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2.
Am J Emerg Med ; 53: 122-126, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1638161

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Endotracheal intubation (ETI) is still the gold standard of airway management, but in cases of sudden cardiac arrest in patients with suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection, ETI is associated with risks for both the patient and the medical personnel. We hypothesized that the Vie Scope® is more useful for endotracheal intubation of suspected or confirmed COVID-19 cardiac arrest patients than the conventional laryngoscope with Macintosh blade when operators are wearing personal protective equipment (PPE). METHODS: Study was designed as a prospective, multicenter, randomized clinical trial performed by Emergency Medical Services in Poland. Patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis who needed cardiopulmonary resuscitation in prehospital setting were included. Patients under 18 years old or with criteria predictive of impossible intubation under direct laryngoscopy, were excluded. Patients were randomly allocated 1:1 to Vie Scope® versus direct laryngoscopy with a Macintosh blade. Study groups were compared on success of intubation attempts, time to intubation, glottis visualization and number of optimization maneuvers. RESULTS: We enrolled 90 out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients, aged 43-92 years. Compared to the VieScope® laryngoscope, use of the Macintosh laryngoscope required longer times for tracheal intubation with an estimated mean difference of -48 s (95%CI confidence interval [CI], -60.23, -35.77; p < 0.001). Moreover VieScope® improved first attempt success rate, 93.3% vs. 51.1% respectively (odds ratio [OR] = 13.39; 95%CI: 3.62, 49.58; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The use of the Vie Scope® laryngoscope in OHCA patients improved the first attempt success rate, and reduced intubation time compared to Macintosh laryngoscope in paramedics wearing PPE for against aerosol generating procedures. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials registration number NCT04365608.


Subject(s)
Allied Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Intubation, Intratracheal/instrumentation , Laryngoscopes/standards , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Airway Management/instrumentation , Airway Management/methods , Airway Management/statistics & numerical data , Allied Health Personnel/standards , Female , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods , Intubation, Intratracheal/statistics & numerical data , Laryngoscopes/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Personal Protective Equipment/adverse effects , Personal Protective Equipment/standards , Personal Protective Equipment/statistics & numerical data , Prospective Studies , Resuscitation/instrumentation , Resuscitation/methods , Resuscitation/statistics & numerical data
3.
Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed ; 107(2): 211-215, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398607

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Healthcare providers should use personal protective equipment (PPE) when performing aerosol-generating medical procedures during highly infectious respiratory pandemics. We aimed to compare the timing of neonatal resuscitation procedures in a manikin model with or without PPE for prevention of SARS-COVID-19 transmission. METHODS: A randomised controlled cross-over (AB/BA) trial of resuscitation with or without PPE in a neonatal resuscitation scenario. Forty-eight participants were divided in 12 consultant-nurse teams and 12 resident-nurse teams. The primary outcome measure was the time of positive pressure ventilation (PPV) initiation. The secondary outcome measures were duration of tracheal intubation procedure, time of initiation of chest compressions, correct use of PPE and discomfort/limitations using PPE. RESULTS: There were significant differences in timing of PPV initiation (consultant-nurse teams: mean difference (MD) 6.0 s, 95% CI 1.1 to 10.9 s; resident-nurse teams: MD 11.0 s, 95% CI 1.9 to 20.0 s), duration of tracheal intubation (consultant-nurse teams: MD 22.0 s, 95% CI 7.0 to 36.9 s; resident-nurse teams: MD 9.1 s, 95% CI 0.1 to 18.1 s) and chest compressions (consultant-nurse teams: MD 32.3 s, 95% CI 14.4 to 50.1 s; resident-nurse teams: MD 9.1 s, 95% CI 0.1 to 18.1 s). Twelve participants completed the dressing after entering the delivery room. PPE was associated with visual limitations (43/48 participants), discomfort in movements (42/48), limitations in communication (32/48) and thermal discomfort (29/48). CONCLUSIONS: In a manikin model, using PPE delayed neonatal resuscitation procedures with potential clinical impact. Healthcare workers reported limitations and discomfort when wearing PPE. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04666233.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment , Resuscitation/methods , Consultants , Cross-Over Studies , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Internship and Residency , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods , Manikins , Nursing Staff, Hospital , Pandemics , Positive-Pressure Respiration/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors
5.
Pediatr Emerg Care ; 37(5): 286-289, 2021 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1203787

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has challenged hospitals and pediatric emergency department (PED) providers to rapidly adjust numerous facets of the care of critically ill or injured children to minimize health care worker (HCW) exposure to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to iteratively devise protocols and processes that minimized HCW exposure while safely and effectively caring for children who may require unanticipated aerosol-generating procedures. METHODS: As part of our PED's initiative to optimize clinical care and HCW safety during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, regular multidisciplinary systems and process simulation sessions were conducted. These sessions allowed us to evaluate and reorganize patient flow, test and improve communication modalities, alter the process for consultation in resuscitations, and teach and reinforce the appropriate donning and use of personal protective equipment. RESULTS: Simulation was a highly effective method to disseminate new practices to PED staff. Numerous workflow modifications were implemented as a result of our in situ systems and process simulations. Total number of persons in the resuscitation room was minimized, use of a "command post" with remote providers was initiated, communication devices and strategies were trialed and adopted, and personal protective equipment standards that optimized HCW safety and communication were enacted. CONCLUSIONS: Simulation can be an effective and agile tool in restructuring patient workflow and care of the most critically ill or injured patients in a PED during a novel pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Computer Simulation , Emergency Service, Hospital/organization & administration , Health Personnel/organization & administration , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , Resuscitation/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Humans
6.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 56(7): 2057-2066, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171244

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Aerosol generating medical procedures (AGMPs) are common during newborn resuscitation. Neonates with respiratory viruses such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection may pose a risk to healthcare workers. International guidelines differ on methods to minimize the risk due to limited data. OBJECTIVE: We examined the expiratory airflow dispersion during common neonatal resuscitation AGMPs using infant simulators. METHODS: Expiratory airflow dispersion in term and preterm manikins was simulated (n = 288) using fine particle smoke at tidal volumes of 5 ml/kg. Using ImageJ, we quantified dispersion during common airway procedures including endotracheal tube (ETT) and T-piece ventilation. RESULTS: Maximal expiratory dispersion distances for the unsupported airway and disconnected uncuffed ETT scenarios were 30.2 and 22.7 cm (term); 22.1 and 17.2 cm (preterm), respectively. Applying T-piece positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) via an ETT (ETTPEEP ) generated no expiratory dispersion but increased tube leak during term simulation, while ventilation breaths (ETTVENT ) caused significant expiratory dispersion and leak. There was no measurable dispersion during face mask ventilation. For term uncuffed ETT ventilation, the particle filter eliminated expiratory dispersion but increased leak. No expiratory dispersion and negligible leak were observed when combining a cuffed ETT and filter. Angulated T-pieces generated the greatest median dispersion distances of 35.8 cm (ETTPEEP ) and 23.3 cm (ETTVENT ). CONCLUSIONS: Airflow dispersion during neonatal AGMPs is greater than previously postulated and potentially could contaminate healthcare providers during resuscitation of infants infected with contagious viruses such as SARS-CoV-2. It is possible to mitigate this risk using particle filters and cuffed ETTs. Applicability in the clinical setting requires further evaluation.


Subject(s)
Air Microbiology , Exhalation , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses/isolation & purification , Resuscitation/methods , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Computer Simulation , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Intubation, Intratracheal , Manikins , Positive-Pressure Respiration/methods , Pressure , Tidal Volume
7.
Pediatr Int ; 63(3): 260-263, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1115073

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread worldwide within a short period, and there is still no sign of an end to the pandemic. Management of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-infected pregnant women at the time of delivery presents a unique challenge. To fulfill the goal of providing adequate management of such women and their infants, and to decrease the risk of exposure of the healthcare providers, tentative guidelines are needed until more evidence is collected. Practical preventative action is required that takes into account the following infection routes: (i) aerosol transmission from mothers to healthcare providers, (ii) horizontal transmission to healthcare providers from infants infected by their mothers, and (iii) horizontal transmission from mothers to infants. To develop standard operating procedures, briefings/training simulations should be carried out, taking into account the latest information. Briefings should be carefully conducted to clarify the role and procedures. Healthcare providers should wear personal protective equipment. If it is physically possible, neonatal resuscitation should be performed in a separate area next to the delivery room. If a separate area is not available, the infant warmer should be placed at least 2 m away from the delivery table, or partitioned off in the same room. A minimum number of skilled personnel should participate in resuscitation using the latest neonatal resuscitation algorithms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Delivery Rooms , Infection Control/methods , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Mothers , Personal Protective Equipment , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Resuscitation/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Simulation Training
8.
Harm Reduct J ; 18(1): 20, 2021 02 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1088598

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 crisis has had profound impacts on health service provision, particularly those providing client facing services. Supervised injecting facilities and drug consumption rooms across the world have been particularly challenged during the pandemic, as have their client group-people who consume drugs. Several services across Europe and North America closed due to difficulties complying with physical distancing requirements. In contrast, the two supervised injecting facilities in Australia (the Uniting Medically Supervised Injecting Centre-MSIC-in Sydney and the North Richmond Community Health Medically Supervised Injecting Room-MSIR-in Melbourne) remained open (as at the time of writing-December 2020). Both services have implemented a comprehensive range of strategies to continue providing safer injecting spaces as well as communicating crucial health information and facilitating access to ancillary services (such as accommodation) and drug treatment for their clients. This paper documents these strategies and the challenges both services are facing during the pandemic. Remaining open poses potential risks relating to COVID-19 transmission for both staff and clients. However, given the harms associated with closing these services, which include the potential loss of life from injecting in unsafe/unsupervised environments, the public and individual health benefits of remaining open are greater. Both services are deemed 'essential health services', and their continued operation has important benefits for people who inject drugs in Sydney and Melbourne.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Harm Reduction , Infection Control/methods , Needle-Exchange Programs , Opioid-Related Disorders/rehabilitation , Personal Protective Equipment , Physical Distancing , Substance Abuse, Intravenous/rehabilitation , Australia , COVID-19 Testing , Delivery of Health Care , Drug Overdose/therapy , Housing , Humans , Masks , Naloxone/therapeutic use , Narcotic Antagonists/therapeutic use , New South Wales , Opiate Overdose/therapy , Opiate Substitution Treatment , Referral and Consultation , Resuscitation/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Substance-Related Disorders , Victoria
9.
Semin Perinatol ; 44(7): 151282, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1029108

ABSTRACT

As we confront COVID-19, the global public health emergency of our times, new knowledge is emerging that, combined with information from prior epidemics, can provide insights on how to manage this threat in specific patient populations. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), both caused by coronaviruses, caused serious respiratory illness in pregnant women that resulted in adverse perinatal outcomes. Thus far, COVID-19 appears to follow a mild course in the vast majority of pregnant women. A significant proportion of pregnant women appear to be asymptomatic carriers of SARS-CoV-2. However, there is limited information on how COVID-19 impacts the fetus and whether vertical transmission occurs. While these knowledge gaps are addressed, it is important to recognize the highly efficient transmission characteristics of SARS-C0V-2 and its potential for causing serious disease in vulnerable individuals, including health care workers. This review provides perspectives from a single center in New York City, the epicenter of the pandemic within the United States. It offers an overview of the preparations required for deliveries of newborns of mothers with COVID-19 and the management of neonates with particular emphasis on those born with complex issues.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Congenital Abnormalities/therapy , Intensive Care, Neonatal/methods , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Advanced Practice Nursing , COVID-19 Testing , Esophageal Atresia/therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Female , Heart Defects, Congenital/therapy , Hernias, Diaphragmatic, Congenital/therapy , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infection Control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Intensive Care, Neonatal/organization & administration , Neonatologists , Nurses, Neonatal , Patient Care Planning , Patient Care Team/organization & administration , Patient Isolation , Patient Isolators , Pregnancy , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures , Resuscitation/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors , Tracheoesophageal Fistula/therapy
14.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 89(4): 792-800, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-616206

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Whole blood is optimal for resuscitation of traumatic hemorrhage. Walking Blood Banks provide fresh whole blood (FWB) where conventional blood components or stored, tested whole blood are not readily available. There is an increasing interest in this as an emergency resilience measure for isolated communities and during crises including the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the available evidence to inform practice. METHODS: Standard systematic review methodology was used to obtain studies that reported the delivery of FWB (PROSPERO registry CRD42019153849). Studies that only reported whole blood from conventional blood banking were excluded. For outcomes, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using random-effects modeling because of high risk of heterogeneity. Quality of evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation system. RESULTS: Twenty-seven studies published from 2006 to 2020 reported >10,000 U of FWB for >3,000 patients (precise values not available for all studies). Evidence for studies was "low" or "very low" except for one study, which was "moderate" in quality. Fresh whole blood patients were more severely injured than non-FWB patients. Overall, survival was equivalent between FWB and non-FWB groups for eight studies that compared these (OR, 1.00 [95% CI, 0.65-1.55]; p = 0.61). However, the highest quality study (matched groups for physiological and injury characteristics) reported an adjusted OR of 0.27 (95% CI, 0.13-0.58) for mortality for the FWB group (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Thousands of units of FWB from Walking Blood Banks have been transfused in patients following life-threatening hemorrhage. Survival is equivalent for FWB resuscitation when compared with non-FWB, even when patients were more severely injured. Evidence is scarce and of relative low quality and may underestimate potential adverse events. Whereas Walking Blood Banks may be an attractive resilience measure, caution is still advised. Walking Blood Banks should be subject to prospective evaluation to optimize care and inform policy. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Systematic/therapeutic, level 3.


Subject(s)
Blood Banks , Blood Transfusion/methods , Resuscitation/methods , Shock, Hemorrhagic/therapy , Shock, Traumatic/therapy , Humans , Severity of Illness Index , Shock, Hemorrhagic/diagnosis , Shock, Hemorrhagic/etiology , Shock, Hemorrhagic/mortality , Shock, Traumatic/complications , Shock, Traumatic/diagnosis , Shock, Traumatic/mortality , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome
17.
Orv Hetil ; 161(17): 710-712, 2020 04 01.
Article in Hungarian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-215906

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus pandemic is a serious challenge for healthcare workers worldwide. The virus is spread through the air by droplets of moisture when people cough or sneeze and it has a very high virulence. Procedures generating airway aerosols are dangerous for every participant of patient care. Mortality of COVID-19 is above 10%, thus cardiopulmonary resuscitation is an often needed intervention in this patient group. Resuscitation is an aerosol-generating process and thus carries the risk of contamination. The goal of this article is to give a practice-based overview of the specialities of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in coronavirus-infected patients. Orv Hetil. 2020. 161(17): 710­712.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Resuscitation/methods , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Neonatology ; 117(2): 133-140, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-127953

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the novel SARS-CoV-2 virus, is rapidly spreading across the world. As the number of infections increases, those of infected pregnant women and children will rise as well. Controversy exists whether COVID-19 can be transmitted in utero and lead to disease in the newborn. As this chance cannot be ruled out, strict instructions for the management of mothers and newborn infants are mandatory. This perspective aims to be a practical support tool for the planning of delivery and neonatal resuscitation of infants born by mothers with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Resuscitation/methods , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pandemics , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Am J Perinatol ; 37(8): 813-824, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-47658

ABSTRACT

The first case of novel coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was reported in November2019. The rapid progression to a global pandemic of COVID-19 has had profound medical, social, and economic consequences. Pregnant women and newborns represent a vulnerable population. However, the precise impact of this novel virus on the fetus and neonate remains uncertain. Appropriate protection of health care workers and newly born infants during and after delivery by a COVID-19 mother is essential. There is some disagreement among expert organizations on an optimal approach based on resource availability, surge volume, and potential risk of transmission. The manuscript outlines the precautions and steps to be taken before, during, and after resuscitation of a newborn born to a COVID-19 mother, including three optional variations of current standards involving shared-decision making with parents for perinatal management, resuscitation of the newborn, disposition, nutrition, and postdischarge care. The availability of resources may also drive the application of these guidelines. More evidence and research are needed to assess the risk of vertical and horizontal transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and its impact on fetal and neonatal outcomes. KEY POINTS: · The risk of vertical transmission is unclear; transmission from family members/providers to neonates is possible.. · Optimal personal-protective-equipment (airborne vs. droplet/contact precautions) for providers is crucial to prevent transmission.. · Parents should be engaged in shared decision-making with options for rooming in, skin-to-skin contact, and breastfeeding..


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Infection Control , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Resuscitation , Risk Management/methods , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/organization & administration , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Intensive Care, Neonatal/methods , Intensive Care, Neonatal/organization & administration , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Resuscitation/methods , Resuscitation/trends , SARS-CoV-2
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