Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 41
Filter
1.
Curr Opin Pulm Med ; 28(3): 218-224, 2022 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2190986

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We aim to examine the most recent findings in the area of invasive pulmonary fungal infections to determine the appropriate/and or lack of prevention measures and treatment of upper fungal respiratory tract infections in the critically ill. RECENT FINDINGS: This will be addressed by focusing on the pathogens and prognosis over different bedridden periods in ICU patients, the occurrence of invasive fungal respiratory superinfections in patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 which has been recently noted following the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Relevant reports referenced within include randomized controlled trials, meta-analyses, observational studies, systematic reviews, and international guidelines, where applicable. Of note, it is clear there is a significant gap in our knowledge regarding whether bacterial and fungal infections in coronavirus disease 2019 are directly attributable to SARS-CoV-2 or a consequence of factors such as managing high numbers of critically unwell patients, and the prolonged duration of mechanical ventilation/ICU admission duration of stay. SUMMARY: An optimal diagnostic algorithm incorporating fungal biomarkers and molecular tools for early and accurate diagnosis of Pneumocystis pneumonia, invasive aspergillosis, candidemia, and endemic mycoses continues to be limited clinically. There is a lack of standardized molecular approach to identify fungal pathogens directly in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues and suboptimal diagnostic approaches for mould blood cultures, tissue culture processing for Mucorales, and fungal respiratory cultures (i.e., the routine use of bronchoscopic examination in ICU patients with influenza-associated pulmonary aspergillosis) for fungal point-of-care testing to detect and identify new, emerging or underrecognized, rare, or uncommon fungal pathogens.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mycoses , Respiratory Tract Infections , Critical Illness , Humans , Mycoses/diagnosis , Mycoses/drug therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
2.
3.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 56(11): 1663-1667, 2022 Nov 06.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119387

ABSTRACT

Due to the wide variety of pathogens causing respiratory tract infection and the close symptoms, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) needs to be differentiated from other common infections. Early comprehensive detection and accurate identification of respiratory infection pathogens is of great value for early diagnosis, curative effect, as well as monitor of the diseases. Combined detection of multiple pathogens can quickly and accurately detect and distinguish the pathogens, then provide rapid and reliable laboratory diagnostic basis for further treatment. This article elaborates the application and development of multiplex detection assay in the diagnosis of COVID-19 according to the recent research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Tract Infections , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/therapy , Sensitivity and Specificity
4.
J Trop Pediatr ; 68(4)2022 06 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2018106

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The influenza virus is an infectious disease with acute respiratory tract infections, caused secondary bacterial infections and death. In this study, we aimed to determine which predictors were associated with the need for high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy (HFNC) and transition to intensive care for influenza virus and also to compare single viral pathogens with multiple ones. METHODS: Inpatients under the age of 5 with influenza virus-related respiratory tract infections between November 2015 and March 2019 were included in the study. Demographic features, comorbidities, symptoms, secondary bacterial infection, need for HFNC and pediatric intensive care unit and respiratory support system, length of hospital stay, polymerase chain reaction tests were recorded. RESULTS: A total of 93 patients were included in the study. It was determined that 53.8% of the cases were male and 84.9% were under the age of 2. Comorbidities were present in 50.5% of the cases. Secondary bacterial pneumonia developed in 56.9% of the cases. Patients with secondary bacterial pneumonia had higher PICU need, HFNC need and hospital stay (p = 0.014, p ≤ 0.001 and p ≤ 0.001, respectively). Patients with comorbidity had longer hospital stays and a higher need for HFNC (p ≤ 0.001 and p = 0.001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, it was determined that especially comorbidity and secondary bacterial infection aggravated the clinical treatment of hospitalized patients. Therefore, it was concluded that patients with comorbidity should be followed closely and secondary bacterial pneumonia should be recognized and treated early.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections , Coinfection , Influenza, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Cannula , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Influenza, Human/complications , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/therapy , Male , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/etiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/therapy , Retrospective Studies
5.
Int J Clin Pract ; 2022: 4495806, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1789044

ABSTRACT

Background: The aim of the study was to examine changes in the frequency of respiratory diseases during the COVID-19 pandemic and to correlate the changes with nonpharmacological interventions for overcoming the pandemic. In addition, the study explored the predictors of adherence to nonpharmacological interventions among the Jordanian public. Method: The study is survey-based and self-reported, using convenient sampling. The study was conducted during October-November of 2021. Results: The study included 1714 participants. About one-quarter of participants reported decreases in the incidence of cold (21.9%), influenza (24.7%), respiratory infections other than cold and influenza (23.3%), tonsillitis (23.0%), and oral ulcers (23.5%). On the other hand, the majority reported no change in the incidence of the above infections (62.0-64.4%). Adherence of the sample to nonpharmacological interventions of COVID-19 was moderate. The percentages of people who always wear a mask, follow social distancing, and use sanitizing procedures were 47.1%, 37.8%, and 68.8% respectively. ANOVA test showed a significant correlation between the incidence of respiratory/oral infections and adherence to nonpharmacological interventions. The multiple regression test showed that people who followed COVID-19 news, have children, have a job, and being married were more adhered to nonpharmacological measures compared to others. Conclusion: Implementation of nonpharmacological interventions used to overcome the COVID-19 pandemic can be applied to reduce other respiratory infections during their peak seasons.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Influenza, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Pandemics , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/therapy , Self Report
6.
Semin Respir Crit Care Med ; 43(1): 60-74, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1688937

ABSTRACT

Severe viral infections may result in severe illnesses capable of causing acute respiratory failure that could progress rapidly to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), related to worse outcomes, especially in individuals with a higher risk of infection, including the elderly and those with comorbidities such as asthma, diabetes mellitus and chronic respiratory or cardiovascular disease. In addition, in cases of severe viral pneumonia, co-infection with bacteria such as Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus is related to worse outcomes. Respiratory viruses like influenza, rhinovirus, parainfluenza, adenovirus, metapneumovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, and coronavirus have increasingly been detected. This trend has become more prevalent, especially in critically ill patients, due to the availability and implementation of molecular assays in clinical practice. Respiratory viruses have been diagnosed as a frequent cause of severe pneumonia, including cases of community-acquired pneumonia, hospital-acquired pneumonia, and ventilator-associated pneumonia. In this review, we will discuss the epidemiology, diagnosis, clinical characteristics, management, and prognosis of patients with severe infections due to respiratory viruses, with a focus on influenza viruses, non-influenza viruses, and coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Respiratory Tract Infections , Virus Diseases , Aged , Coronavirus , Humans , Patient Acuity , Prognosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Virus Diseases/diagnosis , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/therapy
7.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 41(4): e146-e148, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1706949

ABSTRACT

Respiratory viruses were detected by multiplex-polymerase chain reaction from oropharyngeal swabs in 114/168 (67.9%) children with acute respiratory infection presenting to 5 pediatric practices in Germany between November 2020 and April 2021. In contrast to rhino- (48.8%), adeno- (14.3%) and endemic coronaviruses (14.9%), SARS-CoV-2 and influenza virus were detected only once; respiratory syncytial virus was not detected. This demonstrates differing impacts of pandemic infection control measures on the spread of respiratory viruses.


Subject(s)
Primary Health Care , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/etiology , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/etiology , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Disease Susceptibility , Female , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/virology , Male , Pandemics , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/virology , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Diseases/diagnosis , Virus Diseases/therapy
8.
Gut Microbes ; 13(1): 1-9, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493512

ABSTRACT

Gut microbiome manipulation to alter the gut-lung axis may potentially protect humans against respiratory infections, and clinical trials of probiotics show promise in this regard in healthy adults and children. However, comparable studies are lacking in overweight/obese people, who have increased risks in particular of viral upper respiratory tract infections (URTI). This Addendum further analyses our recent placebo-controlled trial of probiotics in overweight/obese people (focused initially on weight loss) to investigate the impact of probiotics upon the occurrence of URTI symptoms. As well as undergoing loss of weight and improvement in certain metabolic parameters, study participants taking probiotics experienced a 27% reduction in URTI symptoms versus control, with those ≥45 years or BMI ≥30 kg/m2 experiencing greater reductions. This symptom reduction is apparent within 2 weeks of probiotic use. Gut microbiome diversity remained stable throughout the study in probiotic-treated participants. Our data provide support for further trials to assess the potential role of probiotics in preventing viral URTI (and possibly also COVID-19), particularly in overweight/obese people.


Subject(s)
Obesity/complications , Overweight/complications , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , Respiratory Tract Infections/therapy , Adult , Aged , Double-Blind Method , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Self Report
9.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258478, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468177

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to clarify the effects of individual infection control measures and physical distancing on pediatric medical care in a local prefecture in Japan, where the incidence of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in pediatric patients was extremely low. We extracted data from hospital records on the number of outpatients, inpatients, infectious disease consultations, and consultations for representative pediatric diseases. We compared attendance in 2017-2019, before the COVID-19 pandemic, with 2020, when COVID-19 spread to Japan. There were no COVID-19 patients in the pediatric department during the study period. The total number outpatient visits decreased by 24.4%, and the number of hospital admissions, excluding neonatal care unit admissions, decreased by approximately 35%. There was a marked reduction in the number of hospitalizations for infectious diseases such as influenza (-74.8%) and respiratory syncytial virus infection (-93.5%), and the number of hospitalizations for bronchitis/pneumonia, Kawasaki disease, and bronchial asthma decreased. In contrast, the number of clinical psychological interventions and cases reported to the child guidance center increased. In the context of pandemic infectious diseases, it is important to control the spread of problematic infectious diseases by individual infection control measures and physical distancing. However, it is necessary to maintain social life as much as possible for the mental health and physical development of children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/standards , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals, Pediatric/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Tract Infections/therapy , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Male , Pandemics , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Sex Factors
10.
Cells ; 10(10)2021 09 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438525

ABSTRACT

The objective of this review is to describe the evolution of lung tissue-derived diploid progenitor cell applications, ranging from historical biotechnological substrate functions for vaccine production and testing to current investigations around potential therapeutic use in respiratory tract regenerative medicine. Such cell types (e.g., MRC-5 or WI-38 sources) were extensively studied since the 1960s and have been continuously used over five decades as safe and sustainable industrial vaccine substrates. Recent research and development efforts around diploid progenitor lung cells (e.g., FE002-Lu or Walvax-2 sources) consist in qualification for potential use as optimal and renewed vaccine production substrates and, alternatively, for potential therapeutic applications in respiratory tract regenerative medicine. Potentially effective, safe, and sustainable cell therapy approaches for the management of inflammatory lung diseases or affections and related symptoms (e.g., COVID-19 patients and burn patient severe inhalation syndrome) using local homologous allogeneic cell-based or cell-derived product administrations are considered. Overall, lung tissue-derived progenitor cells isolated and produced under good manufacturing practices (GMP) may be used with high versatility. They can either act as key industrial platforms optimally conforming to specific pharmacopoeial requirements or as active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) for potentially effective promotion of lung tissue repair or regeneration.


Subject(s)
Biotechnology/methods , Diploidy , Lung/cytology , Regenerative Medicine/methods , Respiratory Tract Infections/therapy , Animals , Biological Specimen Banks , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cell Line , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Humans , Lung/physiology , Regeneration , Regenerative Medicine/history , SARS-CoV-2 , Stem Cell Transplantation , Stem Cells/cytology , Transplantation, Homologous
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1288899

ABSTRACT

Viral-associated respiratory infectious diseases are one of the most prominent subsets of respiratory failures, known as viral respiratory infections (VRI). VRIs are proceeded by an infection caused by viruses infecting the respiratory system. For the past 100 years, viral associated respiratory epidemics have been the most common cause of infectious disease worldwide. Due to several drawbacks of the current anti-viral treatments, such as drug resistance generation and non-targeting of viral proteins, the development of novel nanotherapeutic or nano-vaccine strategies can be considered essential. Due to their specific physical and biological properties, nanoparticles hold promising opportunities for both anti-viral treatments and vaccines against viral infections. Besides the specific physiological properties of the respiratory system, there is a significant demand for utilizing nano-designs in the production of vaccines or antiviral agents for airway-localized administration. SARS-CoV-2, as an immediate example of respiratory viruses, is an enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the coronaviridae family. COVID-19 can lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome, similarly to other members of the coronaviridae. Hence, reviewing the current and past emerging nanotechnology-based medications on similar respiratory viral diseases can identify pathways towards generating novel SARS-CoV-2 nanotherapeutics and/or nano-vaccines.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Drug Carriers/chemistry , Nanomedicine , Respiratory Tract Infections/pathology , Viral Vaccines/chemistry , Virus Diseases/pathology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Immune System/metabolism , Respiratory Tract Infections/therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Virus Diseases/immunology , Virus Diseases/prevention & control , Virus Diseases/therapy
13.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1196, 2021 06 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1280583

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic led to the implementation of various non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPI) as the Singapore government escalated containment efforts from DORSCON Orange to Circuit Breaker. NPI include mandatory mask wearing, hand hygiene, social distancing, and closure of schools and workplaces. Considering the similar mode of transmission of COVID-19 and other pathogens related to acute respiratory infections (ARI), the effects of NPI could possibly lead to decreased ARI attendances in the community. This study aims to determine the year-on-year and weekly changes of ARI attendances across a cluster of polyclinics following the implementation of NPI. METHODS: The effect of the nation-wide measures on the health-seeking behaviour of the study population was examined over three periods: (1) 9 weeks prior to the start of Circuit Breaker (DORSCON Orange period), (2) 8 weeks during the Circuit Breaker, and (3) 9 weeks after easing of Circuit Breaker. Data on ARI attendances for the corresponding periods in 2019 were also extracted for comparison and to assess the seasonal variations of ARI. The average weekly workday ARI attendances were compared with those of the preceding week using Wilcoxon signed rank test. RESULTS: ARI attendances dropped steadily throughout the study period and were 50-80% lower than in 2019 since Circuit Breaker. They remained low even after Circuit Breaker ended. Positivity rate for influenza-like illnesses samples in the community was 0.0% from the last week of Circuit Breaker to end of study period. CONCLUSIONS: NPI and public education measures during DORSCON Orange and Circuit Breaker periods appear to be associated with the health-seeking behaviour of the public. Changing levels of perceived susceptibility, severity, benefits and barriers, and widespread visual cues based on the Health Belief Model may account for this change. Understanding the impact of NPI and shifts in the public's health-seeking behaviour will be relevant and helpful in the planning of future pandemic responses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Tract Infections , Humans , Pandemics , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Singapore/epidemiology
15.
Expert Rev Respir Med ; 15(6): 805-821, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1187906

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Viral respiratory tract infections (RTIs) have been recognized as a global public health burden. Despite current theories about their effectiveness, the true benefits of dietary supplements on the prevention and treatment of viral RTIs remain elusive, due to contradictory reports. Hence, we aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of dietary supplements on the prevention and treatment of viral RTIs.Areas covered: We systematically searched databases of PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar through 4 March 2020, to identify randomized controlled trials that evaluated the effects of consuming selected dietary supplements on the prevention or treatment of viral RTIs.Expert opinion: Thirty-nine randomized controlled trials (n = 16,797 participants) were eligible and included. Namely, vitamin D supplementation appeared to improve viral RTIs across cohorts particulate in those with vitamin D deficiency. Among the evaluated dietary supplements, specific lactobacillus strains were used most commonly with selected prebiotics that showed potentially positive effects on the prevention and treatment of viral RTIs. Further, ginseng extract supplementation may effectively prevent viral RTIs as adjuvant therapy. However, longitudinal research is required to confirm these observations and address the optimal dose, duration, and safety of dietary supplements being publicly recommended.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/therapy , Dietary Supplements , Respiratory Tract Infections , Virus Diseases , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Dietary Supplements/classification , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Humans , Lactobacillus/physiology , Panax/chemistry , Quercetin/therapeutic use , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , Respiratory Tract Infections/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/prevention & control , Virus Diseases/therapy , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamin D Deficiency/diet therapy , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology , beta-Glucans/therapeutic use
16.
Annu Rev Virol ; 8(1): 393-414, 2021 09 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1255635

ABSTRACT

Biological sex affects the outcome of diverse respiratory viral infections. The pathogenesis of respiratory infections caused by viruses ranging from respiratory syncytial virus to influenza viruses and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 differs between the sexes across the life course. Generally, males are more susceptible to severe outcomes from respiratory viral infections at younger and older ages. During reproductive years (i.e., after puberty and prior to menopause), females are often at greater risk than males for severe outcomes. Pregnancy and biological sex affect the pathogenesis of respiratory viral infections. In addition to sex differences in the pathogenesis of disease, there are consistent sex differences in responses to treatments, with females often developing greater immune responses but experiencing more adverse reactions than males. Animal models provide mechanistic insights into the causes of sex differences in respiratory virus pathogenesis and treatment outcomes, where available.


Subject(s)
Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/therapy , Virus Physiological Phenomena , Age Factors , Animals , Female , Humans , Male , Respiratory Tract Infections/immunology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Characteristics , Sex Factors , Viruses/classification
18.
Life Sci ; 278: 119561, 2021 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1201658

ABSTRACT

Respiratory viral infections are major cause of highly mortal pandemics. They are impacting socioeconomic development and healthcare system globally. These emerging deadly respiratory viruses develop newer survival strategies to live inside host cells and tricking the immune system of host. Currently, medical facilities, therapies and research -development teams of every country kneel down before novel corona virus (SARS-CoV-2) which claimed ~2,828,629 lives till date. Thus, there is urgent requirement of novel treatment strategies to combat against these emerging respiratory viral infections. Nanocarriers come under the umbrella of nanotechnology and offer numerous benefits compared to traditional dosage forms. Further, unique physicochemical properties (size, shape and surface charge) of nanocarriers provide additional advantage for targeted delivery. This review discusses in detail about the respiratory viruses, their transmission mode and cell invasion pathways, survival strategies, available therapies, and nanocarriers for the delivery of therapeutics. Further, the role of nanocarriers in the development of treatment therapy against SARS-CoV-2 is also overviewed.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/therapy , Nanomedicine/methods , Respiratory Tract Infections/therapy , Virus Diseases/therapy , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Drug Carriers/chemistry , Drug Delivery Systems/methods , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Humans , Nanostructures/chemistry , Nanotechnology/methods , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Diseases/prevention & control , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Viruses/drug effects
19.
Transfus Clin Biol ; 28(3): 321-329, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1174514

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To explore whether convalescent plasma therapy is beneficial to patients with severe acute respiratory infections and gave hints to the management of COVID-19. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search of PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and Cochrane library was conducted for all eligible studies range from inception to February 29, 2020. Studies with control group were included. Treatment group received convalescent plasma therapy, and control group may receive any therapy other than convalescent plasma therapy. Odds ratios (ORs), mean differences (MDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled for categorical and continuous outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 1997 patients from 13 studies were included, and seven studies were prospectively designed. Pooled analysis indicated convalescent plasma treatment significantly reduced the mortality by 51% (OR=0.49, 95% CI: 0.36 to 0.67). Subgroup analyses by publication time, study design, and influenza A revealed similar results. Sensitivity analyses suggested that the results were stable. In addition, convalescent plasma therapy reduced mechanical ventilation requirement (OR: 0.35, 95% CI: 0.21 to 0.59), while it was not associated with less use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (OR: 2.0, 95% CI: 0.83 to 4.83) and shorter length of hospital stay (MD: -2.20, 95% CI: -4.98 to 0.57days). Pooled estimates showed there was no difference in serious adverse effects between the convalescent plasma treatment and control groups (OR: 0.75, 95% CI: 0.50 to 1.13). CONCLUSION: Convalescent plasma therapy significantly reduced the mortality and mechanical ventilation requirements of patients with virus-induced severe acute respiratory infections, without serious adverse effects. More studies are needed to explore whether this treatment can be extrapolated into COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Blood Component Transfusion , COVID-19/therapy , Convalescence , Immunization, Passive , Plasma , Respiratory Tract Infections/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Acute Disease , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Procedures and Techniques Utilization , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology
20.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 40(4): 596-602, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1170009

ABSTRACT

Use of direct-to-consumer telemedicine-on-demand virtual care for minor medical issues-is growing rapidly. Although it may yield immediate savings by diverting health care from higher-cost settings, these savings could be countered if direct-to-consumer telemedicine increases follow-up care and, therefore, episode costs. Comparing downstream care utilization data from a large, commercial payer for the period 2016-19, we found that patients with initial visits for acute respiratory infection were more likely to obtain follow-up care within seven days after direct-to-consumer telemedicine visits (10.3 percent) than after in-person visits (5.9 percent). In both settings approximately 90 percent of patients did not obtain additional care. The telemedicine cohort had fewer (0.5 percent versus 0.6 percent) emergency department visits-a small but statistically significant difference-but more subsequent office, urgent care, and telemedicine visits. Our findings suggest that potential savings from shifting initial care to a direct-to-consumer telemedicine setting should be balanced against the potential for higher spending on downstream care.


Subject(s)
Respiratory Tract Infections , Telemedicine , Ambulatory Care , Delivery of Health Care , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Respiratory Tract Infections/therapy
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL