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1.
JAMA Ophthalmol ; 140(5): 523-527, 2022 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1787614

ABSTRACT

Importance: COVID-19 is associated with systemic vascular damage; however, the risk posed to the retinal vasculature remains incompletely understood. Objective: To assess if there is a change in the incidence of retinal vascular occlusions after COVID-19 infection. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study at an integrated health care organization (Kaiser Permanente Southern California) included patients without a history of retinal vascular occlusion who were diagnosed with COVID-19 infection between January 20, 2020, and May 31, 2021. Patients were excluded if they had a history of retinal artery occlusions (RAOs) or retinal vein occlusions (RVOs) more than 6 months before their COVID-19 diagnosis or if they were enrolled in Kaiser Permanente Southern California for less than 6 months before COVID-19 diagnosis. Exposures: COVID-19 infection. Main Outcomes and Measures: The change in the average biweekly incidence of new RAOs and RVOs after COVID-19 diagnosis. Adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were calculated to compare the incidence of retinal vascular occlusions before and after COVID-19 diagnosis after accounting for baseline demographic characteristics, medical history, and hospitalization. Results: A total of 432 515 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 infection were included in this study. The mean (SD) age was 40.9 (19.2) years, and 231 767 patients (53.6%) were women. Sixteen patients had an RAO (crude incidence rate, 3.00 per 1 000 000 patients), and 65 had an RVO (crude incidence rate, 12.20 per 1 000 000 patients) in the 6 months after COVID-19 diagnosis. The incidence of new RVOs was higher in the 6 months after COVID-19 infection compared with the 6 months before infection after adjusting for age; sex; self-reported race and ethnicity; body mass index; history of diabetes, hypertension, or hyperlipidemia; and hospitalization (adjusted IRR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.05-2.26; P = .03). There was a smaller increase in the incidence of RAOs after COVID-19 diagnosis (IRR, 1.35; 95% CI, 0.64-2.85; P = .44). The peak incidence of RAOs and RVOs occurred 10 to 12 weeks and 6 to 8 weeks after COVID-19 diagnosis, respectively. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this study suggest that there was an increase in the incidence of RVOs after COVID-19 infection; however, these events remain rare, and in the absence of randomized controls, a cause-and-effect relationship cannot be established. Further large, epidemiologic studies are warranted to better define the association between retinal thromboembolic events and COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Retinal Artery Occlusion , Retinal Diseases , Retinal Vein Occlusion , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Retinal Artery Occlusion/diagnosis , Retinal Artery Occlusion/epidemiology , Retinal Diseases/diagnosis , Retinal Diseases/epidemiology , Retinal Vein Occlusion/diagnosis , Retinal Vein Occlusion/epidemiology , Retinal Vein Occlusion/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
2.
Ophthalmology ; 128(11): 1620-1626, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510165

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Routine use of face masks for patients and physicians during intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) injections has increased with the emergence of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. This study evaluates the impact of universal face mask use on rates and outcomes of post-injection endophthalmitis (PIE). DESIGN: Retrospective, multicenter, comparative cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: Eyes receiving intravitreal anti-VEGF injections from October 1, 2019, to July 31, 2020, at 12 centers. METHODS: Cases were divided into a "no face mask" group if no face masks were worn by the physician or patient during intravitreal injections or a "universal face mask" group if face masks were worn by the physician, ancillary staff, and patient during intravitreal injections. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Rate of endophthalmitis, microbial spectrum, and visual acuity (VA). RESULTS: Of 505 968 intravitreal injections administered in 110 547 eyes, 85 of 294 514 (0.0289%; 1 in 3464 injections) cases of presumed endophthalmitis occurred in the "no face mask" group, and 45 of 211 454 (0.0213%; 1 in 4699) cases occurred in the "universal face mask" group (odds ratio [OR], 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.51-1.18; P = 0.097). In the "no face mask" group, there were 27 cases (0.0092%; 1 in 10 908 injections) of culture-positive endophthalmitis compared with 9 cases (0.004%; 1 in 23 494) in the "universal face mask" group (OR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.22-0.99; P = 0.041). Three cases of oral flora-associated endophthalmitis occurred in the "no face mask" group (0.001%; 1 in 98 171 injections) compared with 1 (0.0005%; 1 in 211 454) in the "universal face mask" group (P = 0.645). Patients presented a mean (range) 4.9 (1-30) days after the causative injection, and mean logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) VA at endophthalmitis presentation was 2.04 (~20/2200) for "no face mask" group compared with 1.65 (~20/900) for the "universal face mask" group (P = 0.022), although no difference was observed 3 months after treatment (P = 0.764). CONCLUSIONS: In a large, multicenter, retrospective study, physician and patient face mask use during intravitreal anti-VEGF injections did not alter the risk of presumed acute-onset bacterial endophthalmitis, but there was a reduced rate of culture-positive endophthalmitis. Three months after presentation, there was no difference in VA between the groups.


Subject(s)
Angiogenesis Inhibitors/administration & dosage , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Endophthalmitis/prevention & control , Eye Infections, Bacterial/prevention & control , N95 Respirators , Comorbidity , Endophthalmitis/epidemiology , Endophthalmitis/etiology , Eye Infections, Bacterial/epidemiology , Eye Infections, Bacterial/etiology , Follow-Up Studies , Incidence , Intravitreal Injections/adverse effects , Retinal Diseases/drug therapy , Retinal Diseases/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , United States/epidemiology , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/antagonists & inhibitors
3.
Ocul Immunol Inflamm ; 29(4): 743-750, 2021 May 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1379400

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To assess the prevalence of retinopathy and its association with systemic morbidity and laboratory indices of coagulation and inflammatory dysfunction in severe COVID-19. DESIGN: Retrospective, observational cohort study. METHODS: Adult patients hospitalized with severe COVID-19 who underwent ophthalmic examination from April to July 2020 were reviewed. Retinopathy was defined as one of the following: 1) Retinal hemorrhage; 2) Cotton wool spots; 3) Retinal vascular occlusion. We analyzed medical comorbidities, sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) scores, clinical outcomes, and laboratory values for their association with retinopathy. RESULTS: Thirty-seven patients with severe COVID-19 were reviewed, the majority of whom were female (n = 23, 62%), Black (n = 26, 69%), and admitted to the intensive care unit (n = 35, 95%). Fourteen patients had retinopathy (38%) with retinal hemorrhage in 7 (19%), cotton wool spots in 8 (22%), and a branch retinal artery occlusion in 1 (3%) patient. Patients with retinopathy had higher SOFA scores than those without retinopathy (8.0 vs. 5.3, p = .03), higher rates of respiratory failure requiring invasive mechanical ventilation and shock requiring vasopressors (p < .01). Peak D-dimer levels were 28,971 ng/mL in patients with retinopathy compared to 12,575 ng/mL in those without retinopathy (p = .03). Peak CRP was higher in patients with cotton wool spots versus those without cotton wool spots (354 mg/dL vs. 268 mg/dL, p = .03). Multivariate logistic regression modeling showed an increased risk of retinopathy with higher peak D-dimers (aOR 1.32, 95% CI 1.01-1.73, p = .04) and male sex (aOR 9.6, 95% CI 1.2-75.5, p = .04). CONCLUSION: Retinopathy in severe COVID-19 was associated with greater systemic disease morbidity involving multiple organs. Given its association with coagulopathy and inflammation, retinopathy may offer insight into disease pathogenesis in patients with severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Retinal Diseases/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Follow-Up Studies , Hospitalization/trends , Morbidity , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , United States/epidemiology
4.
Ophthalmology ; 128(11): 1620-1626, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275607

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Routine use of face masks for patients and physicians during intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) injections has increased with the emergence of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. This study evaluates the impact of universal face mask use on rates and outcomes of post-injection endophthalmitis (PIE). DESIGN: Retrospective, multicenter, comparative cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: Eyes receiving intravitreal anti-VEGF injections from October 1, 2019, to July 31, 2020, at 12 centers. METHODS: Cases were divided into a "no face mask" group if no face masks were worn by the physician or patient during intravitreal injections or a "universal face mask" group if face masks were worn by the physician, ancillary staff, and patient during intravitreal injections. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Rate of endophthalmitis, microbial spectrum, and visual acuity (VA). RESULTS: Of 505 968 intravitreal injections administered in 110 547 eyes, 85 of 294 514 (0.0289%; 1 in 3464 injections) cases of presumed endophthalmitis occurred in the "no face mask" group, and 45 of 211 454 (0.0213%; 1 in 4699) cases occurred in the "universal face mask" group (odds ratio [OR], 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.51-1.18; P = 0.097). In the "no face mask" group, there were 27 cases (0.0092%; 1 in 10 908 injections) of culture-positive endophthalmitis compared with 9 cases (0.004%; 1 in 23 494) in the "universal face mask" group (OR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.22-0.99; P = 0.041). Three cases of oral flora-associated endophthalmitis occurred in the "no face mask" group (0.001%; 1 in 98 171 injections) compared with 1 (0.0005%; 1 in 211 454) in the "universal face mask" group (P = 0.645). Patients presented a mean (range) 4.9 (1-30) days after the causative injection, and mean logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) VA at endophthalmitis presentation was 2.04 (~20/2200) for "no face mask" group compared with 1.65 (~20/900) for the "universal face mask" group (P = 0.022), although no difference was observed 3 months after treatment (P = 0.764). CONCLUSIONS: In a large, multicenter, retrospective study, physician and patient face mask use during intravitreal anti-VEGF injections did not alter the risk of presumed acute-onset bacterial endophthalmitis, but there was a reduced rate of culture-positive endophthalmitis. Three months after presentation, there was no difference in VA between the groups.


Subject(s)
Angiogenesis Inhibitors/administration & dosage , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Endophthalmitis/prevention & control , Eye Infections, Bacterial/prevention & control , N95 Respirators , Comorbidity , Endophthalmitis/epidemiology , Endophthalmitis/etiology , Eye Infections, Bacterial/epidemiology , Eye Infections, Bacterial/etiology , Follow-Up Studies , Incidence , Intravitreal Injections/adverse effects , Retinal Diseases/drug therapy , Retinal Diseases/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , United States/epidemiology , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/antagonists & inhibitors
5.
Am J Ophthalmol ; 227: 182-190, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1157088

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study investigated changes in retinal vessel density in macular and papillary regions in post-SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia patients by means of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). DESIGN: Prospective, observational, cohort study. METHODS: Forty eyes of 40 patients (mean age: 49.7 ± 12.6 years old) post-SARS-CoV-2 infection and 40 healthy subjects were enrolled in this study. COVID-19 patients had to be fully recovered from COVID-19 pneumonia and were evaluated 6 months after COVID-19 infection. The primary outcome resulted from OCTA studies of the following vascular structures: vessel density (VD) in the retinal superficial capillary plexus (SCP), deep capillary plexus (DCP), and radial peripapillary capillaries (RPC) compared to those of controls. Structural spectral domain (SD)-OCT parameters were also evaluated: ganglion cell complex (GCC) and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL). RESULTS: The patients showed a significant reduction in VD of the SCP in whole images and in the DCP in all sectors compared to those in healthy subjects (P <.05). COVID-19 patients featured a reduced VD of the RPC compared to that in controls (P <.001). No differences were found in the GCC, whereas the RNFL was reduced in the COVID-19 group compared to that in controls (P = .012). Significant correlations were found between the RNFL and VD of the SCP, DCP, RPC, and FAZ area in the COVID-19 group (P <.05). CONCLUSIONS: OCTA showed retinal vascular changes in subjects fully recovered from COVID-19 pneumonia. These findings could be a consequence of a thrombotic microangiopathy that affected retinal structures as well as other systemic organs. OCTA could represent a valid, noninvasive biomarker of early vascular dysfunction after SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Fluorescein Angiography/methods , Macula Lutea/pathology , Retinal Diseases/diagnosis , Retinal Vessels/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods , Capillaries/diagnostic imaging , Comorbidity , Female , Fundus Oculi , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pilot Projects , Prospective Studies , Retinal Diseases/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 69(3): 730-733, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1089033

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to analyze the impact on vision due to delay in presentation of patients requiring intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) injections, consequent to COVID-19-related travel restrictions. METHODS: Data were collected retrospectively of patients who received anti-VEGF injections during four months of the COVID-19 pandemic. Visual acuities, indication for treatment were noted along with basic demographic characteristics. RESULTS: Data were analyzed for 303 eyes of 263 patients. The indication for treatment was age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in 60 eyes (19.8%), while 162 eyes (53.5%) had Diabetic Macular Edema, 71 eyes (23.4%) had Retinal Vein Occlusion and 10 eyes (3.3%) had other diagnosis. The visual acuity in the treatment naïve eyes (Group A, n = 168) was significantly worse (P <0.001) than those who presented for retreatment (Group B, n = 135). In Group B, there was a significant decline in vision for the entire cohort (P = 0.009) and those with AMD (P = 0.036). Those in Group B presented at a mean interval of 19.1 ± 10.6 (range, 4-64) weeks for retreatment. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to a delay in patients receiving anti-VEGF injections. The visual acuity is worse in both treatment naïve as well as those requiring retreatment. This could have long-term impact on vision of patients requiring this vision preserving treatment.


Subject(s)
Bevacizumab/administration & dosage , COVID-19/epidemiology , Quarantine , Ranibizumab/administration & dosage , Retinal Diseases/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Comorbidity , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Intravitreal Injections , Male , Middle Aged , Retinal Diseases/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/antagonists & inhibitors , Young Adult
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