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1.
Acta Med Acad ; 49(2): 130-143, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1414828

ABSTRACT

In this review, we discuss the latest developments in research pertaining to virus-induced asthma exacerbations and consider recent advances in treatment options. Asthma is a chronic disease of the airways that continues to impose a substantial clinical burden worldwide. Asthma exacerbations, characterised by an acute deterioration in respiratory symptoms and airflow obstruction, are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. These episodes are most commonly triggered by respiratory virus infections. The mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of virus-induced exacerbations have been the focus of extensive biomedical research. Developing a robust understanding of the interplay between respiratory viruses and the host immune response will be critical for developing more efficacious, targeted therapies for exacerbations. CONCLUSION: There has been significant recent progress in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying virus-induced airway inflammation in asthma and these advances will underpin the development of future clinical therapies.


Subject(s)
Anti-Asthmatic Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Asthma/drug therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Adenovirus Infections, Human/drug therapy , Adenovirus Infections, Human/immunology , Adenovirus Infections, Human/physiopathology , Administration, Inhalation , Asthma/immunology , Asthma/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Disease Progression , Humans , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Influenza, Human/immunology , Influenza, Human/physiopathology , Interferon-beta/therapeutic use , Macrolides/therapeutic use , Omalizumab/therapeutic use , Paramyxoviridae Infections/drug therapy , Paramyxoviridae Infections/immunology , Paramyxoviridae Infections/physiopathology , Picornaviridae Infections/drug therapy , Picornaviridae Infections/immunology , Picornaviridae Infections/physiopathology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/drug therapy , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/immunology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/physiopathology , Respiratory Tract Infections/immunology , Respiratory Tract Infections/physiopathology , Virus Diseases/immunology , Virus Diseases/physiopathology
2.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257018, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394553

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has presented emergency medical services (EMS) worldwide with the difficult task of identifying patients with COVID-19 and predicting the severity of their illness. The aim of this study was to investigate whether physiological respiratory parameters in pre-hospital patients with COVID-19 differed from those without COVID-19 and if they could be used to aid EMS personnel in the prediction of illness severity. METHODS: Patients with suspected COVID-19 were included by EMS personnel in Uppsala, Sweden. A portable respiratory monitor based on pneumotachography was used to sample the included patient's physiological respiratory parameters. A questionnaire with information about present symptoms and background data was completed. COVID-19 diagnoses and hospital admissions were gathered from the electronic medical record system. The physiological respiratory parameters of patients with and without COVID-19 were then analyzed using descriptive statistical analysis and logistic regression. RESULTS: Between May 2020 and January 2021, 95 patients were included, and their physiological respiratory parameters analyzed. Of these patients, 53 had COVID-19. Using adjusted logistic regression, the odds of having COVID-19 increased with respiratory rate (95% CI 1.000-1.118), tidal volume (95% CI 0.996-0.999) and negative inspiratory pressure (95% CI 1.017-1.152). Patients admitted to hospital had higher respiratory rates (p<0.001) and lower tidal volume (p = 0.010) compared to the patients who were not admitted. Using adjusted logistic regression, the odds of hospital admission increased with respiratory rate (95% CI 1.081-1.324), rapid shallow breathing index (95% CI 1.006-1.040) and dead space percentage of tidal volume (95% CI 1.027-1.159). CONCLUSION: Patients taking smaller, faster breaths with less pressure had higher odds of having COVID-19 in this study. Smaller, faster breaths and higher dead space percentage also increased the odds of hospital admission. Physiological respiratory parameters could be a useful tool in detecting COVID-19 and predicting hospital admissions, although more research is needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Emergency Medical Services/statistics & numerical data , Outpatients/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Surveys and Questionnaires , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Tract Infections/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sweden
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(34): e26857, 2021 Aug 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376349

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The current global health crisis due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has prompted the medical community to investigate the effects of underlying medical conditions, including sleep-disordered breathing, on inpatient care. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common form of sleep-disordered breathing that may complicate numerous acquired conditions, particularly in inpatient and critical care settings. Viral pneumonia is a major contributor to intensive care unit (ICU) admissions and often presents more severely in patients with underlying pulmonary disease, especially those with obesity and OSA. This review summarizes the most recent data regarding complications of both OSA and obesity and highlights their impact on clinical outcomes in hospitalized patients. Additionally, it will highlight pertinent evidence for the complications of OSA in an organ-systems approach. Finally, this review will also discuss impatient treatment approaches for OSA, particularly in relation to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/epidemiology , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/physiopathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Obesity/physiopathology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/physiopathology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Sleepiness
4.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 39(12): e452-e454, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-762166

ABSTRACT

In this birth cohort, coronavirus acute respiratory infection was detected in 6.5% of the episodes; the commonest strain was OC43, followed by NL63, HKU1, and 229E. Children with coronavirus acute respiratory infection during infancy had significantly decreased forced expiratory volume in 0.5 seconds, forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of forced vital capacity, and peak expiratory flow at 3 years of age.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus , Health Impact Assessment , Lung/physiopathology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/physiopathology , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , India/epidemiology , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Lung/virology , Male , Public Health Surveillance , Recurrence , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Symptom Assessment
5.
Clin Microbiol Rev ; 34(2)2021 03 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1119279

ABSTRACT

To date, seven identified coronaviruses (CoVs) have been found to infect humans; of these, three highly pathogenic variants have emerged in the 21st century. The newest member of this group, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was first detected at the end of 2019 in Hubei province, China. Since then, this novel coronavirus has spread worldwide, causing a pandemic; the respiratory disease caused by the virus is called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The clinical presentation ranges from asymptomatic to mild respiratory tract infections and influenza-like illness to severe disease with accompanying lung injury, multiorgan failure, and death. Although the lungs are believed to be the site at which SARS-CoV-2 replicates, infected patients often report other symptoms, suggesting the involvement of the gastrointestinal tract, heart, cardiovascular system, kidneys, and other organs; therefore, the following question arises: is COVID-19 a respiratory or systemic disease? This review aims to summarize existing data on the replication of SARS-CoV-2 in different tissues in both patients and ex vivo models.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , China/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 167, 2021 Feb 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1079217

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Characteristics of COVID-19 patients have mainly been reported within confirmed COVID-19 cohorts. By analyzing patients with respiratory infections in the emergency department during the first pandemic wave, we aim to assess differences in the characteristics of COVID-19 vs. Non-COVID-19 patients. This is particularly important regarding the second COVID-19 wave and the approaching influenza season. METHODS: We prospectively included 219 patients with suspected COVID-19 who received radiological imaging and RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2. Demographic, clinical and laboratory parameters as well as RT-PCR results were used for subgroup analysis. Imaging data were reassessed using the following scoring system: 0 - not typical, 1 - possible, 2 - highly suspicious for COVID-19. RESULTS: COVID-19 was diagnosed in 72 (32,9%) patients. In three of them (4,2%) the initial RT-PCR was negative while initial CT scan revealed pneumonic findings. 111 (50,7%) patients, 61 of them (55,0%) COVID-19 positive, had evidence of pneumonia. Patients with COVID-19 pneumonia showed higher body temperature (37,7 ± 0,1 vs. 37,1 ± 0,1 °C; p = 0.0001) and LDH values (386,3 ± 27,1 vs. 310,4 ± 17,5 U/l; p = 0.012) as well as lower leukocytes (7,6 ± 0,5 vs. 10,1 ± 0,6G/l; p = 0.0003) than patients with other pneumonia. Among abnormal CT findings in COVID-19 patients, 57 (93,4%) were evaluated as highly suspicious or possible for COVID-19. In patients with negative RT-PCR and pneumonia, another third was evaluated as highly suspicious or possible for COVID-19 (14 out of 50; 28,0%). The sensitivity in the detection of patients requiring isolation was higher with initial chest CT than with initial RT-PCR (90,4% vs. 79,5%). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 patients show typical clinical, laboratory and imaging parameters which enable a sensitive detection of patients who demand isolation measures due to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/physiopathology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Young Adult
7.
Seizure ; 84: 69-77, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065589

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: There are limited data on the pathogen-related and host-related factors in the pathogenesis of febrile seizures (FS). We designed a controlled study to compare the role of different respiratory viruses and febrile response in FS. METHODS: In a prospective cohort study of 1899 pediatric emergency room patients aged 6 months-6 years with a positive respiratory virus multiplex PCR, we identified 225 patients with FSs. We first compared the distribution of respiratory viruses in age-stratified patients with FSs with that in other patients. In an embedded case-control study, we compared the febrile response in patients with FSs with that in the controls matched for age, season and the same respiratory virus. RESULTS: The relative risk for FS was the highest for coronavirus OC43, 229E, and NL63 infections [RR: 3.2, 95 % confidence interval (CI): 1.4-7.2) and influenza A and B [RR: 2.5, 95 % CI: 1.4-4.7] as compared to those with other respiratory viral infections. The patients with FSs had a stronger febrile response of 39.2 °C (difference: 0.8 °C, 95 % CI: 0.5-1.2) later during hospitalization after acute care than the controls matched for the same respiratory virus. CONCLUSIONS: Influenza and coronaviruses caused relatively more FS-related emergency room visits than other respiratory viruses. Furthermore, the febrile response was stronger in the patients with FSs than in the controls matched for the same respiratory virus. The results suggest that the pathomechanism of FSs includes modifiable pathogen-related and host-related factors with possible potential in the prevention of FSs.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Enterovirus Infections/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Paramyxoviridae Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Seizures, Febrile/epidemiology , Adenovirus Infections, Human/epidemiology , Adenovirus Infections, Human/virology , Case-Control Studies , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus 229E, Human , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus NL63, Human , Coronavirus OC43, Human , Emergency Service, Hospital , Enterovirus Infections/virology , Female , Fever/physiopathology , Finland/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Inflammation , Influenza A virus , Influenza B virus , Influenza, Human/virology , Male , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Paramyxoviridae Infections/virology , Picornaviridae Infections/epidemiology , Picornaviridae Infections/virology , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/virology , Respiratory Tract Infections/physiopathology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Rhinovirus , Risk , Seizures, Febrile/virology
8.
Infect Dis Health ; 26(1): 3-10, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065108

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Doctors commonly continue to work when they are unwell. This norm is increasingly problematic during the COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic when effective infection control measures are of paramount importance. This study investigates the barriers existing before COVID-19 that prevent junior doctors with an acute respiratory illness working in Canberra, Australia, from taking sick leave, and offers suggestions about how to make sick leave more accessible for junior doctors. METHODS: Anonymous online survey study. RESULTS: 192 junior doctors were invited to participate in the study. Fifty-four responded, and only those who had worked whilst unwell with an acute respiratory illness were included, providing a total number of fifty responses. Of these, 72% believed they were infectious at the time they worked whilst unwell. 86% of respondents did not feel supported by the workplace to take sick leave when they were unwell, and 96% identified concerns about burdening colleagues with extra workload and lack of available cover as the main deterrents to accessing sick leave. CONCLUSION: Junior doctors at our health service, pre-COVID-19, do not widely feel empowered to take sick leave when they have an acute respiratory illness. Junior doctors are primarily concerned about burdening their colleagues with extra workloads in an environment where they perceive there to be a lack of available cover. Having more available cover, leadership from seniors, and clearer guidelines around the impact of sick leave on registration may contribute to a culture where junior doctors feel supported to access sick leave.


Subject(s)
Attitude of Health Personnel , Medical Staff, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Physicians/statistics & numerical data , Sick Leave/statistics & numerical data , Workload/psychology , Australia , COVID-19 , Humans , Infection Control , Respiratory Tract Infections/physiopathology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Workload/standards , Workload/statistics & numerical data
9.
J Clin Microbiol ; 58(8)2020 Jul 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1006147

ABSTRACT

Discovery of bats with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-related coronaviruses (CoVs) raised the specter of potential future outbreaks of zoonotic SARS-CoV-like disease in humans, which largely went unheeded. Nevertheless, the novel SARS-CoV-2 of bat ancestral origin emerged to infect humans in Wuhan, China, in late 2019 and then became a global pandemic. Less than 5 months after its emergence, millions of people worldwide have been infected asymptomatically or symptomatically and at least 360,000 have died. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in severely affected patients includes atypical pneumonia characterized by a dry cough, persistent fever, and progressive dyspnea and hypoxia, sometimes accompanied by diarrhea and often followed by multiple organ failure, especially of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. In this minireview, we focus on two endemic respiratory CoV infections of livestock: bovine coronavirus (BCoV) and porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV). Both animal respiratory CoVs share some common features with SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2. BCoV has a broad host range including wild ruminants and a zoonotic potential. BCoV also has a dual tropism for the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. These aspects, their interspecies transmission, and certain factors that impact disease severity in cattle parallel related facets of SARS-CoV or SARS-CoV-2 in humans. PRCV has a tissue tropism for the upper and lower respiratory tracts and a cellular tropism for type 1 and 2 pneumocytes in lung but is generally a mild infection unless complicated by other exacerbating factors, such as bacterial or viral coinfections and immunosuppression (corticosteroids).


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/growth & development , Cattle Diseases/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus, Bovine/growth & development , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Respiratory Tract Infections/veterinary , Swine Diseases/physiopathology , Animals , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/pathology , Cattle Diseases/virology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus, Bovine/pathogenicity , Host Specificity , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Porcine Respiratory Coronavirus/growth & development , Porcine Respiratory Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Respiratory Tract Infections/pathology , Respiratory Tract Infections/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Swine , Swine Diseases/pathology , Swine Diseases/virology , Viral Tropism
10.
BMJ Glob Health ; 5(12)2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1004157

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several healthcare systems facing respiratory viral infections outbreaks, like COVID-19, have not been prepared to manage them. Public health mitigation solutions ranging from isolation of infected or suspected cases to implementation of national lockdowns have proven their effectiveness for the outbreak's control. However, the adjustment of public health measures is crucial during transition phases to avoid new outbreaks. To address the need for designing evidence-based strategies, we performed a systematic review to identify healthcare systems interventions, experiences and recommendations that have been used to manage different respiratory viral infections outbreaks in the past. METHODS: PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus and Cochrane were searched to retrieve eligible studies of any study design, published in English until 17 April 2020. Double-blinded screening process was conducted by titles/abstracts and subsequently eligible full texts were read and pertinent data were extracted. When applicable, quality assessment was conducted for the included articles. We performed a narrative synthesis of each implemented public health approaches. RESULTS: We included a total of 24 articles addressing the public health approaches implemented for respiratory viral infections outbreaks for COVID-19, influenza A H1N1, MERS and severe acute respiratory syndrome . The identified approaches are ascribable to two main categories: healthcare system strategies and healthcare provider interventions. The key components of an effective response on respiratory viral outbreaks included the implementation of evidence-based contextual policies, intrahospital management actions, community healthcare facilities, non-pharmaceutical interventions, enhanced surveillance, workplace preventive measures, mental health interventions and communication plans. CONCLUSION: The identified healthcare system strategies applied worldwide to face epidemics or pandemics are a useful knowledge base to inform decision-makers about control measures to be used in the transition phases of COVID-19 and beyond.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Tract Infections/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Viral Load , Humans
12.
Clin Otolaryngol ; 46(1): 4-8, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-865835

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: This review discusses how nasal congestion may have benefits as a mechanism of defence against respiratory viruses. METHODS: A literature research was conducted on respiratory viruses and nasal congestion, following a recently published review on how temperature sensitivity is important for the success of common respiratory viruses. RESULTS: The literature reported that common respiratory viruses are temperature sensitive and replicate well at the cooler temperatures of the upper airways (32°C), but replication is restricted at body temperature (37°C). The amplitude of the phases of congestion and decongestion associated with the nasal cycle was increased on infection with respiratory viruses and this caused unilateral nasal congestion and obstruction. Nasal congestion and obstruction increase nasal mucosal temperature towards 37°C and therefore restricted the replication of respiratory viruses. CONCLUSION: Nasal congestion associated with the nasal cycle may act as a mechanism of respiratory defence against infection with respiratory viruses.


Subject(s)
Immunity, Mucosal/physiology , Nasal Mucosa/physiology , Nasal Obstruction/physiopathology , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , Virus Diseases/prevention & control , Airway Resistance/physiology , Body Temperature , Humans , Nasal Obstruction/etiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/complications , Respiratory Tract Infections/physiopathology , Virus Diseases/complications , Virus Diseases/physiopathology
13.
Rev Med Virol ; 31(3): e2179, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-842504

ABSTRACT

We compared clinical symptoms, laboratory findings, radiographic signs and outcomes of COVID-19 and influenza to identify unique features. Depending on the heterogeneity test, we used either random or fixed-effect models to analyse the appropriateness of the pooled results. Overall, 540 articles included in this study; 75,164 cases of COVID-19 (157 studies), 113,818 influenza type A (251 studies) and 9266 influenza type B patients (47 studies) were included. Runny nose, dyspnoea, sore throat and rhinorrhoea were less frequent symptoms in COVID-19 cases (14%, 15%, 11.5% and 9.5%, respectively) in comparison to influenza type A (70%, 45.5%, 49% and 44.5%, respectively) and type B (74%, 33%, 38% and 49%, respectively). Most of the patients with COVID-19 had abnormal chest radiology (84%, p < 0.001) in comparison to influenza type A (57%, p < 0.001) and B (33%, p < 0.001). The incubation period in COVID-19 (6.4 days estimated) was longer than influenza type A (3.4 days). Likewise, the duration of hospitalization in COVID-19 patients (14 days) was longer than influenza type A (6.5 days) and influenza type B (6.7 days). Case fatality rate of hospitalized patients in COVID-19 (6.5%, p < 0.001), influenza type A (6%, p < 0.001) and influenza type B was 3%(p < 0.001). The results showed that COVID-19 and influenza had many differences in clinical manifestations and radiographic findings. Due to the lack of effective medication or vaccine for COVID-19, timely detection of this viral infection and distinguishing from influenza are very important.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Influenza, Human/physiopathology , Respiratory Tract Infections/physiopathology , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Cough/diagnosis , Cough/physiopathology , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Dyspnea/physiopathology , Electronic Health Records , Fever/diagnosis , Fever/physiopathology , Humans , Infectious Disease Incubation Period , Influenza A virus/pathogenicity , Influenza A virus/physiology , Influenza B virus/pathogenicity , Influenza B virus/physiology , Influenza, Human/diagnostic imaging , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/mortality , Pharyngitis/diagnosis , Pharyngitis/physiopathology , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/mortality , Rhinorrhea/diagnosis , Rhinorrhea/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
14.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(1): 358-360, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-804299

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 can occasionally be associated with cranial nerve involvement, but facial palsy, particularly if bilateral, is exceptional. We here report a patient who presented with severe bilateral facial palsy and evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection preceded by upper respiratory symptoms. He also had serological evidence of coinfection with Epstein-Barr virus, which could have also played a role in his neurological manifestations. PCR in the cerebrospinal fluid was negative for both EBV and SARS-CoV-2, which suggests an indirect, immune-mediated mechanism rather than direct, viral-induced damage. The patient was treated with prednisone 60 mg/24h with a tapering schedule and had a favorable outcome, with an almost complete recovery in 3 weeks. SARS-CoV-2 adds to the list of infectious agents causative of bilateral facial palsy. Coinfection with SARS-CoV-2 is not rare and should be considered in the differential diagnosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/complications , Facial Paralysis/etiology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Facial Paralysis/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Prednisone/therapeutic use , Recovery of Function , Respiratory Tract Infections/etiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/physiopathology , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
15.
Spinal Cord Ser Cases ; 6(1): 87, 2020 09 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-779971

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Respiratory complications (RC) are a leading cause of death after spinal cord injury (SCI) due to compromised immune function and respiratory muscle weakness. Thus, individuals with SCI are at high risk of developing COVID-19 related RC. Results of a SCI clinical trial showed a supervised respiratory muscle training (RMT) program decreased risk of developing RC. The feasibility of conducting unsupervised RMT is not well documented. Four publications (n = 117) were identified in which unsupervised RMT was performed. Significant improvements in respiratory outcomes were reported in two studies: Maximal Inspiratory and Expiratory Pressure (MIP40% and MEP25%, respectively), Peak Expiratory Flow (PEF9%), seated and supine Forced Vital Capacity (FVC23% and 26%, respectively), and Peak Cough Flow (28%). This review and case report will attempt to show that an inspiratory muscle training (IMT) home exercise program (HEP) is feasible and may prepare the respiratory system for RC associated with COVID-19 in patients with SCI. CASE PRESENTATION: A 23-year-old with tetraplegia (P1), history of mechanical ventilation, and hospitalization for RC, completed 27 IMT HEP sessions in one month. MIP and sustained MIP (SMIP) increased from baseline by 28% and 26.5%, respectively. Expiratory volumes and rates also improved (FVC, FEV1, and PEF: 11.7%, 8.3%, and 14.2%, respectively). DISCUSSION: The effects of COVID-19 on patients with SCI remains inconclusive, but recent literature and the results of this case suggest that unsupervised IMT is feasible and may limit the severity of RC in patients with SCI who contract COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Breathing Exercises/methods , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Inhalation/physiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , Spinal Cord Injuries/therapy , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Humans , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Quadriplegia/complications , Quadriplegia/physiopathology , Quadriplegia/therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spinal Cord Injuries/complications , Spinal Cord Injuries/physiopathology , Young Adult
16.
Pulm Pharmacol Ther ; 63: 101942, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-733654

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic due to SARS-CoV-2 infection can produce Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome as a result of a pulmonary cytokine storm. Antihistamines are safe and effective treatments for reducing inflammation and cytokine release. Combinations of Histamine-1 and Histamine-2 receptor antagonists have been effective in urticaria, and might reduce the histamine-mediated pulmonary cytokine storm in COVID-19. Can a combination of Histamine-1 and Histamine-2 receptor blockers improve COVID-19 inpatient outcomes? METHODS: A physician-sponsored cohort study of cetirizine and famotidine was performed in hospitalized patients with severe to critical pulmonary symptoms. Pulmonologists led the inpatient care in a single medical center of 110 high-acuity patients that were treated with cetirizine 10 mg b.i.d. and famotidine 20 mg b.i.d. plus standard-of-care. RESULTS: Of all patients, including those with Do Not Resuscitate directives, receiving the dual-histamine receptor blockade for at least 48 h, the combination drug treatment resulted in a 16.4% rate of intubation, a 7.3% rate of intubation after a minimum of 48 h of treatment, a 15.5% rate of inpatient mortality, and 11.0 days duration of hospitalization. The drug combination exhibited beneficial reductions in inpatient mortality and symptom progression when compared to published reports of COVID-19 inpatients. Concomitant medications were assessed and hydroxychloroquine was correlated with worse outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: This physician-sponsored cohort study of cetirizine and famotidine provides proof-of-concept of a safe and effective method to reduce the progression in symptom severity, presumably by minimizing the histamine-mediated cytokine storm. Further clinical studies in COVID-19 are warranted of the repurposed off-label combination of two historically-safe histamine receptor blockers.


Subject(s)
Cetirizine/administration & dosage , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Famotidine/administration & dosage , Histamine H1 Antagonists/administration & dosage , Histamine H2 Antagonists/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Respiratory Tract Infections/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
17.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 128: 110296, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-642573

ABSTRACT

The recent outbreak of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has created a global crisis, necessitating the identification of genetic factors that modulate the risk of disorder or its severity. The current data about the role of genetic risk factors in determination of rate of SARS-CoV-2 infection in each ethnic group and the severity of disorder is limited. Moreover, several confounding parameters such as the number of tests performed in each country, the structure of the population especially the age distribution, the presence of risk factors for respiratory disorders such as smoking and other environmental factors might be involved in the variability in disease course or prevalence of infection among different ethnic groups. However, assessment of the role of genetic variants in determination of the course of other respiratory infections might help in recognition of possible candidate for further analysis in patients affected with SARS-CoV-2. In the current review, we summarize the data showing the association between genomic variants and risk of acute respiratory distress syndrome, respiratory infections or severity of these conditions with an especial focus on the SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Respiratory Tract Infections/genetics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genetic Variation , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Respiratory Tract Infections/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
18.
Auris Nasus Larynx ; 47(4): 559-564, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-598872

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: to detect, analyze and discuss the different ear nose throat (ENT) manifestations those were reported in COVID19 positive patients in the reviewed and published literatures. METHODS: We performed a search in the PubMed databases, Web of Science, LILACS, MEDLINE, SciELO, and Cochrane Library using the keywords; COVID-19, Novel coronavirus, corona, 2019-nCoV, SARS-CoV-2, ENT, ear, nose, throat, otorhinolaryngology, ORL, pharynx, ORL, smell, larynx, different ENT related symptoms. We reviewed published and peer reviewed studies that reported the ENT manifestations in COVID-19 laboratory-confirmed positive patients. RESULTS: within the included 1773 COVID-19 laboratory-confirmed positive patients, the most common ENT manifestations of COVID-19 were sore throat (11.3%) and headache (10.7%). While the other reported ENT manifestations were pharyngeal erythema (5.3%), nasal congestion (4.1%), runny nose or rhinorrhea (2.1%), upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) (1.9%), and tonsil enlargement (1.3%). CONCLUSION: ENT manifestations for COVID-19 are not common as fever and cough. But, a universal questionnaire using well-defined COVID-19 manifestations is needed to make the COVID-19 data precisely defined, complete and homogenous.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Olfaction Disorders/physiopathology , Pharyngitis/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Adenoids , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cough/physiopathology , Diarrhea/physiopathology , Dyspnea/physiopathology , Erythema/physiopathology , Fatigue/physiopathology , Fever/physiopathology , Headache/physiopathology , Humans , Myalgia/physiopathology , Nasal Obstruction/physiopathology , Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases/physiopathology , Palatine Tonsil , Pandemics , Respiratory Tract Infections/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Vopr Virusol ; 65(1): 6-15, 2020.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-533952

ABSTRACT

Results of analysis of phylogenetic, virological, epidemiological, ecological, clinical data of COVID-19 outbreaks in Wuhan, China (PRC) in comparison with SARS-2002 and MERS-2012 outbreaks allow to conclude: - the etiological agent of COVID-19 is coronavirus (2019-CoV), phylogenetically close to the SARS-CoV, isolated from human, and SARS-related viruses isolated from bats (SARS-related bat CoV viruses). These viruses belong to the Sarbecovirus subgenus, Betacoronavirus genus, Orthocoronavirinae subfamily, Coronaviridae family (Cornidovirinea: Nidovirales). COVID-19 is a variant of SARS-2002 and is different from MERS-2012 outbreak, which were caused by coronavirus belonged to the subgenus Merbecovirus of the same genus; - according to the results of phylogenetic analysis of 35 different betacoronaviruses, isolated from human and from wild animals in 2002-2019, the natural source of COVID-19 and SARS-CoV (2002) is bats of Rhinolophus genus (Rhinolophidae) and, probably, some species of other genera. An additional reservoir of the virus could be an intermediate animal species (snakes, civet, hedgehogs, badgers, etc.) that are infected by eating of infected bats. SARS-like coronaviruses circulated in bats in the interepidemic period (2003-2019); - seasonal coronaviruses (subgenus Duvinacovirus, Alphacoronavirus) are currently circulating (November 2019 - January 2020) in the European part of Russia, Urals, Siberia and the Far East of Russia, along with the influenza viruses A(H1N1)pdm09, A(H3N2), and В, as well as six other respiratory viruses (HPIV, HAdV, HRSV, HRV, HBoV, and HMPV).


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/classification , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Phylogeny , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Animals , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Chiroptera/virology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Epidemiological Monitoring , Hedgehogs/virology , Humans , Mustelidae/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Public Health/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/physiopathology , Respiratory Tract Infections/transmission , Russia/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Snakes/virology , Viverridae/virology
20.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 39(8): 653-657, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-388714

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Human coronaviruses (HCoVs) have been recognized as causative agents of respiratory tract infections.Our aim was to describe HCoV infections in hospitalized children in a prospective surveillance study for 14 years and compare them with other respiratory viruses. METHODS: As a part of an ongoing prospective study to identify the etiology of viral respiratory infections in Spain, we performed the analysis of HCoV infections in children hospitalized in a secondary hospital in Madrid, between October 2005 and June 2018. Clinical data of HCoV patients were compared with those infected by rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus and influenza. RESULTS: The study population consisted of 5131 hospitalizations for respiratory causes in children. A total of 3901 cases (75.9%) had a positive viral identification and 205 cases (4.1%) were positive for HCoV. Only 41 cases (20%) of HCoV infection were detected as single infections. Episodes of recurrent wheezing were the most common diagnosis, and 112 children (54%) had hypoxia. Clinical data in HCoV cases were similar to those associated with rhinovirus; however, patients with HCoV were younger. Other viruses were associated with hypoxia more frequently than cases with HCoV; high fever was more common in influenza infections and bronchiolitis in respiratory syncytial virus group. Although a slight peak of circulation appears mostly in winter, HCoV has been detected throughout the year as well. CONCLUSIONS: HCoV infections represent a small fraction of respiratory infections that require hospitalization in children and their characteristics do not differ greatly from other respiratory viral infections.


Subject(s)
Bronchiolitis, Viral/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , Age Distribution , Betacoronavirus , Bronchiolitis, Viral/physiopathology , Bronchiolitis, Viral/virology , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus NL63, Human , Coronavirus OC43, Human , Female , Fever/physiopathology , Humans , Hypoxia/physiopathology , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/physiopathology , Influenza, Human/virology , Male , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Pandemics , Picornaviridae Infections/epidemiology , Picornaviridae Infections/physiopathology , Picornaviridae Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Sounds/physiopathology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/physiopathology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/virology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/physiopathology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Rhinovirus , SARS Virus , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Severity of Illness Index , Spain/epidemiology
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