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1.
Gut Microbes ; 13(1): 1-9, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493512

ABSTRACT

Gut microbiome manipulation to alter the gut-lung axis may potentially protect humans against respiratory infections, and clinical trials of probiotics show promise in this regard in healthy adults and children. However, comparable studies are lacking in overweight/obese people, who have increased risks in particular of viral upper respiratory tract infections (URTI). This Addendum further analyses our recent placebo-controlled trial of probiotics in overweight/obese people (focused initially on weight loss) to investigate the impact of probiotics upon the occurrence of URTI symptoms. As well as undergoing loss of weight and improvement in certain metabolic parameters, study participants taking probiotics experienced a 27% reduction in URTI symptoms versus control, with those ≥45 years or BMI ≥30 kg/m2 experiencing greater reductions. This symptom reduction is apparent within 2 weeks of probiotic use. Gut microbiome diversity remained stable throughout the study in probiotic-treated participants. Our data provide support for further trials to assess the potential role of probiotics in preventing viral URTI (and possibly also COVID-19), particularly in overweight/obese people.


Subject(s)
Obesity/complications , Overweight/complications , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , Respiratory Tract Infections/therapy , Adult , Aged , Double-Blind Method , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Self Report
2.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258478, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468177

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to clarify the effects of individual infection control measures and physical distancing on pediatric medical care in a local prefecture in Japan, where the incidence of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in pediatric patients was extremely low. We extracted data from hospital records on the number of outpatients, inpatients, infectious disease consultations, and consultations for representative pediatric diseases. We compared attendance in 2017-2019, before the COVID-19 pandemic, with 2020, when COVID-19 spread to Japan. There were no COVID-19 patients in the pediatric department during the study period. The total number outpatient visits decreased by 24.4%, and the number of hospital admissions, excluding neonatal care unit admissions, decreased by approximately 35%. There was a marked reduction in the number of hospitalizations for infectious diseases such as influenza (-74.8%) and respiratory syncytial virus infection (-93.5%), and the number of hospitalizations for bronchitis/pneumonia, Kawasaki disease, and bronchial asthma decreased. In contrast, the number of clinical psychological interventions and cases reported to the child guidance center increased. In the context of pandemic infectious diseases, it is important to control the spread of problematic infectious diseases by individual infection control measures and physical distancing. However, it is necessary to maintain social life as much as possible for the mental health and physical development of children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/standards , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals, Pediatric/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Tract Infections/therapy , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Male , Pandemics , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Sex Factors
3.
Cells ; 10(10)2021 09 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438525

ABSTRACT

The objective of this review is to describe the evolution of lung tissue-derived diploid progenitor cell applications, ranging from historical biotechnological substrate functions for vaccine production and testing to current investigations around potential therapeutic use in respiratory tract regenerative medicine. Such cell types (e.g., MRC-5 or WI-38 sources) were extensively studied since the 1960s and have been continuously used over five decades as safe and sustainable industrial vaccine substrates. Recent research and development efforts around diploid progenitor lung cells (e.g., FE002-Lu or Walvax-2 sources) consist in qualification for potential use as optimal and renewed vaccine production substrates and, alternatively, for potential therapeutic applications in respiratory tract regenerative medicine. Potentially effective, safe, and sustainable cell therapy approaches for the management of inflammatory lung diseases or affections and related symptoms (e.g., COVID-19 patients and burn patient severe inhalation syndrome) using local homologous allogeneic cell-based or cell-derived product administrations are considered. Overall, lung tissue-derived progenitor cells isolated and produced under good manufacturing practices (GMP) may be used with high versatility. They can either act as key industrial platforms optimally conforming to specific pharmacopoeial requirements or as active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) for potentially effective promotion of lung tissue repair or regeneration.


Subject(s)
Biotechnology/methods , Diploidy , Lung/cytology , Regenerative Medicine/methods , Respiratory Tract Infections/therapy , Animals , Biological Specimen Banks , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cell Line , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Humans , Lung/physiology , Regeneration , Regenerative Medicine/history , SARS-CoV-2 , Stem Cell Transplantation , Stem Cells/cytology , Transplantation, Homologous
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1288899

ABSTRACT

Viral-associated respiratory infectious diseases are one of the most prominent subsets of respiratory failures, known as viral respiratory infections (VRI). VRIs are proceeded by an infection caused by viruses infecting the respiratory system. For the past 100 years, viral associated respiratory epidemics have been the most common cause of infectious disease worldwide. Due to several drawbacks of the current anti-viral treatments, such as drug resistance generation and non-targeting of viral proteins, the development of novel nanotherapeutic or nano-vaccine strategies can be considered essential. Due to their specific physical and biological properties, nanoparticles hold promising opportunities for both anti-viral treatments and vaccines against viral infections. Besides the specific physiological properties of the respiratory system, there is a significant demand for utilizing nano-designs in the production of vaccines or antiviral agents for airway-localized administration. SARS-CoV-2, as an immediate example of respiratory viruses, is an enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the coronaviridae family. COVID-19 can lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome, similarly to other members of the coronaviridae. Hence, reviewing the current and past emerging nanotechnology-based medications on similar respiratory viral diseases can identify pathways towards generating novel SARS-CoV-2 nanotherapeutics and/or nano-vaccines.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Drug Carriers/chemistry , Nanomedicine , Respiratory Tract Infections/pathology , Viral Vaccines/chemistry , Virus Diseases/pathology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Immune System/metabolism , Respiratory Tract Infections/therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Virus Diseases/immunology , Virus Diseases/prevention & control , Virus Diseases/therapy
6.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1196, 2021 06 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1280583

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic led to the implementation of various non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPI) as the Singapore government escalated containment efforts from DORSCON Orange to Circuit Breaker. NPI include mandatory mask wearing, hand hygiene, social distancing, and closure of schools and workplaces. Considering the similar mode of transmission of COVID-19 and other pathogens related to acute respiratory infections (ARI), the effects of NPI could possibly lead to decreased ARI attendances in the community. This study aims to determine the year-on-year and weekly changes of ARI attendances across a cluster of polyclinics following the implementation of NPI. METHODS: The effect of the nation-wide measures on the health-seeking behaviour of the study population was examined over three periods: (1) 9 weeks prior to the start of Circuit Breaker (DORSCON Orange period), (2) 8 weeks during the Circuit Breaker, and (3) 9 weeks after easing of Circuit Breaker. Data on ARI attendances for the corresponding periods in 2019 were also extracted for comparison and to assess the seasonal variations of ARI. The average weekly workday ARI attendances were compared with those of the preceding week using Wilcoxon signed rank test. RESULTS: ARI attendances dropped steadily throughout the study period and were 50-80% lower than in 2019 since Circuit Breaker. They remained low even after Circuit Breaker ended. Positivity rate for influenza-like illnesses samples in the community was 0.0% from the last week of Circuit Breaker to end of study period. CONCLUSIONS: NPI and public education measures during DORSCON Orange and Circuit Breaker periods appear to be associated with the health-seeking behaviour of the public. Changing levels of perceived susceptibility, severity, benefits and barriers, and widespread visual cues based on the Health Belief Model may account for this change. Understanding the impact of NPI and shifts in the public's health-seeking behaviour will be relevant and helpful in the planning of future pandemic responses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Tract Infections , Humans , Pandemics , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Singapore/epidemiology
8.
Expert Rev Respir Med ; 15(6): 805-821, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1187906

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Viral respiratory tract infections (RTIs) have been recognized as a global public health burden. Despite current theories about their effectiveness, the true benefits of dietary supplements on the prevention and treatment of viral RTIs remain elusive, due to contradictory reports. Hence, we aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of dietary supplements on the prevention and treatment of viral RTIs.Areas covered: We systematically searched databases of PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar through 4 March 2020, to identify randomized controlled trials that evaluated the effects of consuming selected dietary supplements on the prevention or treatment of viral RTIs.Expert opinion: Thirty-nine randomized controlled trials (n = 16,797 participants) were eligible and included. Namely, vitamin D supplementation appeared to improve viral RTIs across cohorts particulate in those with vitamin D deficiency. Among the evaluated dietary supplements, specific lactobacillus strains were used most commonly with selected prebiotics that showed potentially positive effects on the prevention and treatment of viral RTIs. Further, ginseng extract supplementation may effectively prevent viral RTIs as adjuvant therapy. However, longitudinal research is required to confirm these observations and address the optimal dose, duration, and safety of dietary supplements being publicly recommended.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/therapy , Dietary Supplements , Respiratory Tract Infections , Virus Diseases , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Dietary Supplements/classification , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Humans , Lactobacillus/physiology , Panax/chemistry , Quercetin/therapeutic use , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , Respiratory Tract Infections/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/prevention & control , Virus Diseases/therapy , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamin D Deficiency/diet therapy , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology , beta-Glucans/therapeutic use
9.
Annu Rev Virol ; 8(1): 393-414, 2021 09 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1255635

ABSTRACT

Biological sex affects the outcome of diverse respiratory viral infections. The pathogenesis of respiratory infections caused by viruses ranging from respiratory syncytial virus to influenza viruses and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 differs between the sexes across the life course. Generally, males are more susceptible to severe outcomes from respiratory viral infections at younger and older ages. During reproductive years (i.e., after puberty and prior to menopause), females are often at greater risk than males for severe outcomes. Pregnancy and biological sex affect the pathogenesis of respiratory viral infections. In addition to sex differences in the pathogenesis of disease, there are consistent sex differences in responses to treatments, with females often developing greater immune responses but experiencing more adverse reactions than males. Animal models provide mechanistic insights into the causes of sex differences in respiratory virus pathogenesis and treatment outcomes, where available.


Subject(s)
Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/therapy , Virus Physiological Phenomena , Age Factors , Animals , Female , Humans , Male , Respiratory Tract Infections/immunology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Characteristics , Sex Factors , Viruses/classification
11.
Life Sci ; 278: 119561, 2021 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1201658

ABSTRACT

Respiratory viral infections are major cause of highly mortal pandemics. They are impacting socioeconomic development and healthcare system globally. These emerging deadly respiratory viruses develop newer survival strategies to live inside host cells and tricking the immune system of host. Currently, medical facilities, therapies and research -development teams of every country kneel down before novel corona virus (SARS-CoV-2) which claimed ~2,828,629 lives till date. Thus, there is urgent requirement of novel treatment strategies to combat against these emerging respiratory viral infections. Nanocarriers come under the umbrella of nanotechnology and offer numerous benefits compared to traditional dosage forms. Further, unique physicochemical properties (size, shape and surface charge) of nanocarriers provide additional advantage for targeted delivery. This review discusses in detail about the respiratory viruses, their transmission mode and cell invasion pathways, survival strategies, available therapies, and nanocarriers for the delivery of therapeutics. Further, the role of nanocarriers in the development of treatment therapy against SARS-CoV-2 is also overviewed.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/therapy , Nanomedicine/methods , Respiratory Tract Infections/therapy , Virus Diseases/therapy , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Drug Carriers/chemistry , Drug Delivery Systems/methods , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Humans , Nanostructures/chemistry , Nanotechnology/methods , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Diseases/prevention & control , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Viruses/drug effects
12.
Transfus Clin Biol ; 28(3): 321-329, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1174514

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To explore whether convalescent plasma therapy is beneficial to patients with severe acute respiratory infections and gave hints to the management of COVID-19. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search of PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and Cochrane library was conducted for all eligible studies range from inception to February 29, 2020. Studies with control group were included. Treatment group received convalescent plasma therapy, and control group may receive any therapy other than convalescent plasma therapy. Odds ratios (ORs), mean differences (MDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled for categorical and continuous outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 1997 patients from 13 studies were included, and seven studies were prospectively designed. Pooled analysis indicated convalescent plasma treatment significantly reduced the mortality by 51% (OR=0.49, 95% CI: 0.36 to 0.67). Subgroup analyses by publication time, study design, and influenza A revealed similar results. Sensitivity analyses suggested that the results were stable. In addition, convalescent plasma therapy reduced mechanical ventilation requirement (OR: 0.35, 95% CI: 0.21 to 0.59), while it was not associated with less use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (OR: 2.0, 95% CI: 0.83 to 4.83) and shorter length of hospital stay (MD: -2.20, 95% CI: -4.98 to 0.57days). Pooled estimates showed there was no difference in serious adverse effects between the convalescent plasma treatment and control groups (OR: 0.75, 95% CI: 0.50 to 1.13). CONCLUSION: Convalescent plasma therapy significantly reduced the mortality and mechanical ventilation requirements of patients with virus-induced severe acute respiratory infections, without serious adverse effects. More studies are needed to explore whether this treatment can be extrapolated into COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Blood Component Transfusion , COVID-19/therapy , Convalescence , Immunization, Passive , Plasma , Respiratory Tract Infections/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Acute Disease , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Procedures and Techniques Utilization , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology
13.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 40(4): 596-602, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1170009

ABSTRACT

Use of direct-to-consumer telemedicine-on-demand virtual care for minor medical issues-is growing rapidly. Although it may yield immediate savings by diverting health care from higher-cost settings, these savings could be countered if direct-to-consumer telemedicine increases follow-up care and, therefore, episode costs. Comparing downstream care utilization data from a large, commercial payer for the period 2016-19, we found that patients with initial visits for acute respiratory infection were more likely to obtain follow-up care within seven days after direct-to-consumer telemedicine visits (10.3 percent) than after in-person visits (5.9 percent). In both settings approximately 90 percent of patients did not obtain additional care. The telemedicine cohort had fewer (0.5 percent versus 0.6 percent) emergency department visits-a small but statistically significant difference-but more subsequent office, urgent care, and telemedicine visits. Our findings suggest that potential savings from shifting initial care to a direct-to-consumer telemedicine setting should be balanced against the potential for higher spending on downstream care.


Subject(s)
Respiratory Tract Infections , Telemedicine , Ambulatory Care , Delivery of Health Care , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Respiratory Tract Infections/therapy
14.
Gut Microbes ; 13(1): 1-9, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1149877

ABSTRACT

Gut microbiome manipulation to alter the gut-lung axis may potentially protect humans against respiratory infections, and clinical trials of probiotics show promise in this regard in healthy adults and children. However, comparable studies are lacking in overweight/obese people, who have increased risks in particular of viral upper respiratory tract infections (URTI). This Addendum further analyses our recent placebo-controlled trial of probiotics in overweight/obese people (focused initially on weight loss) to investigate the impact of probiotics upon the occurrence of URTI symptoms. As well as undergoing loss of weight and improvement in certain metabolic parameters, study participants taking probiotics experienced a 27% reduction in URTI symptoms versus control, with those ≥45 years or BMI ≥30 kg/m2 experiencing greater reductions. This symptom reduction is apparent within 2 weeks of probiotic use. Gut microbiome diversity remained stable throughout the study in probiotic-treated participants. Our data provide support for further trials to assess the potential role of probiotics in preventing viral URTI (and possibly also COVID-19), particularly in overweight/obese people.


Subject(s)
Obesity/complications , Overweight/complications , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , Respiratory Tract Infections/therapy , Adult , Aged , Double-Blind Method , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Self Report
15.
Cells ; 10(3)2021 03 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1143461

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome-CoV-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for COVID-19 infection. The COVID-19 pandemic represents one of the worst global threats in the 21st century since World War II. This pandemic has led to a worldwide economic recession and crisis due to lockdown. Biomedical researchers, pharmaceutical companies, and premier institutes throughout the world are claiming that new clinical trials are in progress. During the severe phase of this disease, mechanical ventilators are used to assist in the management of outcomes; however, their use can lead to the development of pneumonia. In this context, mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-derived exosomes can serve as an immunomodulation treatment for COVID-19 patients. Exosomes possess anti-inflammatory, pro-angiogenic, and immunomodulatory properties that can be explored in an effort to improve the outcomes of SARS-CoV-2-infected patients. Currently, only one ongoing clinical trial (NCT04276987) is specifically exploring the use of MSC-derived exosomes as a therapy to treat SARS-CoV-2-associated pneumonia. The purpose of this review is to provide insights of using exosomes derived from mesenchymal stem cells in management of the co-morbidities associated with SARS-CoV-2-infected persons in direction of improving their health outcome. There is limited knowledge of using exosomes in SARS-CoV-2; the clinicians and researchers should exploit exosomes as therapeutic regime.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Exosomes/metabolism , Extracellular Vesicles/metabolism , Immunomodulation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Cytokines/metabolism , Cytokines/pharmacology , Exosomes/chemistry , Exosomes/genetics , Humans , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/therapy , Inflammation/virology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/immunology , Neovascularization, Physiologic/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Respiratory Tract Infections/complications , Respiratory Tract Infections/therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology
16.
Ann Neurol ; 89(3): 610-616, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1044305

ABSTRACT

There is emerging evidence for multifarious neurological manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but little is known regarding whether they reflect structural damage to the nervous system. Serum neurofilament light chain (sNfL) is a specific biomarker of neuronal injury. We measured sNfL concentrations of 29 critically ill COVID-19 patients, 10 critically ill non-COVID-19 patients, and 259 healthy controls. After adjusting for neurological comorbidities and age, sNfL concentrations were higher in patients with COVID-19 versus both comparator groups. Higher sNfL levels were associated with unfavorable short-term outcome, indicating that neuronal injury is common and pronounced in critically ill patients. ANN NEUROL 2021;89:610-616.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Neurofilament Proteins/blood , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Case-Control Studies , Critical Illness , Female , Glasgow Outcome Scale , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hyponatremia/blood , Hyponatremia/therapy , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Pulmonary Edema/blood , Pulmonary Edema/therapy , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Insufficiency/blood , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/blood , Respiratory Tract Infections/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Shock, Cardiogenic/blood , Shock, Cardiogenic/therapy
18.
Molecules ; 25(21)2020 Oct 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-983191

ABSTRACT

Inflammation is a biological response to the activation of the immune system by various infectious or non-infectious agents, which may lead to tissue damage and various diseases. Gut commensal bacteria maintain a symbiotic relationship with the host and display a critical function in the homeostasis of the host immune system. Disturbance to the gut microbiota leads to immune dysfunction both locally and at distant sites, which causes inflammatory conditions not only in the intestine but also in the other organs such as lungs and brain, and may induce a disease state. Probiotics are well known to reinforce immunity and counteract inflammation by restoring symbiosis within the gut microbiota. As a result, probiotics protect against various diseases, including respiratory infections and neuroinflammatory disorders. A growing body of research supports the beneficial role of probiotics in lung and mental health through modulating the gut-lung and gut-brain axes. In the current paper, we discuss the potential role of probiotics in the treatment of viral respiratory infections, including the COVID-19 disease, as major public health crisis in 2020, and influenza virus infection, as well as treatment of neurological disorders like multiple sclerosis and other mental illnesses.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Influenza, Human/therapy , Mental Disorders/therapy , Multiple Sclerosis/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Respiratory Tract Infections/therapy , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Betacoronavirus/physiology , Brain/immunology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/microbiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/immunology , Gastrointestinal Tract/immunology , Gastrointestinal Tract/microbiology , Humans , Immunomodulation , Influenza, Human/immunology , Influenza, Human/microbiology , Influenza, Human/virology , Lung/immunology , Mental Disorders/immunology , Mental Disorders/microbiology , Microbial Consortia/immunology , Multiple Sclerosis/immunology , Multiple Sclerosis/microbiology , Orthomyxoviridae/drug effects , Orthomyxoviridae/pathogenicity , Orthomyxoviridae/physiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/microbiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Respiratory Tract Infections/immunology , Respiratory Tract Infections/microbiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Symbiosis/immunology
19.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243694, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-971781

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Respiratory tract diseases are the major cause of morbidity and mortality in children under the age of 5 years, constituting the highest rate of hospitalization in this age group. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of hospitalizations for respiratory diseases in childhood in the last 5 years and to assess the impact of social isolation due to COVID-19 on the seasonal behavior of these diseases. METHODS: A cross-sectional clinical study was carried out, with a survey of all patients aged 0 to 17 years who were admitted with a diagnosis of respiratory diseases between January 2015 and July 2020. The database was delivered to the researchers anonymized. The variables used for analysis were date of admission, date of discharge, length of stay, age, sex and diagnosis. In order to make the analysis possible, the diagnoses were grouped into upper respiratory infection (URI), asthma / bronchitis, bronchiolitis and pneumonia. RESULTS: 2236 admissions were included in the study. Children under 5 years old account for 81% of hospitalizations for respiratory disease in our population. In the adjusted model, an average reduction of 38 hospitalizations was observed in the period of social isolation (coefficient: -37.66; 95% CI (- 68.17; -7.15); p = 0.016). CONCLUSION: The social isolation measures adopted during the COVID-19 pandemic dramatically interfered with the seasonality of childhood respiratory diseases. This was reflected in the unexpected reduction in the number of hospitalizations in the pediatric population during this period.


Subject(s)
Asthma/therapy , Bronchitis/therapy , COVID-19 , Hospitalization , Respiratory Tract Infections/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons , Adolescent , Asthma/epidemiology , Bronchitis/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hospitals, Pediatric , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Social Isolation
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