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1.
Ann Saudi Med ; 43(3): 143-153, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237979

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) applied to limit the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic also affect the circulation and seasonal characteristics of other respiratory viruses. OBJECTIVES: Assess the impact of NPIs on the spread and seasonal characteristics of non-SARS-CoV-2 respiratory viruses and examine viral respiratory co-infections. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort SETTING: Single center in Turkey. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Syndromic multiplex viral polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) panel results of patients admitted to the Ankara Bilkent City Hospital with symptoms of acute respiratory tract infection between April 1, 2020 and October 30, 2022 were evaluated. Two study periods before and after 1 July 2021, when the restrictions were discontinued, were statistically analyzed and compared to determine the effect of NPIs on circulating respiratory viruses. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence of respiratory viruses as determined by syndromic mPCR panel. SAMPLE SIZE: 11300 patient samples were evaluated. RESULTS: At least one respiratory tract virus was detected in 6250 (55.3%) patients. Of these, at least one respiratory virus was detected in 5% in the first period (between April 1, 2020 and June 30, 2021, when NPIs were applied), and in 95% in the second period (between July 1, 2021 and October 30, 2022, when NPIs were relaxed). After the removal of NPIs, there was a statistically significant increase in hRV/EV, RSV-A/B, Flu A/H3, hBoV, hMPV, PIV-1, PIV-4, hCoV-OC43, PIV-2 and hCoV-NL63 (P<.05). In the 2020-2021 season, when strict NPIs were applied, all respiratory viruses evaluated did not have the usual seasonal peak and there were no seasonal influenza epidemics during this period. CONCLUSIONS: NPIs resulted in a dramatic decrease in the prevalence of respiratory viruses and notable disruption of seasonal characteristics. LIMITATIONS: Single-center study and retrospective. CONFLICT OF INTEREST: None.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Tract Infections , Virus Diseases , Viruses , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Turkey/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control
2.
Nutrients ; 15(10)2023 May 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235824

ABSTRACT

Aging is a biological process with high susceptibility to several infections. This risk increases in older patients in residential care facilities (RCF). Thus, there is a clear demand for developing preventive interventions with new therapeutic compounds that combine efficacy and safety. This could be the case of compounds derived from plants of the genus Allium spp. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of a combination of a garlic and onion extract concentrate standardized in organosulfur compounds derived from propiin on the incidence of respiratory tract infections in elderly patients of RCF. Sixty-five volunteers were selected at random to receive a placebo or a single daily dose of the extract for thirty-six weeks. Different clinical visits were performed to evaluate the main respiratory diseases with an infectious origin, as well as the associated symptoms and their duration. The extract showed a clinical safety profile and significantly reduced the incidence of respiratory infections. Moreover, the treatment decreased the number and duration of the associated symptoms compared with the placebo group. For the first time, we demonstrated the protective effect of Alliaceae extract in respiratory infectious diseases in elderly healthy volunteers, which could be used prophylactically against the most common infectious respiratory diseases.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases , Garlic , Respiratory Tract Infections , Humans , Aged , Onions , Antioxidants , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Volunteers
3.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 10(1)2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235739

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common respiratory virus, particularly affecting children, and can cause respiratory infections such as croup and bronchiolitis. The latter is a leading cause of paediatric hospitalisation within the UK. Children <3 years of age and/or with underlying health conditions are more vulnerable to severe RSV infection.There are currently limited data on the incidence of laboratory-confirmed RSV, particularly within primary care settings and outside the typical 'RSV season', which in the Northern hemisphere tends to coincide with winter months. There is also a lack of data on the health economic impact of RSV infection on families and healthcare systems.This observational surveillance study aims to collect data on the incidence of laboratory-confirmed RSV-attributable respiratory tract infection (RTI) in children aged <3 years presenting to primary, secondary or tertiary care; it also aims to estimate the health economic and quality of life impact of RSV-attributable infection in this cohort. Such data will contribute to informing public health strategies to prevent RSV-associated infection, including use of preventative medications. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Parents/carers of children <3 years of age with RTI symptoms will consent for a respiratory sample (nasal swab) to be taken. Laboratory PCR testing will assess for the presence of RSV and/or other pathogens. Data will be obtained from medical records on demographics, comorbidities, severity of infection and hospitalisation outcomes. Parents will complete questionnaires on the impact of ongoing infection symptoms at day 14 and 28 following enrolment. The primary outcome is incidence of laboratory-confirmed RSV in children <3 years presenting to primary, secondary or tertiary care with RTI symptoms leading to health-seeking behaviours. Recruitment will be carried out from December 2021 to March 2023, encompassing two UK winter seasons and intervening months. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval has been granted (21/WS/0142), and study findings will be published as per International Committee of Medical Journal Editors' guidelines.


Subject(s)
Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Child , Humans , Child, Preschool , Tertiary Healthcare , Incidence , Quality of Life , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/prevention & control , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , United Kingdom/epidemiology
4.
Epidemiol Infect ; 151: e82, 2023 05 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242864

ABSTRACT

This study aims to evaluate the impact of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) on the prevalence of respiratory pathogens among hospitalised children with acute respiratory infections (ARIs) in Suzhou. Children with ARIs admitted to the Children's Hospital of Soochow University between 1 September 2021 and 31 December 2022 and subjected to 13 respiratory pathogen multiplex PCR assays were included in the study. We retrospectively collected demographic details, results of respiratory pathogen panel tests, and discharge diagnostic information of the participants, and described the age and seasonal distribution of respiratory pathogens and risk factors for developing pneumonia. A total of 10,396 children <16 years of age, including 5,905 males and 4,491 females, were part of the study. The positive rates of the 11 respiratory pathogen assays were 23.3% (human rhinovirus (HRV)), 15.9% (human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV)), 10.5% (human metapneumovirus (HMPV)), 10.3% (human parainfluenza virus (HPIV)), 8.6% (mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP)), 5.8% (Boca), 3.5% (influenza A (InfA)), 2.9% (influenza B (InfB)), 2.7% (human coronavirus (HCOV)), 2.0% (adenovirus (ADV)), and 0.5% (Ch), respectively. Bocavirus and HPIV detection peaked during the period from September to November (autumn), and MP and HMPV peaked in the months of November and December. The peak of InfA detection was found to be in summer (July and August), whereas the InfB peak was observed to be in winter (December, January, and February). HRSV and HRV predominated in the <3 years age group. HRV and HMPV were common in the 3-6 years group, whereas MP was predominant in the ≥6 years group. MP (odds ratio (OR): 70.068, 95%CI: 32.665-150.298, P < 0.01), HMPV (OR: 6.493, 95%CI: 4.802-8.780, P < 0.01), Boca (OR: 3.300, 95%CI: 2.186-4.980, P < 0.01), and HRSV (OR: 2.649, 95%CI: 2.089-3.358, P < 0.01) infections were more likely to develop into pneumonia than the other pathogens. With the use of NPIs, HRV was the most common pathogen in children with ARIs, and MP was more likely to progress to pneumonia than other pathogens.


Subject(s)
Influenza, Human , Metapneumovirus , Pneumonia , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Child , Male , Female , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , China/epidemiology
5.
Viruses ; 15(5)2023 05 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241513

ABSTRACT

To face the COVID-19 outbreak, a wide range of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) aimed at limiting the spread of the virus in communities, such as mask-wearing, hand hygiene, social distancing, travel restrictions, and school closures, were introduced in most countries. Thereafter, a significant reduction of new asymptomatic and symptomatic COVID-19 cases occurred, although there were differences between countries according to the type and duration of the NPIs. In addition, the COVID-19 pandemic has been accompanied by significant variations in the global incidence of diseases due to the most common non-SARS-CoV-2 respiratory viruses and some bacteria. In this narrative review, the epidemiology of the most common non-SARS-CoV-2 respiratory infections during the COVID-19 pandemic is detailed. Moreover, factors that could have had a role in modifying the traditional circulation of respiratory pathogens are discussed. A literature analysis shows that NPIs were the most important cause of the general reduction in the incidence of influenza and respiratory syncytial virus infection in the first year of the pandemic, although the different sensitivity of each virus to NPIs, the type and duration of measures used, as well as the interference among viruses may have played a role in modulating viral circulation. Reasons for the increase in the incidences of Streptococcus pneumoniae and group A Streptococcus infections seem strictly linked to immunity debt and the role played by NPIs in reducing viral infections and limiting bacterial superimposed infections. These results highlight the importance of NPIs during pandemics, the need to monitor the circulation of infectious agents that cause diseases similar to those caused by pandemic agents, and the need to make efforts to improve coverage with available vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Virus Diseases , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , Influenza, Human/epidemiology
6.
Mil Med ; 188(5-6): e953-e956, 2023 05 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2317242

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Medically attended acute respiratory infections (MAARI) at the U.S. Naval Academy increase during Plebe Summer, a training program for incoming freshmen. Because of COVID-19, extensive nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPI) were implemented during 2020 Plebe Summer. METHODS: We reviewed MAARI counts in weeks 22-45 from 2012 to 2020 and compared counts in pandemic (2020) vs. pre-pandemic (2012-2019) periods. RESULTS: From 2012 to 2019, an average of 1,642 MAARI cases occurred annually. In 2020, 443 MAARI cases occurred. NPI use was associated with a 77% reduction in MAARI. CONCLUSIONS: During a high-risk military training period, routine NPI use was associated with a major reduction in MAARI.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , Seasons
8.
Lancet ; 401(10389): 1681-1690, 2023 05 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2310676

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory infection (ARI) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally, with 83% of ARI mortality occurring in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) before the COVID-19 pandemic. We aimed to estimate the effect of interventions promoting handwashing with soap on ARI in LMICs. METHODS: In our systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, Scopus, Cochrane Library, Global Health, and Global Index Medicus for studies of handwashing with soap interventions in LMICs from inception to May 25, 2021. We included randomised and non-randomised controlled studies of interventions conducted in domestic, school, or childcare settings. Interventions promoting hand hygiene methods other than handwashing with soap were excluded, as were interventions in health-care facilities or the workplace. The primary outcome was ARI morbidity arising from any pathogen for participants of any age. Secondary outcomes were lower respiratory infection, upper respiratory infection, influenza confirmed by diagnostic test, COVID-19 confirmed by diagnostic test, and all-cause mortality. We extracted relative risks (RRs), using random-effects meta-analysis to analyse study results, and metaregression to evaluate heterogeneity. We assessed risk of bias in individual studies using an adapted Newcastle-Ottawa scale, and assessed the overall body of evidence using a Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. The study is registered with PROSPERO, CRD42021231414. FINDINGS: 26 studies with 161 659 participants met inclusion criteria, providing 27 comparisons (21 randomised). Interventions promoting handwashing with soap reduced any ARI compared with no handwashing intervention (RR 0·83 [95% CI 0·76-0·90], I2 88%; 27 comparisons). Interventions also reduced lower respiratory infections (0·78 [0·64-0·94], I2 64%; 12 comparisons) and upper respiratory infections (0·74 [0·59-0·93], I2 91%; seven comparisons), but not test-confirmed influenza (0·94 [0·42-2·11], I2 90%; three comparisons), test-confirmed COVID-19 (no comparisons), or all-cause mortality (prevalence ratio 0·95 [95% CI 0·71-1·27]; one comparison). For ARI, no heterogeneity covariates were significant at p<0·1 and the GRADE rating was moderate certainty evidence. INTERPRETATION: Interventions promoting handwashing with soap can reduce ARI in LMICs, and could help to prevent the large burden of respiratory disease. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Reckitt Global Hygiene Institute, and UK FCDO.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , Developing Countries , Soaps , Pandemics/prevention & control , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control
9.
Pharm Res ; 40(5): 1015-1036, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2299091

ABSTRACT

With the rapid outbreak of respiratory viral infections, various biological (e.g. vaccines, peptides, recombinant proteins, antibodies and genes) and antiviral agents (e.g. ribavirin, palivizumab and valaciclovir) have been successfully developed for the treatment of respiratory virus infections such as influenza, respiratory syncytial virus and SARS-CoV-2 infections. These therapeutics are conventionally delivered via oral, intramuscular or injection route and are associated with several adverse events due to systemic toxicity. The inherent in vivo instability of biological therapeutics may hinder them from being administered without proper formulations. Therefore, we have witnessed a boom in nanotechnology coupled with a needle-free administration approach such as the inhalation route for the delivery of complex therapeutics to treat respiratory infections. This review discussed the recent advances in the inhalation strategies of nanoformulations that target virus respiratory infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Vaccines , Humans , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/drug therapy , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , Vaccines/therapeutic use
10.
Nutrients ; 15(6)2023 Mar 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2298231

ABSTRACT

We aimed to clarify the involvement of vitamin D status in virus or atypical pathogens infection in children with acute respiratory infections (ARIs). In this retrospective study, 295 patients with ARIs were attacked by a respiratory virus or a single atypical pathogen; 17 patients with ARIs induced by two pathogens, and 636 healthy children were included. Serum 25(OH)D levels of all children were measured. Oropharyngeal samples of the patients for viruses or atypical pathogens were studied by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In our studies, 58.98% of the 295 single-infected subjects and 76.47% of the 17 co-infected subjects had 25(OH)D levels below the recommended 50.0 nmol/L; the mean 25(OH)D levels were 48.48 ± 19.91 nmol/L and 44.12 ± 12.78 nmol/L. Low serum 25(OH)D levels were remarkable in patients with one of seven viruses or atypical pathogens infected. These results were significantly different from those in the healthy group. There were no significant differences in 25(OH)D levels between single infection and co-infection groups. There were no differences in severity among means of 25(OH)D levels. Female or >6-year-old children patients with low serum 25(OH)D levels were more vulnerable to pathogenic respiratory pathogens. However, serum 25(OH)D levels may be related to the recovery of ARIs. These findings provide additional evidence for the development of strategies to prevent ARIs in children.


Subject(s)
Respiratory Tract Infections , Viruses , Vitamin D Deficiency , Humans , Child , Female , Retrospective Studies , Vitamin D , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , Calcifediol , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications
11.
N Engl J Med ; 388(16): 1451-1464, 2023 Apr 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2297440

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Whether vaccination during pregnancy could reduce the burden of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-associated lower respiratory tract illness in newborns and infants is uncertain. METHODS: In this phase 3, double-blind trial conducted in 18 countries, we randomly assigned, in a 1:1 ratio, pregnant women at 24 through 36 weeks' gestation to receive a single intramuscular injection of 120 µg of a bivalent RSV prefusion F protein-based (RSVpreF) vaccine or placebo. The two primary efficacy end points were medically attended severe RSV-associated lower respiratory tract illness and medically attended RSV-associated lower respiratory tract illness in infants within 90, 120, 150, and 180 days after birth. A lower boundary of the confidence interval for vaccine efficacy (99.5% confidence interval [CI] at 90 days; 97.58% CI at later intervals) greater than 20% was considered to meet the success criterion for vaccine efficacy with respect to the primary end points. RESULTS: At this prespecified interim analysis, the success criterion for vaccine efficacy was met with respect to one primary end point. Overall, 3682 maternal participants received vaccine and 3676 received placebo; 3570 and 3558 infants, respectively, were evaluated. Medically attended severe lower respiratory tract illness occurred within 90 days after birth in 6 infants of women in the vaccine group and 33 infants of women in the placebo group (vaccine efficacy, 81.8%; 99.5% CI, 40.6 to 96.3); 19 cases and 62 cases, respectively, occurred within 180 days after birth (vaccine efficacy, 69.4%; 97.58% CI, 44.3 to 84.1). Medically attended RSV-associated lower respiratory tract illness occurred within 90 days after birth in 24 infants of women in the vaccine group and 56 infants of women in the placebo group (vaccine efficacy, 57.1%; 99.5% CI, 14.7 to 79.8); these results did not meet the statistical success criterion. No safety signals were detected in maternal participants or in infants and toddlers up to 24 months of age. The incidences of adverse events reported within 1 month after injection or within 1 month after birth were similar in the vaccine group (13.8% of women and 37.1% of infants) and the placebo group (13.1% and 34.5%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: RSVpreF vaccine administered during pregnancy was effective against medically attended severe RSV-associated lower respiratory tract illness in infants, and no safety concerns were identified. (Funded by Pfizer; MATISSE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04424316.).


Subject(s)
Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines , Respiratory Tract Infections , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Antibodies, Viral , Communicable Diseases/therapy , Double-Blind Method , Injections, Intramuscular , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/prevention & control , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines/administration & dosage , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines/adverse effects , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines/therapeutic use , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses , Treatment Outcome , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccination/methods , Vaccine Efficacy , Vaccines, Combined/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Combined/adverse effects , Vaccines, Combined/therapeutic use , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control
12.
N Engl J Med ; 388(16): 1465-1477, 2023 Apr 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2305422

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection causes considerable illness in older adults. The efficacy and safety of an investigational bivalent RSV prefusion F protein-based (RSVpreF) vaccine in this population are unknown. METHODS: In this ongoing, phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned, in a 1:1 ratio, adults (≥60 years of age) to receive a single intramuscular injection of RSVpreF vaccine at a dose of 120 µg (RSV subgroups A and B, 60 µg each) or placebo. The two primary end points were vaccine efficacy against seasonal RSV-associated lower respiratory tract illness with at least two or at least three signs or symptoms. The secondary end point was vaccine efficacy against RSV-associated acute respiratory illness. RESULTS: At the interim analysis (data-cutoff date, July 14, 2022), 34,284 participants had received RSVpreF vaccine (17,215 participants) or placebo (17,069 participants). RSV-associated lower respiratory tract illness with at least two signs or symptoms occurred in 11 participants in the vaccine group (1.19 cases per 1000 person-years of observation) and 33 participants in the placebo group (3.58 cases per 1000 person-years of observation) (vaccine efficacy, 66.7%; 96.66% confidence interval [CI], 28.8 to 85.8); 2 cases (0.22 cases per 1000 person-years of observation) and 14 cases (1.52 cases per 1000 person-years of observation), respectively, occurred with at least three signs or symptoms (vaccine efficacy, 85.7%; 96.66% CI, 32.0 to 98.7). RSV-associated acute respiratory illness occurred in 22 participants in the vaccine group (2.38 cases per 1000 person-years of observation) and 58 participants in the placebo group (6.30 cases per 1000 person-years of observation) (vaccine efficacy, 62.1%; 95% CI, 37.1 to 77.9). The incidence of local reactions was higher with vaccine (12%) than with placebo (7%); the incidences of systemic events were similar (27% and 26%, respectively). Similar rates of adverse events through 1 month after injection were reported (vaccine, 9.0%; placebo, 8.5%), with 1.4% and 1.0%, respectively, considered by the investigators to be injection-related. Severe or life-threatening adverse events were reported in 0.5% of vaccine recipients and 0.4% of placebo recipients. Serious adverse events were reported in 2.3% of participants in each group through the data-cutoff date. CONCLUSIONS: RSVpreF vaccine prevented RSV-associated lower respiratory tract illness and RSV-associated acute respiratory illness in adults (≥60 years of age), without evident safety concerns. (Funded by Pfizer; RENOIR ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT05035212; EudraCT number, 2021-003693-31.).


Subject(s)
Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines , Respiratory Tract Infections , Aged , Humans , Antibodies, Viral , Double-Blind Method , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/prevention & control , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines/administration & dosage , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines/adverse effects , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines/therapeutic use , Vaccines, Combined/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Combined/adverse effects , Vaccines, Combined/therapeutic use , Vaccine Efficacy , Treatment Outcome , Middle Aged , Injections, Intramuscular , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control
13.
Allergy ; 77(9): 2653-2664, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2267606

ABSTRACT

This review presents state-of-the-art knowledge and identifies knowledge gaps for future research in the area of exercise-associated modifications of infection susceptibility. Regular moderate-intensity exercise is believed to have beneficial effects on immune health through lowering inflammation intensity and reducing susceptibility to respiratory infections. However, strenuous exercise, as performed by professional athletes, may promote infection: in about half of athletes presenting respiratory symptoms, no causative pathogen can be identified. Acute bouts of exercise enhance the release of pro-inflammatory mediators, which may induce infection-like respiratory symptoms. Relatively few studies have assessed the influence of regularly repeated exercise on the immune response and systemic inflammation compared to the effects of acute exercise. Additionally, ambient and environmental conditions may modify the systemic inflammatory response and infection susceptibility, particularly in outdoor athletes. Both acute and chronic regular exercise influence humoral and cellular immune response mechanisms, resulting in decreased specific and non-specific response in competitive athletes. The most promising areas of further research in exercise immunology include detailed immunological characterization of infection-prone and infection-resistant athletes, examining the efficacy of nutritional and pharmaceutical interventions as countermeasures to infection symptoms, and determining the influence of various exercise loads on susceptibility to infections with respiratory viruses, including SARS-CoV-2. By establishing a uniform definition of an "elite athlete," it will be possible to make a comparable and straightforward interpretation of data from different studies and settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Tract Infections , Exercise/physiology , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Inflammation , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
15.
N Engl J Med ; 388(7): 595-608, 2023 02 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2275568

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an important cause of acute respiratory infection, lower respiratory tract disease, clinical complications, and death in older adults. There is currently no licensed vaccine against RSV infection. METHODS: In an ongoing, international, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned, in a 1:1 ratio, adults 60 years of age or older to receive a single dose of an AS01E-adjuvanted RSV prefusion F protein-based candidate vaccine (RSVPreF3 OA) or placebo before the RSV season. The primary objective was to show vaccine efficacy of one dose of the RSVPreF3 OA vaccine against RSV-related lower respiratory tract disease, confirmed by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), during one RSV season. The criterion for meeting the primary objective was a lower limit of the confidence interval around the efficacy estimate of more than 20%. Efficacy against severe RSV-related lower respiratory tract disease and RSV-related acute respiratory infection was assessed, and analyses according to RSV subtype (A and B) were performed. Safety was evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 24,966 participants received one dose of the RSVPreF3 OA vaccine (12,467 participants) or placebo (12,499). Over a median follow-up of 6.7 months, vaccine efficacy against RT-PCR-confirmed RSV-related lower respiratory tract disease was 82.6% (96.95% confidence interval [CI], 57.9 to 94.1), with 7 cases (1.0 per 1000 participant-years) in the vaccine group and 40 cases (5.8 per 1000 participant-years) in the placebo group. Vaccine efficacy was 94.1% (95% CI, 62.4 to 99.9) against severe RSV-related lower respiratory tract disease (assessed on the basis of clinical signs or by the investigator) and 71.7% (95% CI, 56.2 to 82.3) against RSV-related acute respiratory infection. Vaccine efficacy was similar against the RSV A and B subtypes (for RSV-related lower respiratory tract disease: 84.6% and 80.9%, respectively; for RSV-related acute respiratory infection: 71.9% and 70.6%, respectively). High vaccine efficacy was observed in various age groups and in participants with coexisting conditions. The RSVPreF3 OA vaccine was more reactogenic than placebo, but most adverse events for which reports were solicited were transient, with mild-to-moderate severity. The incidences of serious adverse events and potential immune-mediated diseases were similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: A single dose of the RSVPreF3 OA vaccine had an acceptable safety profile and prevented RSV-related acute respiratory infection and lower respiratory tract disease and severe RSV-related lower respiratory tract disease in adults 60 years of age or older, regardless of RSV subtype and the presence of underlying coexisting conditions. (Funded by GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals; AReSVi-006 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04886596.).


Subject(s)
Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Aged , Humans , Adjuvants, Immunologic/administration & dosage , Adjuvants, Immunologic/adverse effects , Adjuvants, Immunologic/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/prevention & control , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines/administration & dosage , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines/adverse effects , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines/therapeutic use , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , Internationality , Vaccine Efficacy
16.
Curr Opin Pulm Med ; 29(3): 133-137, 2023 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2263547

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews the epidemiology and transmission of respiratory tract infections (RTIs) during mass gathering events (MGEs) before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. RECENT FINDINGS: RTIs of viral cause such as influenza, rhinovirus and coronaviruses (229E, HKU1, OC43) are common in MGEs. No cases of MERS-CoV have yet been identified in pilgrims during Hajj, despite the fact that MERS-CoV continues to circulate in the Middle East. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, organizers of mass gathering religious and sporting events have implemented risk-based infection control measures and lockdowns that limited transmission of RTIs. SUMMARY: Large-scale RTI outbreaks at MGEs are uncommon due to more robust public health planning, prevention, risk assessment and improved health infrastructures in host countries during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Tract Infections , United States , Humans , Mass Gatherings , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control
17.
Nutrients ; 15(4)2023 Feb 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2260745

ABSTRACT

Vitamin D is indicated to be beneficial for the prevention and treatment of both respiratory health and mental health problems, while mental health issues are a common consequence of diseases of the respiratory system. The aim of the presented systematic review was to gather available evidence regarding the influence of the supplementation of vitamin D on mental health in adults with respiratory system diseases obtained within randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The systematic review was conducted on the basis of the PubMed and Web of Science databases in agreement with the guidelines of Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA), while being registered within the database of the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) (CRD42020155779). A total of 8514 studies published before September 2021 were screened and 5 RCTs were included, which were assessed using the revised Cochrane risk-of-bias tool for randomized trials. Screening, inclusion, reporting, and assessment were conducted by two researchers independently. The studies focused on the assessment of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, but also increased susceptibility to respiratory tract infections, pulmonary tuberculosis, and bronchial asthma. The studies were conducted for various periods of time-from 2 months to a year-while the dose of vitamin D applied was also diverse-from 4000 IU applied daily, to 100,000 IU applied weekly, or monthly. The psychological measures applied within the studies allowed the assessment, mainly, of quality of life, but also well-being, and depression. For the majority of studies, some concerns regarding risk of bias were defined, resulting from the randomization process and selection of reported results; however, for one study, the risk was even defined as high. Within the included studies, three studies confirmed a beneficial effect of vitamin D (including those with a high risk of bias), but two studies did not confirm it. Taking into account the evidence gathered, in spite of a positive influence of vitamin D on mental health in individuals with increased susceptibility to respiratory tract infections and bronchial asthma, the conducted systematic review is not a strong confirmation of the beneficial effect of the supplementation of vitamin D on mental health in adults with respiratory system diseases.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Respiratory Tract Infections , Adult , Humans , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Mental Health , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Vitamins , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , Asthma/drug therapy , Dietary Supplements
18.
N Engl J Med ; 388(7): 609-620, 2023 02 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2258655

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) can cause serious lower respiratory tract disease in older adults, but no licensed RSV vaccine currently exists. An adenovirus serotype 26 RSV vector encoding a prefusion F (preF) protein (Ad26.RSV.preF) in combination with RSV preF protein was previously shown to elicit humoral and cellular immunogenicity. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2b, proof-of-concept trial to evaluate the efficacy, immunogenicity, and safety of an Ad26.RSV.preF-RSV preF protein vaccine. Adults who were 65 years of age or older were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive vaccine or placebo. The primary end point was the first occurrence of RSV-mediated lower respiratory tract disease that met one of three case definitions: three or more symptoms of lower respiratory tract infection (definition 1), two or more symptoms of lower respiratory tract infection (definition 2), and either two or more symptoms of lower respiratory tract infection or one or more symptoms of lower respiratory tract infection plus at least one systemic symptom (definition 3). RESULTS: Overall, 5782 participants were enrolled and received an injection. RSV-mediated lower respiratory tract disease meeting case definitions 1, 2, and 3 occurred in 6, 10, and 13 vaccine recipients and in 30, 40, and 43 placebo recipients, respectively. Vaccine efficacy was 80.0% (94.2% confidence interval [CI], 52.2 to 92.9), 75.0% (94.2% CI, 50.1 to 88.5), and 69.8% (94.2% CI, 43.7 to 84.7) for case definitions 1, 2, and 3, respectively. After vaccination, RSV A2 neutralizing antibody titers increased by a factor of 12.1 from baseline to day 15, a finding consistent with other immunogenicity measures. Percentages of participants with solicited local and systemic adverse events were higher in the vaccine group than in the placebo group (local, 37.9% vs. 8.4%; systemic, 41.4% vs. 16.4%); most adverse events were mild to moderate in severity. The frequency of serious adverse events was similar in the vaccine group and the placebo group (4.6% and 4.7%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In adults 65 years of age or older, Ad26.RSV.preF-RSV preF protein vaccine was immunogenic and prevented RSV-mediated lower respiratory tract disease. (Funded by Janssen Vaccines and Prevention; CYPRESS ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03982199.).


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Aged , Humans , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Double-Blind Method , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/blood , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/immunology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/prevention & control , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines/adverse effects , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines/therapeutic use , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/immunology , Respiratory Tract Infections/blood , Respiratory Tract Infections/immunology , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , Vaccine Efficacy , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , Treatment Outcome
19.
Acta Biomed ; 94(1): e2023032, 2023 02 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2244953

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: During the 2020 and 2021 Italian COVID-19 pandemic social restrictions and strict hygiene measures were recommended to limit the spread of SARS-CoV-2. We aimed to assess whether rates of respiratory infections and wheezing in preterm infants have changed during the pandemic. METHODS: Single center, retrospective study. Preterm infants in the first 6 months of life discharged home prior to (Period 1, January 2017 - December 2019) or during the pandemic (Period 2, January 2020 - March 2021) were compared. Rates of respiratory infection and wheezing in preterm infants with or without bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BDP) were assessed. RESULTS: During period 2 premature infants had lower rates of respiratory infections (36 out of 55 in Period 1 vs 11 out of 28 in Period 2, P=0.023) and wheezing (20 out of 55 in Period 1 vs 1 out of 28 in Period 2, P=0.001). This difference remained significant when infants with BPD (all grades) were analyzed separately (respiratory infections 26 out of 40 in Period 1 vs 7 out of 24 in Period 2, P=0.005; wheezing 16 out of 40 in Period 1 vs 1 out of 24 in Period 2, P=0.001). In contrast, respiratory infections and wheezing in preterm infants without BPD did not change after pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Episodes of respiratory infections and wheezing among preterm infants were reduced during pandemic. We highlight the importance of proper family education for preventing respiratory tract infections in preterm infants with BPD, beyond the extraordinary conditions of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Tract Infections , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Humans , Infant, Premature , Retrospective Studies , Respiratory Sounds , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control
20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(1)2022 12 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2242613

ABSTRACT

Personal and household hygiene measures are important for preventing upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) and other infectious diseases, including coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). An online survey recruited 414 eligible parents in Hong Kong to study their hygiene knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAPs) regarding the prevention of URTIs among their children. The average knowledge score was high (10.2/12.0), but some misconceptions were identified. The majority of the participants agreed that good personal hygiene (93.5%) and good environmental hygiene (92.8%) can prevent URTIs. The average score for hand hygiene practices was high (3.78/4.00), but only 56.8% of the parents always performed hand hygiene before touching their mouths, noses, or eyes. In terms of environmental hygiene, only some household items were disinfected with disinfectants (door handles in 69.8% of the households, toilet seats in 60.4% of the households, the floor in 42.8% of the households, dining chairs in 24.2% of the households, and dining tables in 20.5% of the households). A higher knowledge score was associated with parents having tertiary educational levels or above, working as healthcare professionals, living in private residential flats or staff quarters, or having household incomes of HKD 70,000 or above. The results of multiple regression analyses also indicated that parents who were healthcare professionals and with higher household income had a better parental knowledge of hygiene measures after adjusting the attitude score. For hand hygiene, parents who achieved higher attitude scores obtained higher practice scores. Under the fifth wave of the COVID-19 epidemic, there were some misconceptions regarding hygiene among parents. Any health promotion program should target parents regarding taking proper personal and household hygienic measures, especially for those who had relatively lower socio-economic status and/or from a non-healthcare background. Motivating attitudes toward hand hygiene can lead to better practices.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hand Hygiene , Respiratory Tract Infections , Humans , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , Hygiene , Surveys and Questionnaires
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