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1.
Curr Opin Pulm Med ; 26(3): 197-202, 2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-726094

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Mass gathering events bring people from across all continents increasing the risk of spread of aerosol transmissible respiratory tract infections. Respiratory tract infections for instance in pilgrims attending the world's largest recurring annual pilgrimage, the Hajj are common. We review recent literature on viral and bacterial infectious diseases with special focus on the Hajj. RECENT FINDINGS: The prevalence of bacterial and viral infections continue to increase, because of the acquisition of rhinovirus, coronaviruses (229E, HKU1, OC43), influenza A H1N1, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Staphylococcus aureus during Hajj. Whilst MERS-CoV continues to circulate in the Middle East, no cases of MERS-CoV have yet been identified in pilgrims during Hajj. SUMMARY: Respiratory tract infections are a major cause of morbidity in pilgrims attending mass gathering events. The management of severe respiratory infections should consider investigation and empirical coverage for the most likely agents based on syndromic surveillance data from hosting country and /or other relevant exposure history during events. Pneumococcal and Pertussis vaccines should be recommended for Hajj pilgrims.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Influenza, Human/transmission , Islam , Measles/transmission , Pneumonia, Pneumococcal/transmission , Respiratory Tract Infections/transmission , Travel , Tuberculosis/transmission , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Bacterial Infections/transmission , Coronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Haemophilus Infections/epidemiology , Haemophilus Infections/transmission , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Measles/epidemiology , Measles/prevention & control , Middle East/epidemiology , Picornaviridae Infections/epidemiology , Picornaviridae Infections/transmission , Pneumococcal Vaccines/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Pneumococcal/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Pneumococcal/prevention & control , Prevalence , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/transmission , Whooping Cough/epidemiology , Whooping Cough/prevention & control , Whooping Cough/transmission
2.
Infection ; 48(4): 627-629, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-611636

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected most countries of the world. As corona viruses are highly prevalent in the cold season, the question remains whether or not the pandemic will improve with increasing temperatures in the Northern hemisphere. We use data from a primary care registry of almost 15,000 patients over 20 years to retrieve information on viral respiratory infection outbreaks. Our analysis suggests that the severity of the pandemic will be softened by the seasonal change to summer.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Seasons , Temperature , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Global Health , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Registries , Respiratory Tract Infections/transmission , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology
3.
Indian J Public Health ; 64(Supplement): S192-S200, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-569322

ABSTRACT

Background: There is paucity of evidence on the effectiveness of facemask use in COVID-19 in community settings. Objectives: We aimed to estimate the effectiveness of facemask use alone or along with hand hygiene in community settings in reducing the transmission of viral respiratory illness. Methods: We searched PubMed and Embase for randomized controlled trials on facemask use in community settings to prevent viral respiratory illnesses published up to April 25, 2020. Two independent reviewers were involved in synthesis of data. Data extraction and risk-of-bias assessment were done in a standard format from the selected studies. Outcome data for clinically diagnosed or self-reported influenza-like illness (ILI) was recorded from individual studies. Pooled effect size was estimated by random-effects model for "facemask only versus control" and "facemask plus hand hygiene versus control." Results: Of the 465 studies from PubMed and 437 studies from Embase identified from our search, 9 studies were included in qualitative synthesis and 8 studies in quantitative synthesis. Risk of bias was assessed as low (n = 4), medium (n = 3), or high (n = 1) risk. Interventions included using a triple-layered mask alone or in combination with hand hygiene. Publication bias was not significant. There was no significant reduction in ILI either with facemask alone (n = 5, pooled effect size: -0.17; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.43-0.10; P = 0.23; I2 = 10.9%) or facemask with handwash (n = 6, pooled effect size: (n=6, pooled effect size: -0.09; 95% CI: -0.58 to 0.40; P = 0.71, I2 = 69.4%). Conclusion: : Existing data pooled from randomized controlled trials do not reveal a reduction in occurrence of ILI with the use of facemask alone in community settings.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Hand Disinfection , Masks/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Humans , India , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , Respiratory Tract Infections/transmission , Virus Diseases/prevention & control , Virus Diseases/transmission
4.
Vopr Virusol ; 65(1): 6-15, 2020.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-533952

ABSTRACT

Results of analysis of phylogenetic, virological, epidemiological, ecological, clinical data of COVID-19 outbreaks in Wuhan, China (PRC) in comparison with SARS-2002 and MERS-2012 outbreaks allow to conclude: - the etiological agent of COVID-19 is coronavirus (2019-CoV), phylogenetically close to the SARS-CoV, isolated from human, and SARS-related viruses isolated from bats (SARS-related bat CoV viruses). These viruses belong to the Sarbecovirus subgenus, Betacoronavirus genus, Orthocoronavirinae subfamily, Coronaviridae family (Cornidovirinea: Nidovirales). COVID-19 is a variant of SARS-2002 and is different from MERS-2012 outbreak, which were caused by coronavirus belonged to the subgenus Merbecovirus of the same genus; - according to the results of phylogenetic analysis of 35 different betacoronaviruses, isolated from human and from wild animals in 2002-2019, the natural source of COVID-19 and SARS-CoV (2002) is bats of Rhinolophus genus (Rhinolophidae) and, probably, some species of other genera. An additional reservoir of the virus could be an intermediate animal species (snakes, civet, hedgehogs, badgers, etc.) that are infected by eating of infected bats. SARS-like coronaviruses circulated in bats in the interepidemic period (2003-2019); - seasonal coronaviruses (subgenus Duvinacovirus, Alphacoronavirus) are currently circulating (November 2019 - January 2020) in the European part of Russia, Urals, Siberia and the Far East of Russia, along with the influenza viruses A(H1N1)pdm09, A(H3N2), and В, as well as six other respiratory viruses (HPIV, HAdV, HRSV, HRV, HBoV, and HMPV).


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/classification , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Phylogeny , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Animals , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , China/epidemiology , Chiroptera/virology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Epidemiological Monitoring , Hedgehogs/virology , Humans , Mustelidae/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Public Health/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/physiopathology , Respiratory Tract Infections/transmission , Russia/epidemiology , Snakes/virology , Viverridae/virology
5.
Viruses ; 12(5)2020 05 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-245401

ABSTRACT

Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) is widespread in cattle and wild ruminant populations throughout the world. The virus causes neonatal calf diarrhea and winter dysentery in adult cattle, as well as upper and lower respiratory tract infection in young cattle. We isolated and deep sequenced whole genomes of BCoV from calves with respiratory distress in the south-west of France and conducted a comparative genome analysis using globally collected BCoV sequences to provide insights into the genomic characteristics, evolutionary origins, and global diversity of BCoV. Molecular clock analyses allowed us to estimate that the BCoV ancestor emerged in the 1940s, and that two geographically distinct lineages diverged from the 1960s-1970s. A recombination event in the spike gene (breakpoint at nt 1100) may be at the origin of the genetic divergence sixty years ago. Little evidence of genetic mixing between the spatially segregated lineages was found, suggesting that BCoV genetic diversity is a result of a global transmission pathway that occurred during the last century. However, we found variation in evolution rates between the European and non-European lineages indicating differences in virus ecology.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus, Bovine/genetics , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/veterinary , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Animals , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus, Bovine/pathogenicity , Evolution, Molecular , France/epidemiology , Genome, Viral/genetics , Geography , Phylogeny , Respiratory Tract Infections/transmission , Respiratory Tract Infections/veterinary , Selection, Genetic/genetics , Viral Tropism/genetics
6.
Microbes Infect ; 22(6-7): 236-244, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-244991

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continues to sweep the world, causing infection of millions and death of hundreds of thousands. The respiratory disease that it caused, COVID-19 (stands for coronavirus disease in 2019), has similar clinical symptoms with other two CoV diseases, severe acute respiratory syndrome and Middle East respiratory syndrome (SARS and MERS), of which causative viruses are SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, respectively. These three CoVs resulting diseases also share many clinical symptoms with other respiratory diseases caused by influenza A viruses (IAVs). Since both CoVs and IAVs are general pathogens responsible for seasonal cold, in the next few months, during the changing of seasons, clinicians and public heath may have to distinguish COVID-19 pneumonia from other kinds of viral pneumonia. This is a discussion and comparison of the virus structures, transmission characteristics, clinical symptoms, diagnosis, pathological changes, treatment and prevention of the two kinds of viruses, CoVs and IAVs. It hopes to provide information for practitioners in the medical field during the epidemic season.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Seasons , Age Factors , Animals , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Humans , Influenza A virus/pathogenicity , Influenza, Human/complications , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Influenza, Human/transmission , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Public Health , Respiratory Tract Infections/transmission , SARS Virus/pathogenicity , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/diagnosis , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology
7.
Nat Med ; 26(5): 676-680, 2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-203367

ABSTRACT

We identified seasonal human coronaviruses, influenza viruses and rhinoviruses in exhaled breath and coughs of children and adults with acute respiratory illness. Surgical face masks significantly reduced detection of influenza virus RNA in respiratory droplets and coronavirus RNA in aerosols, with a trend toward reduced detection of coronavirus RNA in respiratory droplets. Our results indicate that surgical face masks could prevent transmission of human coronaviruses and influenza viruses from symptomatic individuals.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Masks/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Respiratory Tract Infections/transmission , Aerosols/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Exhalation/physiology , Humans , Orthomyxoviridae/isolation & purification , Orthomyxoviridae/pathogenicity , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Respiratory Tract Infections/pathology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Virus Shedding
8.
Salud Publica Mex ; 62(3): 319-330, 2020.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-46170

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of using surgical masks in community settings to reduce the probability of infection by SARS-CoV-2 or other acute viral respiratory infection, compared to not using surgical masks. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We followed the Cochrane rapid review methodology. The search strategy encompasses one academic database and pre-prints until April 1, 2020. Titles and abstracts were reviewed by one investigator. The full text review was divided among three researchers. The results were synthesized in a narrative way. RESULTS: 713 manuscripts were identified, of which 21 met the inclusion criteria. Of six systematic reviews, four found no reduction in the probability of transmission. Experimental home studies found no differences in the probability of contagion associated with the use of mouth masks. Only one modeling study estimated a 20% reduction in the incidence of acute respiratory disease, assuming that 10 to 50% of the population use the surgical masks correctly. CONCLUSIONS: The scientific evidence is inconclusive to recommend or discourage the use of surgical masks at the population level. Considering the potential negative effects, official recommendations should await for the results of natural experiments currently occurring in countries that have recommended the use of face masks at the population level.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Masks/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , Community-Acquired Infections/prevention & control , Community-Acquired Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Respiratory Tract Infections/transmission
10.
Euro Surveill ; 25(3)2020 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-89

ABSTRACT

A novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) causing severe acute respiratory disease emerged recently in Wuhan, China. Information on reported cases strongly indicates human-to-human spread, and the most recent information is increasingly indicative of sustained human-to-human transmission. While the overall severity profile among cases may change as more mild cases are identified, we estimate a risk of fatality among hospitalised cases at 14% (95% confidence interval: 3.9-32%).


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Disease Outbreaks , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/transmission , China/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/transmission , Coronavirus/classification , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Public Health , Risk Assessment
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