Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 6 de 6
Filter
1.
Curr Protoc Stem Cell Biol ; 54(1): e118, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-635380

ABSTRACT

The normal development of the pulmonary system is critical to transitioning from placental-dependent fetal life to alveolar-dependent newborn life. Human lung development and disease have been difficult to study due to the lack of an in vitro model system containing cells from the large airways and distal alveolus. This article describes a system that allows human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) to differentiate and form three-dimensional (3D) structures that emulate the development, cytoarchitecture, and function of the lung ("organoids"), containing epithelial and mesenchymal cell populations, and including the production of surfactant and presence of ciliated cells. The organoids can also be invested with mesoderm derivatives, differentiated from the same human pluripotent stem cells, such as alveolar macrophages and vasculature. Such lung organoids may be used to study the impact of environmental modifiers and perturbagens (toxins, microbial or viral pathogens, alterations in microbiome) or the efficacy and safety of drugs, biologics, and gene transfer. © 2020 Wiley Periodicals LLC. Basic Protocol: hESC/hiPSC dissection, definitive endoderm formation, and lung progenitor cell induction.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Lung/cytology , Organoids/cytology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Respiratory Tract Infections/pathology , Betacoronavirus , Cell Culture Techniques , Cell Differentiation , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Endoderm/cytology , Human Embryonic Stem Cells/cytology , Humans , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/cytology , Lung/growth & development , Lung/physiology , Models, Biological , Pandemics , Patient-Specific Modeling , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/therapy , Time-Lapse Imaging
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(30): e21320, 2020 Jul 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-682685

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Assessing the effectiveness and safety of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for symptoms of upper respiratory tract of coronavirus disease 2019 is the main purpose of this systematic review protocol. METHODS: The following electronic databases will be searched from inception to Sep 2020: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, TCM, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, Chinese Scientific Journal Database (VIP database), and Wan-Fang Database. Search dates: from inception dates to June 2020. Language: English. Publication period: from inception dates to June 2020. The primary outcome is the time and rate of appearance of main symptoms (including coughing, pharyngalgia, and nasal obstruction). The secondary outcome is the length of hospital stay. Two independent reviewers will conduct the study selection, data extraction and assessment. RevMan V.5.3 will be used for the assessment of risk of bias and data synthesis. RESULTS: The results will provide a high-quality synthesis of current evidence for researchers in this subject area. CONCLUSION: The conclusion of our study will provide an evidence to judge whether TCM is effective and safe for the patients with symptoms of upper respiratory tract of coronavirus disease 2019. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This protocol will not evaluate individual patient information or affect patient rights and therefore does not require ethical approval. Results from this review will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals and conference reports. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020187422.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Research Design , Respiratory System/virology , Respiratory Tract Infections/pathology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Treatment Outcome
3.
J Clin Microbiol ; 58(8)2020 Jul 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-592376

ABSTRACT

Discovery of bats with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-related coronaviruses (CoVs) raised the specter of potential future outbreaks of zoonotic SARS-CoV-like disease in humans, which largely went unheeded. Nevertheless, the novel SARS-CoV-2 of bat ancestral origin emerged to infect humans in Wuhan, China, in late 2019 and then became a global pandemic. Less than 5 months after its emergence, millions of people worldwide have been infected asymptomatically or symptomatically and at least 360,000 have died. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in severely affected patients includes atypical pneumonia characterized by a dry cough, persistent fever, and progressive dyspnea and hypoxia, sometimes accompanied by diarrhea and often followed by multiple organ failure, especially of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. In this minireview, we focus on two endemic respiratory CoV infections of livestock: bovine coronavirus (BCoV) and porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV). Both animal respiratory CoVs share some common features with SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2. BCoV has a broad host range including wild ruminants and a zoonotic potential. BCoV also has a dual tropism for the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. These aspects, their interspecies transmission, and certain factors that impact disease severity in cattle parallel related facets of SARS-CoV or SARS-CoV-2 in humans. PRCV has a tissue tropism for the upper and lower respiratory tracts and a cellular tropism for type 1 and 2 pneumocytes in lung but is generally a mild infection unless complicated by other exacerbating factors, such as bacterial or viral coinfections and immunosuppression (corticosteroids).


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/growth & development , Cattle Diseases/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus, Bovine/growth & development , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Respiratory Tract Infections/veterinary , Swine Diseases/physiopathology , Animals , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/pathology , Cattle Diseases/virology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus, Bovine/pathogenicity , Host Specificity , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Porcine Respiratory Coronavirus/growth & development , Porcine Respiratory Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Respiratory Tract Infections/pathology , Respiratory Tract Infections/physiopathology , Swine , Swine Diseases/pathology , Swine Diseases/virology , Viral Tropism
4.
J Immunol ; 205(2): 313-320, 2020 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-530300

ABSTRACT

Aging impairs immunity to promote diseases, especially respiratory viral infections. The current COVID-19 pandemic, resulting from SARS-CoV-2, induces acute pneumonia, a phenotype that is alarmingly increased with aging. In this article, we review findings of how aging alters immunity to respiratory viral infections to identify age-impacted pathways common to several viral pathogens, permitting us to speculate about potential mechanisms of age-enhanced mortality to COVID-19. Aging generally leads to exaggerated innate immunity, particularly in the form of elevated neutrophil accumulation across murine and large animal studies of influenza infection. COVID-19 patients who succumb exhibit a 2-fold increase in neutrophilia, suggesting that exaggerated innate immunity contributes to age-enhanced mortality to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Further investigation in relevant experimental models will elucidate the mechanisms by which aging impacts respiratory viral infections, including SARS-CoV-2. Such investigation could identify therapies to reduce the suffering of the population at large, but especially among older people, infected with respiratory viruses.


Subject(s)
Aging/pathology , Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Cardiovascular Diseases/pathology , Cardiovascular Diseases/virology , Cytokines/immunology , Humans , Influenza, Human/immunology , Influenza, Human/pathology , Pandemics , Respiratory Tract Infections/pathology , SARS Virus/physiology
5.
Virulence ; 11(1): 486-488, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-327357

ABSTRACT

Lack of an appropriate animal model to study severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the etiological agent responsible for COVID-19 pandemic disease, represents a significant hurdle in the process of understanding disease biology and evaluating therapeutic and preventive candidates. It is time for public health agencies to revisit regulation on transplantation of human pluripotent stem cells for the possibility of the development of a humanized mice model with a humanized lung.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Pluripotent Stem Cells/transplantation , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Respiratory Tract Infections/pathology , Transplantation, Heterologous/legislation & jurisprudence , Animals , Humans , Mice , Pandemics , Research/legislation & jurisprudence , Research/standards , Research/trends , Transplantation, Heterologous/trends
6.
Nat Med ; 26(5): 676-680, 2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-203367

ABSTRACT

We identified seasonal human coronaviruses, influenza viruses and rhinoviruses in exhaled breath and coughs of children and adults with acute respiratory illness. Surgical face masks significantly reduced detection of influenza virus RNA in respiratory droplets and coronavirus RNA in aerosols, with a trend toward reduced detection of coronavirus RNA in respiratory droplets. Our results indicate that surgical face masks could prevent transmission of human coronaviruses and influenza viruses from symptomatic individuals.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Masks/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Respiratory Tract Infections/transmission , Aerosols/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Exhalation/physiology , Humans , Orthomyxoviridae/isolation & purification , Orthomyxoviridae/pathogenicity , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Respiratory Tract Infections/pathology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Virus Shedding
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL