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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(10)2023 05 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236735

ABSTRACT

This study examines the present and retrospective views of mothers who are nearing or are at retirement age regarding their economic status, pension planning, and perceptions of state pension policy. The paper addresses gaps in the literature on the cross-intersections of employment history, vulnerable economic retirement status, and marital and parental status, thereby adopting a life course perspective. Based on in-depth interviews of thirty-one mothers (ages 59-72) during the COVID-19 pandemic, the findings revealed five themes-economic abuse: an unequal distribution of pension funds following divorce; regrets over past choices; COVID-19 and pensions; the state's responsibility for old-age economic security; and knowledge is important, and I can help others. The study concludes that the majority of women at these ages perceive their current economic situation as a product of insufficient familiarity with pension plans, while voicing opinions about the state's irresponsibility regarding people of retirement age.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Female , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pensions , Retirement
2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(13)2022 06 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2278542

ABSTRACT

Reducing inequality is one of the current challenges that most societies are facing. Our aim was to analyze the evolution of inequalities in self-assessed health among older Europeans in a time period spanning the 2008 economic crisis and the COVID-19 health crisis. We used data from Waves 2, 4 and 8 of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe. We used inequality indices that accept ordinal variables. Our empirical results suggest that average inequality declines over time. Gender significantly influences the results. Some of the countries with the highest level of inequality are Denmark and Sweden, and some with the lowest are Estonia and the Netherlands. Our results may be of interest for the development of public policies to reduce inequalities. Special attention should be paid to vulnerable groups, such as the elderly.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Status Disparities , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Europe/epidemiology , European Union , Humans , Pandemics , Retirement , Socioeconomic Factors
3.
J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci ; 78(4): 749-763, 2023 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2284778

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Intergenerational coresidence and interdependence among family members are salient forms of family support. However, they can also likely increase social and physical contact and thus potential coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) transmission, especially among older adults. This study makes an original contribution to the literature by investigating which individual and household characteristics are associated with the risk of COVID-19 contagion among community-dwelling adults aged 50 years or older living in 27 European countries. We accounted for multiple indicators of intergenerational relationships and conducted a gendered analysis. METHODS: The data came from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), including 2 waves of the SHARE Corona Survey. Using linear probability models, the risk of experiencing COVID-19 outcomes was predicted by different family structures and intergenerational relationship indicators. RESULTS: While intergenerational coresidence was not associated with the risk of COVID-19, a higher frequency of face-to-face contact with adult children was associated with a lower risk of COVID-19 among mothers. This result stresses the importance of social support from adult children during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, we also showed that grandparents who took care of grandchildren were at a higher risk of COVID-19. Additionally, childless individuals had a lower risk of COVID-19 during the second wave of the pandemic. DISCUSSION: This study highlights the importance of intergenerational relationships in pandemic studies and underscores the need to examine how intergenerational ties might be a source of social support. Implications for policy interventions are discussed in the final section.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Retirement , Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Intergenerational Relations , Aging , Europe/epidemiology , Information Dissemination
4.
Int J Public Health ; 68: 1604372, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2280752

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the individual and country-level characteristics associated with the presence and worsening of psychological distress during the first wave of the pandemic among the elderly in Europe. Methods: In June-August 2020, 52,310 non-institutionalized people aged 50+ in 27 SHARE participating countries reported whether feeling depressed, anxious, lonely, and having sleep problems. For this analysis, we combined these symptoms into a count variable reflecting psychological distress. Binary measures of the worsening of each symptom were used as secondary outcomes. Multilevel zero-inflated negative binomial and binary logistic regressions were used to assess the associations. Results: Female sex, low education, multimorbidity, fewer social contacts, and higher stringency of policy measures were associated with increased distress. The worsening of all 4 distress symptoms was associated with younger age, poor health, loss of work due to the pandemic, low social contact, and high national mortality rates from COVID-19. Conclusion: The pandemic exacerbated distress symptoms for socially disadvantaged older adults and those who were already struggling with mental health. The death toll of COVID-19 in a country played a role in symptom worsening.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Aged , Female , Humans , Retirement , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics , Aging , Europe
5.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 24(5): 753-758, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2253001

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To identify factors that contribute to protection from infection with the Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2 in older adults in nursing and retirement homes. DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort study with retrospective analysis of infection risk. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: 997 residents of nursing and retirement homes from Ontario, Canada, in the COVID in LTC study. METHODS: Residents with 3 messenger RNA (mRNA) dose vaccinations were included in the study. SARS-CoV-2 infection was determined by positive nasopharyngeal polymerase chain reaction test and/or circulating antinucleocapsid IgG antibodies. Cumulative probability of Omicron infection after recent COVID-19 was assessed by log-rank test of Kaplan-Meier curves. Cox regression was used to assess risk of Omicron infection by age, sex, mRNA vaccine combination, whether individuals received a fourth dose, as well as recent COVID-19. RESULTS: In total, 171 residents (17.2%) had a presumed Omicron variant SARS-CoV-2 infection between December 15, 2021 (local start of the first Omicron wave) and May 3, 2022. Risk of Omicron infection was not different by age [hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) 1.01 (0.99‒1.02)], or in women compared with men [0.97 (0.70‒1.34)], but infection risk decreased 47% with 3 vaccine doses of mRNA-1273 (Moderna) compared with BNT162b2 (Pfizer) [0.53 (0.31-0.90)], 81% with any fourth mRNA vaccine dose [0.19 (0.12‒0.30)], and 48% with SARS-CoV-2 infection in the 3 months prior to beginning of the Omicron wave [0.52, (0.27‒0.99)]. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Vaccine type (ie, mRNA-1273/Spikevax vs BNT162b2/Cominarty), any fourth vaccine dose, and hybrid immunity from recent COVID-19, were protective against infection with the Omicron variant. These data emphasize the importance of vaccine type, and number of vaccine doses, in maintenance of protective immunity and reduction of risk of Omicron variant breakthrough infection. These findings promote continued public health efforts to support vaccination programs and monitor vaccine immunogenicity in older adults.


Subject(s)
BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , Male , Female , Humans , Aged , Ontario/epidemiology , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , Longitudinal Studies , Retirement , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(5)2023 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2251235

ABSTRACT

Co-residential care is associated with poor caregiver health and a high burden. Although Portugal relies heavily on co-residential care by individuals aged 50 and over, studies on the impact of co-residential care provision on Portuguese caregivers' healthcare use are lacking. This study aims to analyze the impact of co-residential care (spousal and non-spousal care) on healthcare use of the Portuguese population aged 50 plus. Data from waves 4 (n = 1697) and 6 (n = 1460) of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) were used. Negative Binomial Generalized Linear Mixed Models with random (individual level) and fixed (covariates) effects were performed. The results show that the number of visits to the doctor decrease significantly over time for the co-residential spousal caregivers as compared to the non-co-residential caregivers. This result highlights the fact that the Portuguese co-residential spousal caregiver group is at a higher risk of not using healthcare, thus jeopardizing their own health and continuity of care. Promoting more accessible healthcare services and implementing public policies adjusted to the needs of informal caregivers are important to improve the health and healthcare use of Portuguese spousal co-residential caregivers.


Subject(s)
Retirement , Spouses , Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Portugal , Europe , Caregivers , Aging , Delivery of Health Care
7.
Med J Aust ; 216(2): 106, 2022 02 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2155693
8.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0278031, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2140678

ABSTRACT

Little is publicly known about the conditions surrounding the emergence of COVID in China. Using two nationally representative datasets, the China Family Panel Studies (CFPS) and the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS), we engage in a descriptive analysis of spatiotemporal patterns of lung and other diseases before 2019. In both datasets, the incidence of lung disease in 2018 was elevated in Hubei province relative to other provinces. The incidence of psychiatric and nervous system disease was elevated as well. Overall, the evidence is consistent with many possible explanations. One conjecture is that there was an outbreak of influenza in central China, which implies the conditions that increased the susceptibility to influenza also facilitated the later spread of COVID. Another conjecture, though less likely, is that COVID was circulating at low levels in the population in central China during 2018. This study calls for more investigation to understand the conditions surrounding the emergence of COVID.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Retirement
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Sep 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099492

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) was declared a global pandemic on 11 March 2020. To date, a limited number of studies have examined the impact of this pandemic on healthcare-seeking behaviors of older populations. This longitudinal study examined personal characteristics linked to COVID-19 outcomes as predictors of self-reported delayed healthcare services attributed to this pandemic, among U.S. adults, ≥50 years of age. METHODS: Secondary analyses were performed using cross-sectional data (1413 participants) and longitudinal data (2881 participants) from Health and Retirement Study (HRS) (2006-2018) linked to the 2020 HRS COVID-19 Project (57% female, mean age: 68 years). Demographic, socioeconomic, lifestyle and health characteristics were evaluated in relation to delayed overall, surgical and non-surgical healthcare services ("Since March 2020, was there any time when you needed medical or dental care, but delayed getting it, or did not get it at all?" and "What type of care did you delay") using logistic regression and Ensemble machine learning for cross-sectional data as well as mixed-effects logistic modeling for longitudinal data. RESULTS: Nearly 32.7% delayed healthcare services, 5.8% delayed surgical services and 31.4% delayed non-surgical services. Being female, having a college degree or higher and 1-unit increase in depression score were key predictors of delayed healthcare services. In fully adjusted logistic models, a history of 1 or 2 cardiovascular and/or metabolic conditions (vs. none) was associated with 60-70% greater odds of delays in non-surgical services, with distinct findings for histories of hypertension, cardiovascular disease, diabetes and stroke. Ensemble machine learning predicted surgical better than overall and non-surgical healthcare delays. CONCLUSION: Among older adults, sex, education and depressive symptoms are key predictors of delayed healthcare services attributed to the COVID-19 pandemic. Delays in surgical and non-surgical healthcare services may have distinct predictors, with non-surgical delays more frequently observed among individuals with a history of 1 or 2 cardiovascular and/or metabolic conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Delivery of Health Care , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Retirement
10.
J Gerontol Nurs ; 48(10): 54-56, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2055513
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(18)2022 Sep 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2032926

ABSTRACT

This study compared levels of concern, spending, and use of external support by working status among older adults in the U.S. during the COVID-19 pandemic. It assessed whether work influences these variables related to wellness. Data from 2489 older adults from the 2020 U.S. Health and Retirement Study were analyzed using multiple linear and logistic regression. Older adults who worked had lower concerns about the pandemic (ß = -0.28, p = 0.048), were less likely to increase their spending (OR = 0.74, p = 0.041), and were less likely to use external support (OR = 0.50, p < 0.001). Use of external support increased with age (OR = 1.04, p < 0.001) and increased spending (OR = 1.32, p = 0.019). Married older adults were less likely to increase spending (OR = 0.75, p = 0.007) and had lower concerns toward COVID-19 (ß = -0.28, p = 0.011). Higher levels of concern were reported among women (ß = 0.31, p = 0.005) and participants who had friends or family members diagnosed with COVID-19 (ß = 0.51, p < 0.001). Women were more likely to use support (OR = 1.80, p < 0.001). Work appears to bolster older adult wellness outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Pandemics , Retirement
12.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272549, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2032661

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Following the active ageing model based on the Health, Lifelong Learning, Participation and Security pillars, this research has a twofold objective: i) to classify older adults according to active ageing profiles, taking into account the four pillars, and ii) to ascertain the relationship between the profiles and personal and contextual factors, as well as well-being and quality of life in old age. METHODS: A study sample of 5,566 Spanish older adults who participated in wave 6 of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) was included. Data were analysed in different steps applying several statistical analyses (Principal Component, Cluster, Discriminant, Multiple Correspondence and bivariate analysis with Pearson chi-square and ANOVA). RESULTS: Five older adult profiles were obtained (I: with moderate activity; II: quasi-dependents; III: with active ageing-limiting conditions; IV: with diverse and balanced activity; V: with excellent active ageing conditions). The first three profiles were characterised by subjects with a high average age, low educational level, who were retired or housewives, and who perceived a moderate level of loneliness, satisfaction with the social network and quality of life, as well as having a larger family network, but living in small households or alone. In contrast, the latter two profiles showed better personal and contextual conditions, well-being and quality of life. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: The multidimensional approach to active ageing followed in this article has revealed the presence of several older adult profiles, which are confined to groups with better or worse active ageing conditions. In this context, if ageing is a process that reflects the previous way of life, intervention priorities will have to consider actions that promote better conditions during the life cycle.


Subject(s)
Quality of Life , Retirement , Aged , Aging , Europe , Humans , Multivariate Analysis , Spain
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(17)2022 Aug 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2023683

ABSTRACT

Despite an increasing trend of working life prolongation, little is known about the risk factors for financial reasons for working beyond the statutory retirement age (SRA), and how these reasons relate to health. The present study examined (1) the determinants of working beyond the SRA, (2) the workers' self-reported reasons for working beyond the SRA, and (3) the association between these reasons and health in late life. Cross-sectional data of 1241 individuals from the Swiss survey "Vivre/Leben/Vivere" were analyzed. The results showed that people with a low level of education and with a low income have an 80% higher risk of working beyond the SRA for financial reasons than for other reasons (p < 0.001). Moreover, self-rated health was not significantly associated with working beyond the SRA for financial reasons but was significantly associated with education and income (p < 0.01). In conclusion, while previous studies have already identified financial difficulties as one important reason for working beyond the SRA, the present study indicated the socioeconomic factors that are crucial for increasing the risk for working beyond the SRA. Thus, our results help to guide the adaptation of social policies for better maintaining and promoting the health of particularly vulnerable older workers.


Subject(s)
Employment , Retirement , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Risk Factors , Socioeconomic Factors
14.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1720, 2022 09 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021270

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 Pandemic, adults in the United States reported delaying medical care, which may be tied risk of infection and local policies limiting appointment. Some populations may have been more likely to delay care than others, leading to other forms of health inequality during this period. To-date there is little research on delayed care among U.S. older adult. We determine the prevalence of delayed medical care among older adults and investigate sociodemographic and health status inequalities in delaying health care. METHOD: We used data from the first public release of the nationally representative Health and Retirement Study COVID-19 Subsample (N = 3006). Using logistic regression, we assessed whether differences in delaying health care varied by age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, self-rated health (SRH), and having any Activity of Daily Living (ADL) limitation. We also conducted additional analysis that evaluated differences in delaying care by two care subtypes: doctor and dental care visits. RESULTS: About 30% of U.S. older adults reported delaying care with the most common types of delayed care being dental or doctor visits. Adults ages 75 and older were less likely to delay care, while women, college educated, and those with poor SRH, and any ADL limitations were more likely to delay care. CONCLUSIONS: Nearly one-third of older adults delayed care during the COVID-19 pandemic. The increased likelihood of delayed care among people with worse health suggests that there may be longer-term impacts on the health care system and population health from the COVID-19 pandemic, and may contribute to health inequalities in the near future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Retirement , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Health Status , Health Status Disparities , Humans , Pandemics , United States/epidemiology
16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(10)2022 05 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1993976

ABSTRACT

To counteract the shortage of nurses in the workforce, healthcare organizations must encourage experienced nurses to extend their working lives. Intensive care (IC) has higher nurse-to-patient ratios than other settings, which includes a particular susceptibility to staff shortage. This qualitative study investigated how older IC nurses experienced their working life and their reflections on the late-career and retirement. Semi-structured interviews with 12 IC nurses in Sweden (aged 55-65 years) were analyzed using an interpretative phenomenological analysis approach. The results showed that nurses planned to continue working until the age of 65 and beyond. When reflecting on their late-career decisions, nurses considered nine areas covering individual, work, and organizational factors as being central to their ability and willingness to stay. Overall, the nurses had good health and were very satisfied and committed to their job and to the organization. They mentioned having both the job and personal resources required to cope with the physical and mental job demands, which were perceived as motivational challenges, rather than hinders. They also reflected on various human resource management practices that may promote aging-in-workplace. These findings may inform organizations aiming at providing adequate conditions for enabling healthy and sustainable working lives for IC nurses.


Subject(s)
Retirement , Workplace , Aging , Critical Care , Humans , Qualitative Research
17.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0273218, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1993520

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Becoming unemployed is associated with poorer health, including weight gain. Middle- and older-age adults are a growing segment of workforces globally, but they are also more vulnerable to changes to employment status, especially during economic shocks. Expected workforce exits over the next decade may exacerbate both the obesity epidemic and the economic burden of obesity. This review extends current knowledge on economic correlates of health to assess whether employment transitions impact body weight by sex/gender among middle-aged and older adults. METHODS: Eight bibliometric databases were searched between June and July 2021, supplemented by hand-searches, with no restriction on publication date or country. Longitudinal studies, or reviews, were eligible when examining body weight as a function of employment status change in adults ≥50 years. Data extraction and quality appraisal used predefined criteria; reported findings were analysed by narrative synthesis. RESULTS: We screened 6,001 unique abstracts and identified 12 articles that met inclusion criteria. All studies examined retirement; of which two also examined job-loss. Overall, studies showed that retirement led to weight gain or no difference in weight change compared to non-retirees; however, reported effects were not consistent for either women or men across studies or for both women and men within a study. Reported effects also differed by occupation: weight gain was more commonly observed among retirees from physical occupations but not among retirees from sedentary occupations. Few studies assessed the role of health behaviours; sleep was the least studied. Most studies were medium quality. CONCLUSIONS: Existing studies do not provide a clear enough picture of how employment transitions affect body weight. Firm conclusions on the impact of employment transitions on weight cannot be made without further high-quality evidence that considers the role of gender, job-type, other health behaviours, and other transitions, like job-loss.


Subject(s)
Body Weight , Employment , Retirement , Employment/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity , Sex Factors , Weight Gain
18.
J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci ; 77(10): 1928-1937, 2022 10 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1948280

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The COVID-19 pandemic has profoundly affected the lives of people globally, widening long-standing inequities. We examined the COVID-19 pandemic's impact on employment conditions by race/ethnicity, gender, and educational attainment and the association between such conditions and well-being in older adults in the United States. METHODS: Using data from the Health and Retirement Study respondents interviewed between May 2020 and May 2021 when they were ≥55 years of age, we examined intersectional patterns in COVID-19-related changes in employment conditions among 4,107 participants working for pay at the start of the pandemic. We also examined the compounding nature of changes in employment conditions and their association with financial hardship, food insecurity, and poor self-rated health. RESULTS: Relative to non-Hispanic White men with greater than high school education (>HS), Black and Latinx men and women were more likely to experience job loss irrespective of education; among those who did not experience job loss, men with ≤HS reporting Black, Latinx, or "other" race were >90% less likely to transition to remote work. Participants who experienced job loss with decreased income or continued in-person employment with decreased income/shift changes had greater prevalence of financial hardship, food insecurity, and poor/fair self-rated health than others. DISCUSSION: The impact of COVID-19 on employment conditions is inequitably patterned and is associated with financial hardship, food insecurity, and adverse health in older adults. Policies to improve employment quality and expand social insurance programs among this group are needed to reduce growing inequities in well-being later in life.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Employment , Female , Humans , Income , Male , Pandemics , Retirement , United States/epidemiology
19.
BMJ ; 377: o1390, 2022 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1891788
20.
Ann Epidemiol ; 74: 21-30, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1866849

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To limit the spread of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, different restriction measures were implemented aiming to ensure social distancing and isolation. However, it is well known that such measures may lead to adverse effects on mental health. METHODS: Data from 36,478 adults aged 50+ from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe was used to investigate the longitudinal changes in mental health from pre-COVID-19 to during the pandemic (summer 2020), considering national restriction levels across 26 European countries and Israel. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to assess changes in feeling 'sad or depressed', sleeping problems, and loneliness. RESULTS: Compared with the mental health status before the COVID-19 outbreak, participants had a lower risk of feeling "sad or depressed" (-14.4%) and having sleeping problems (-9.9%), while the risk of feeling lonely slightly increased (1.2%). However, for individuals in countries with high restriction levels, the risk of feeling "sad or depressed" was attenuated and the risk of loneliness was greater compared to countries with low restriction levels. CONCLUSION: Older people felt less depressed and had fewer sleeping problems during the pandemic as compared to before the pandemic, while the risk of loneliness increased slightly. Stricter policy measures attenuated the otherwise positive impact on mental health. Future studies are needed to investigate the long-term effects of COVID-19 on mental health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Wake Disorders , Adult , Aged , Aging , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Europe/epidemiology , Humans , Mental Health , Retirement
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