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
9.
BMJ Open ; 10(11): e040990, 2020 11 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1024240

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in patients with viral respiratory infections on acute severe adverse outcomes, healthcare utilisation, quality of life and long-term survival. DESIGN: Rapid systematic review. PARTICIPANTS: Humans with viral respiratory infections, exposed to systemic NSAIDs. PRIMARY OUTCOMES: Acute severe adverse outcomes, healthcare utilisation, quality of life and long-term survival. RESULTS: We screened 10 999 titles and abstracts and 738 full texts, including 87 studies. No studies addressed COVID-19, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome or Middle East Respiratory Syndrome; none examined inpatient healthcare utilisation, quality of life or long-term survival. Effects of NSAIDs on mortality and cardiovascular events in adults with viral respiratory infections are unclear (three observational studies; very low certainty). Children with empyema and gastrointestinal bleeding may be more likely to have taken NSAIDs than children without these conditions (two observational studies; very low certainty). In patients aged 3 years and older with acute respiratory infections, ibuprofen is associated with a higher rate of reconsultations with general practitioners than paracetamol (one randomised controlled trial (RCT); low certainty). The difference in death from all causes and hospitalisation for renal failure and anaphylaxis between children with fever receiving ibuprofen versus paracetamol is likely to be less than 1 per 10 000 (1 RCT; moderate/high certainty). Twenty-eight studies in adults and 42 studies in children report adverse event counts. Most report that no severe adverse events occurred. Due to methodological limitations of adverse event counts, this evidence should be interpreted with caution. CONCLUSIONS: It is unclear whether the use of NSAIDs increases the risk of severe adverse outcomes in patients with viral respiratory infections. This absence of evidence should not be interpreted as evidence for the absence of such risk. This is a rapid review with a number of limitations. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020176056.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/adverse effects , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Humans , Quality of Life , Respiratory Tract Infections/mortality , Survival Analysis
10.
Am J Med Genet A ; 185(1): 286-299, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-871315

ABSTRACT

Pneumonia and respiratory infections impact infants and children with Down syndrome; pneumonia is a leading cause of mortality in adults with Down syndrome. We aimed to review the literature to evaluate gaps and address key questions. A series of key questions were formulated a priori to inform the search strategy and review process; addressed prevalence, severity, etiology, risk factors, preventive methods, screening, and financial costs, potential benefits or harms of screening. Using the National Library of Medicine database, PubMed, detailed literature searches on pneumonia and respiratory infections in Down syndrome were performed. Previously identified review articles were also assessed. The quality of available evidence was then evaluated and knowledge gaps were identified. Forty-two relevant original articles were identified which addressed at least one key question. Study details including research design, internal validity, external validity, and relevant results are presented. Pneumonia and respiratory infections are more prevalent and more severe in individuals with Down syndrome compared to healthy controls through literature review, yet there are gaps in the literature regarding the etiology of pneumonia, the infectious organism, risk factors for infection, and to guide options for prevention and screening. There is urgent need for additional research studies in Down syndrome, especially in the time of the current COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Down Syndrome/epidemiology , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Down Syndrome/complications , Down Syndrome/mortality , Down Syndrome/therapy , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia/complications , Pneumonia/mortality , Pneumonia/therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/complications , Respiratory Tract Infections/mortality , Respiratory Tract Infections/pathology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index
11.
Rev Med Virol ; 31(3): e2179, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-842504

ABSTRACT

We compared clinical symptoms, laboratory findings, radiographic signs and outcomes of COVID-19 and influenza to identify unique features. Depending on the heterogeneity test, we used either random or fixed-effect models to analyse the appropriateness of the pooled results. Overall, 540 articles included in this study; 75,164 cases of COVID-19 (157 studies), 113,818 influenza type A (251 studies) and 9266 influenza type B patients (47 studies) were included. Runny nose, dyspnoea, sore throat and rhinorrhoea were less frequent symptoms in COVID-19 cases (14%, 15%, 11.5% and 9.5%, respectively) in comparison to influenza type A (70%, 45.5%, 49% and 44.5%, respectively) and type B (74%, 33%, 38% and 49%, respectively). Most of the patients with COVID-19 had abnormal chest radiology (84%, p < 0.001) in comparison to influenza type A (57%, p < 0.001) and B (33%, p < 0.001). The incubation period in COVID-19 (6.4 days estimated) was longer than influenza type A (3.4 days). Likewise, the duration of hospitalization in COVID-19 patients (14 days) was longer than influenza type A (6.5 days) and influenza type B (6.7 days). Case fatality rate of hospitalized patients in COVID-19 (6.5%, p < 0.001), influenza type A (6%, p < 0.001) and influenza type B was 3%(p < 0.001). The results showed that COVID-19 and influenza had many differences in clinical manifestations and radiographic findings. Due to the lack of effective medication or vaccine for COVID-19, timely detection of this viral infection and distinguishing from influenza are very important.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Influenza, Human/physiopathology , Respiratory Tract Infections/physiopathology , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Cough/diagnosis , Cough/physiopathology , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Dyspnea/physiopathology , Electronic Health Records , Fever/diagnosis , Fever/physiopathology , Humans , Infectious Disease Incubation Period , Influenza A virus/pathogenicity , Influenza A virus/physiology , Influenza B virus/pathogenicity , Influenza B virus/physiology , Influenza, Human/diagnostic imaging , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/mortality , Pharyngitis/diagnosis , Pharyngitis/physiopathology , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/mortality , Rhinorrhea/diagnosis , Rhinorrhea/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
12.
Br J Haematol ; 188(4): 560-569, 2020 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-829537

ABSTRACT

Viral respiratory infections (VRIs) contribute to the morbidity and transplant-related mortality (TRM) after allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and strategies to prevent and treat VRIs are warranted. We monitored VRIs before and after transplant in children undergoing allogeneic HSCT with nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPA) and assessed the impact on clinical outcome. Between 2007 and 2017, 585 children underwent 620 allogeneic HSCT procedures. Out of 75 patients with a positive NPA screen (12%), transplant was delayed in 25 cases (33%), while 53 children started conditioning with a VRI. Patients undergoing HSCT with a positive NPA screen had a significantly lower overall survival (54% vs. 79%) and increased TRM (26% vs. 7%) compared to patients with a negative NPA. Patients with a positive NPA who delayed transplant and cleared the virus before conditioning had improved overall survival (90%) and lower TRM (5%). Pre-HSCT positive NPA was the only significant risk factor for progression to a lower respiratory tract infection and was a major risk factor for TRM. Transplant delay, whenever feasible, in case of a positive NPA screen for VRIs can positively impact on survival of children undergoing HSCT.


Subject(s)
Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Respiratory Tract Infections/mortality , Transplantation Conditioning , Virus Diseases/mortality , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Disease-Free Survival , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate , Time Factors
13.
Colomb Med (Cali) ; 51(2): e4270, 2020 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-790164

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 disease pandemic is a health emergency. Older people and those with chronic noncommunicable diseases are more likely to develop serious illnesses, require ventilatory support, and die from complications. OBJECTIVE: To establish deaths from respiratory infections and some chronic non-communicable diseases that occurred in Cali, before the SARS-CoV-2 disease pandemic. METHODS: During the 2003-2019 period, 207,261 deaths were registered according to the general mortality database of the Municipal Secretary of Health of Cali. Deaths were coded with the International Classification of Diseases and causes of death were grouped according to WHO guidelines. Rates were standardized by age and are expressed per 100,000 people-year. RESULTS: A direct relationship was observed between aging and mortality from respiratory infections and chronic non-communicable diseases. Age-specific mortality rates were highest in those older than 80 years for all diseases evaluated. Seasonal variation was evident in respiratory diseases in the elderly. COMMENTS: Estimates of mortality rates from respiratory infections and chronic non-communicable diseases in Cali provide the baseline that will serve as a comparison to estimate the excess mortality caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. Health authorities and decision makers should be guided by reliable estimates of mortality and of the proportion of infected people who die from SARS-CoV-2 virus infection.


INTRODUCCIÓN: La pandemia de la enfermedad COVID-19 es una emergencia sanitaria. Las personas mayores y aquellos con enfermedades crónicas no trasmisibles tienen más probabilidades de desarrollar enfermedades graves, requerir soporte ventilatorio y morir a causa de las complicaciones. OBJETIVO: Establecer las defunciones por infecciones respiratorias y por algunas enfermedades crónicas no trasmisibles ocurridas en Cali, antes de la pandemia de la enfermedad por el SARS-CoV-2. MÉTODOS: Durante el periodo 2003-2019, se registraron 207,261 defunciones información obtenida de la base de datos de mortalidad general de la Secretaria de Salud Municipal de Cali. Las defunciones se codificaron con la Clasificación Internacional de Enfermedades y las causas de muerte se agruparon según las guías de la OMS. Las tasas se estandarizaron por edad, son expresadas por 100,000 personas-año. RESULTADOS: Se observó una relación directa entre envejecimiento y la mortalidad por infecciones respiratorias y enfermedades crónicas no trasmisibles. Las tasas de mortalidad específicas por edad fueron más altas en los mayores de 80 años para todas las enfermedades evaluadas. En las enfermedades respiratorias fue evidente una variación estacional en los ancianos. COMENTARIO: Las estimaciones de las tasas de mortalidad por infecciones respiratorias y enfermedades crónicas no trasmisibles para Cali proporcionan la línea de base que servirá de comparación para estimar el exceso de mortalidad que ocasionará la pandemia de COVID-19. Las autoridades sanitarias y los tomadores de decisiones deben guiarse por estimaciones fiables de la mortalidad y de la proporción de infectados que mueren por la infección del virus SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Cause of Death/trends , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Chronic Disease , Colombia/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Humans , Noncommunicable Diseases/mortality , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Respiratory Tract Infections/mortality , Risk Factors , Seasons
14.
J Infect Dis ; 223(9): 1564-1575, 2021 05 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-733372

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Little is known about characteristics of seasonal human coronaviruses (HCoVs) (NL63, 229E, OC43, and HKU1) after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). METHODS: This was a collaborative Spanish and European bone marrow transplantation retrospective multicenter study, which included allo-HSCT recipients (adults and children) with upper respiratory tract disease (URTD) and/or lower respiratory tract disease (LRTD) caused by seasonal HCoV diagnosed through multiplex polymerase chain reaction assays from January 2012 to January 2019. RESULTS: We included 402 allo-HSCT recipients who developed 449 HCoV URTD/LRTD episodes. Median age of recipients was 46 years (range, 0.3-73.8 years). HCoV episodes were diagnosed at a median of 222 days after transplantation. The most common HCoV subtype was OC43 (n = 170 [38%]). LRTD involvement occurred in 121 episodes (27%). HCoV infection frequently required hospitalization (18%), oxygen administration (13%), and intensive care unit (ICU) admission (3%). Three-month overall mortality after HCoV detection was 7% in the whole cohort and 16% in those with LRTD. We identified 3 conditions associated with higher mortality in recipients with LRTD: absolute lymphocyte count <0.1 × 109/mL, corticosteroid use, and ICU admission (hazard ratios: 10.8, 4.68, and 8.22, respectively; P < .01). CONCLUSIONS: Seasonal HCoV after allo-HSCT may involve LRTD in many instances, leading to a significant morbidity.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/etiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus 229E, Human , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus NL63, Human , Coronavirus OC43, Human , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Tract Infections/mortality , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Seasons
15.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; 56(4): 106093, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-730600

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to assess the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in Russia and the adaptation of the population to the virus in March to June 2020. Two groups were investigated: 1) 12 082 individuals already proven positive for SARS-CoV-2 (clinical information was studied); 2) 7864+4458 individuals with suspected respiratory infections (polymerase chain reaction [PCR] tests and clinical information were studied). In the latter, SARS-CoV-2-positive individuals comprised 5.37% in March and 11.42% in June 2020. Several viral co-infections were observed for SARS-CoV-2. Rhinoviruses accounted for the largest proportion of co-infections (7.91% of samples were SARS-CoV-2-positive); followed by respiratory syncytial virus (7.03%); adenoviruses (4.84%); metapneumoviruses (3.29%); parainfluenza viruses (2.42%); enterovirus D68 (1.10%) and other viruses (entero-, echo-, parecho-) (<1%). Average SARS-CoV-2 case fatality rate in the group of 12 537 individuals was determined to be 0.6% (in contrast to official Russian government statistics of 1.5% mortality). This rate is within the range of mortality caused by other common seasonal respiratory viruses (0.01-2.21% in Russia in 2012 to 2020). Most fatalities occurred in individuals with comorbidities, as for other respiratory viruses. The proportion of SARS-CoV-2 asymptomatic carriers was 56.68% in March and 70.67% in June 2020. This new pathogen presents a substantial risk to human beings as it was not contained at the start of its outbreak in Wuhan and spread worldwide. However, surveillance, prevention and treatment must be strictly evidence-based and not dictated by fear.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Coronary Disease/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Asymptomatic Diseases , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Coronary Disease/diagnosis , Coronary Disease/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Fear/psychology , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/diagnosis , Obesity/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/mortality , Respiratory Tract Infections/transmission , Retrospective Studies , Russia/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis
16.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 1958-1964, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-725886

ABSTRACT

Objectives Severe or critical COVID-19 is associated with intensive care unit admission, increased secondary infection rate, and would lead to significant worsened prognosis. Risks and characteristics relating to secondary infections in severe COVID-19 have not been described. Methods Severe and critical COVID-19 patients from Shanghai were included. We collected lower respiratory, urine, catheters, and blood samples according to clinical necessity and culture and mNGS were performed. Clinical and laboratory data were archived. Results We found 57.89% (22/38) patients developed secondary infections. The patient receiving invasive mechanical ventilation or in critical state has a higher chance of secondary infections (P<0.0001). The most common infections were respiratory, blood-stream and urinary infections, and in respiratory infections, the most detected pathogens were gram-negative bacteria (26, 50.00%), following by gram-positive bacteria (14, 26.92%), virus (6, 11.54%), fungi (4, 7.69%), and others (2, 3.85%). Respiratory Infection rate post high flow, tracheal intubation, and tracheotomy were 12.90% (4/31), 30.43% (7/23), and 92.31% (12/13) respectively. Secondary infections would lead to lower discharge rate and higher mortality rate. Conclusion Our study originally illustrated secondary infection proportion in severe and critical COVID-19 patients. Culture accompanied with metagenomics sequencing increased pathogen diagnostic rate. Secondary infections risks increased after receiving invasive respiratory ventilations and intravascular devices, and would lead to a lower discharge rate and a higher mortality rate.


Subject(s)
Bacteremia/pathology , Bacterial Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Fungemia/pathology , Mycoses/pathology , Opportunistic Infections/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Respiratory Tract Infections/pathology , Urinary Tract Infections/pathology , Aged , Bacteremia/microbiology , Bacteremia/mortality , Bacteremia/virology , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Bacterial Infections/mortality , Bacterial Infections/virology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/microbiology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Critical Illness , Female , Fungemia/microbiology , Fungemia/mortality , Fungemia/virology , Fungi/pathogenicity , Gram-Negative Bacteria/pathogenicity , Gram-Positive Bacteria/pathogenicity , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Lung/microbiology , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Mycoses/microbiology , Mycoses/mortality , Mycoses/virology , Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Opportunistic Infections/mortality , Opportunistic Infections/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/microbiology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Respiratory Tract Infections/microbiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/mortality , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Retrospective Studies , Risk , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis , Urinary Tract Infections/microbiology , Urinary Tract Infections/mortality , Urinary Tract Infections/virology
18.
J Clin Virol ; 128: 104436, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-305912

ABSTRACT

AIMS: During the ongoing COVID-19 outbreak, co-circulation of other common respiratory viruses can potentially result in co-infections; however, reported rates of co-infections for SARS-CoV-2 vary. We sought to evaluate the prevalence and etiology of all community acquired viral respiratory infections requiring hospitalization during an ongoing COVID-19 outbreak, with a focus on co-infection rates and clinical outcomes. METHODS: Over a 10-week period, all admissions to our institution, the largest tertiary hospital in Singapore, were screened for respiratory symptoms, and COVID-19 as well as a panel of common respiratory viral pathogens were systematically tested for. Information was collated on clinical outcomes, including requirement for mechanical ventilation and in hospital mortality. RESULTS: One-fifth (19.3%, 736/3807) of hospitalized inpatients with respiratory symptoms had a PCR-proven viral respiratory infection; of which 58.5% (431/736) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and 42.2% (311/736) tested positive for other common respiratory viruses. The rate of co-infection with SARS-CoV-2 was 1.4% (6/431); all patients with co-infection had mild disease and stayed in communal settings. The in-hospital mortality rate and proportion of COVID-19 patients requiring invasive ventilation was low, at around 1% of patients; these rates were lower than patients with other community-acquired respiratory viruses admitted over the same period (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Even amidst an ongoing COVID-19 outbreak, common respiratory viruses still accounted for a substantial proportion of hospitalizations. Coinfections with SARS-CoV-2 were rare, with no observed increase in morbidity or mortality.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coinfection/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Adult , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 , Coinfection/mortality , Coinfection/virology , Community-Acquired Infections/mortality , Community-Acquired Infections/virology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Hospitalization , Humans , Inpatients , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Respiratory Tract Infections/mortality , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Singapore/epidemiology , Tertiary Care Centers , Virus Diseases/mortality , Virus Diseases/virology
19.
Transpl Infect Dis ; 22(4): e13301, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-165140

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Enterovirus/rhinoviruses (EvRh) are the most common cause of respiratory virus infections in recipients of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). OBJECTIVE: We sought to analyze the value of the immunodeficiency scoring index (ISI) in predicting lower respiratory tract disease (LRTD) progression and mortality in a prospective cohort of consecutive adult (>16 years) allo-HSCT recipients with EvRh infection from December 1 2013 to December 1 2019 at two Spanish transplant centers. RESULTS: We included 234 allo-HSCT recipients with 383 EvRh episodes. Out of 383 EvRh episodes, 98 (25%) had LRTD. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified three independent factors associated with LRTD progression: Ig G < 400 mg/dL, community-acquired respiratory virus (CARV) co-infection and high-risk ISI. Inclusion of Ig G levels and CARV co-infection in the ISI improved its performance by significantly increasing the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUROC) from 0.643 to 0.734 (P = .03). Likewise, the two conditions identified by multivariate analyses as associated with higher probability of mortality were high-risk ISI and EvRh infection within 6 months after transplant. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings confirm the value of high-risk ISI in predicting both probability of EvRh LRTD and 3-month overall mortality. We also demonstrate that the original ISI could be adapted to other CARV types by including additional variables to improve its performance.


Subject(s)
Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/virology , Picornaviridae Infections/immunology , Respiratory Tract Infections/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Picornaviridae Infections/mortality , Prospective Studies , ROC Curve , Respiratory Tract Infections/mortality , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Retrospective Studies , Rhinovirus/immunology , Spain/epidemiology , Transplantation, Homologous/adverse effects , Young Adult
20.
J Clin Virol ; 126: 104338, 2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-124784

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization has highlighted the need for improved surveillance and understanding of the health burden imposed by non-influenza RNA respiratory viruses. Human coronaviruses (CoVs) are a major cause of respiratory and gastrointestinal tract infections with associated morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVES: The objective of our study was to characterize the epidemiology of CoVs in our tertiary care centre, and identify clinical correlates of disease severity. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was performed of 226 patients admitted with confirmed CoV respiratory tract infection between 2010 and 2016. Variables consistent with a severe disease burden were evaluated including symptoms, length of stay, intensive care unit (ICU) admission and mortality. RESULTS: CoVs represented 11.3% of all positive respiratory virus samples and OC43 was the most commonly identified CoV. The majority of infections were community-associated while 21.6% were considered nosocomial. The average length of stay was 11.8 days with 17.3% of patients requiring ICU admission and an all-cause mortality of 7%. In a multivariate model, female gender and smoking were associated with increased likelihood of admission to ICU or death. CONCLUSION: This study highlights the significant burden of CoVs and justifies the need for surveillance in the acute care setting.


Subject(s)
Cigarette Smoking/adverse effects , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus/physiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Ontario/epidemiology , Prevalence , Prognosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/mortality , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Sex Factors , Young Adult
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