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1.
Eur J Radiol ; 130: 109202, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-684452

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: So far, only a few studies evaluated the correlation between CT features and clinical outcome in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. PURPOSE: To evaluate CT ability in differentiating critically ill patients requiring invasive ventilation from patients with less severe disease. METHODS: We retrospectively collected data from patients admitted to our institution for COVID-19 pneumonia between March 5th-24th. Patients were considered critically ill or non-critically ill, depending on the need for mechanical ventilation. CT images from both groups were analyzed for the assessment of qualitative features and disease extension, using a quantitative semiautomatic method. We evaluated the differences between the two groups for clinical, laboratory and CT data. Analyses were conducted on a per-protocol basis. RESULTS: 189 patients were analyzed. PaO2/FIO2 ratio and oxygen saturation (SaO2) were decreased in critically ill patients. At CT, mixed pattern (ground glass opacities (GGO) and consolidation) and GGO alone were more frequent respectively in critically ill and in non-critically ill patients (p < 0.05). Lung volume involvement was significantly higher in critically ill patients (38.5 % vs. 5.8 %, p < 0.05). A cut-off of 23.0 % of lung involvement showed 96 % sensitivity and 96 % specificity in distinguishing critically ill patients from patients with less severe disease. The fraction of involved lung was related to lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels, PaO2/FIO2 ratio and SaO2 (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Lung disease extension, assessed using quantitative CT, has a significant relationship with clinical severity and may predict the need for invasive ventilation in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Aged , Critical Illness , Evaluation Studies as Topic , Female , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Research Design , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sensitivity and Specificity
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(30): e21396, 2020 Jul 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-684031

ABSTRACT

A large number of healthcare workers have been infected with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). We aimed to investigate their clinical and chest computed tomography (CT) characteristics.The clinical, laboratory test and CT features of 43 medical and hospital staff with confirmed COVID-19 (MP group, 26-70 years old) were retrospectively analyzed, and compared to 43 non-medical related patients (non-MP group, 26-71 years old). Follow-up CT characteristics were analyzed to assess the disease progression in the period of hospitalization.At admission, the main complaints of the MP group, including fever (81.4%), fatigue (48.8%) and cough (41.9%), were similar to the non-MP group. The C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and lactate dehydrogenase levels were higher in the non-MP group than the MP group (17.5 ±â€Š22.4 mg/L, 20.2 ±â€Š23.4 mm/H and 219 ±â€Š66U/L, respectively, P < .05). Ground-grass opacities, consolidation, interstitial thickening were common CT features of both groups. The severity of opacities on initial CT were less in the MP group (5.3 ±â€Š3.9 scores) than in the non-MP group (9.1 ±â€Š4.8 scores, P < .05). Before regular treatments, the sum score of the opacities showed weak to moderate correlations with duration, C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and lactate dehydrogenase levels (R ranged from 0.341-0.651, P < .05). In the study time window, the duration from illness onset to when the most obvious pulmonary opacities were observed, according to CT findings, were similar in the MP group (13.3 ±â€Š6.6 days) and the non-MP group (13.8 ±â€Š5.1 days, P = .69). Mild to moderate anxiety and depression were observed in both groups.Despite greater knowledge of how to protect themselves than the general population, healthcare workers are also susceptible to COVID-19 infection. Occupational exposure is a very important factor. Healthcare workers have a higher vigilance about the infection in the early stage of the disease.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Occupational Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Adult , Aged , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Diseases/virology , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Retrospective Studies
3.
J Clin Microbiol ; 58(9)2020 08 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-622362

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led many clinics to move from clinician-collected to self-collected oropharyngeal swabs for the detection of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Before this change, however, self-collection was used primarily for genital and anorectal infections, with only limited studies on the performance of self-collection of oropharyngeal swabs for oropharyngeal STI detection. The Melbourne Sexual Health Centre (MSHC) changed from clinician-collected to self-collected oropharyngeal swabs for oropharyngeal gonorrhea and chlamydia screening on 16 March 2020 in order to reduce health care worker risk during the COVID-19 pandemic. We compared the proportions of valid and positive samples for gonorrhea and chlamydia among men who have sex with men (MSM) in two time periods; the clinician collection period, between 20 January and 15 March 2020, and the self-collection period, between 16 March and 8 May 2020. A total of 4,097 oropharyngeal swabs were included. The proportion of oropharyngeal swabs with equivocal or invalid results for Neisseria gonorrhoeae was higher in the self-collection period (1.6% [24/1,497]) than in the clinician collection period (0.9% [23/2,600]) (P = 0.038), but the proportions did not differ for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis The positivity rates of oropharyngeal N. gonorrhoeae (adjusted prevalence ratio [PR], 1.07 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.85 to 1.34]) (P = 0.583) and oropharyngeal C. trachomatis (adjusted PR, 0.84 [95% CI, 0.51 to 1.39]) (P = 0.504) specimens did not differ between the two periods. Self-collected oropharyngeal swabs for the detection of N. gonorrhoeae and C. trachomatis have acceptable performance characteristics and, importantly, reduce health care worker exposure to respiratory infections.


Subject(s)
Chlamydia Infections/diagnosis , Gonorrhea/diagnosis , Homosexuality, Male/statistics & numerical data , Pharyngeal Diseases/diagnosis , Specimen Handling , Adult , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Humans , Male , Mass Screening/methods , Mass Screening/statistics & numerical data , Oropharynx/microbiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Retrospective Studies , Self Care , Specimen Handling/methods , Specimen Handling/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
5.
Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 36(2): 164-168, 2020 Apr.
Article in English, Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-627698

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Objective To retrospectively analyze the forensic pathological postmortem examination and clinical data of children who died of viral pneumonia in identification of cause of death cases and to discuss the clinical characteristics and pathological features of viral pneumonia in children, in order to provide reference to pathological diagnosis of viral pneumonia in children caused by 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infection. Methods Postmortem examination data from 61 cases of children whose causes of death were identified as viral pneumonia in recent years were collected from the Center of Forensic Identification, Southern Medical University. The gender, age, clinical symptoms and pathological features were comparatively analyzed. Results Among the 61 cases of children who died of viral pneumonia, most were within 2 years old (83.61%), and a large proportion died within 2 weeks after the onset of the disease (91.80%). Gross changes in postmortem examination included respiratory mucosal hyperemia, pleural effusion, pulmonary swelling, variegated pulmonary pleura and serosa, as well as focal pulmonary hemorrhage and pulmonary edema. A large proportion of sick children had enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes (83.61%) and thymic dysplasia (21.31%). Histopathological changes included edema of alveoli and interstitial substance, pneumorrhagia,shedding of alveolar epithelial cells, serous and (or) fibrous exudation in the alveoli, formation of viral inclusions, formation of transparent membranes, infiltration of inflammatory cells that mainly consisted of macrophages and lymphocytes in interstitial substance and alveoli. Viral infections often affected the heart and gastrointestinal tract. Conclusion The clinical symptoms of children with viral pneumonia are difficult to notice, and because the immune systems of children are not fully developed and they have poor immunity, they can easily become severely ill and even die. Analyzing the forensic autopsies and the histopathological characteristics could provide reference for pathological diagnosis of viral pneumonia.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Lung , Retrospective Studies
6.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(8): e19642, 2020 08 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-750821

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since December 2019, an outbreak of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread rapidly in Wuhan and worldwide. However, previous studies on pregnant patients were limited. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical characteristics and outcomes of pregnant and nonpregnant women with COVID-19. METHODS: This study retrospectively collected epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, imaging, management, and outcome data of 43 childbearing-age women patients (including 17 pregnant and 26 nonpregnant patients) who presented with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 in Tongji Hospital, Wuhan, China from January 19 to March 2, 2020. Clinical outcomes were followed up to March 28, 2020. RESULTS: Of the 43 childbearing-age women in this study, none developed a severe adverse illness or died. The median ages of pregnant and nonpregnant women were 33.0 and 33.5 years, respectively. Pregnant women had a markedly higher proportion of history exposure to hospitals within 2 weeks before onset compared to nonpregnant women (9/17, 53% vs 5/26, 19%, P=.02) and a lower proportion of other family members affected (4/17, 24% vs 19/26, 73%, P=.004). Fever (8/17, 47% vs 18/26, 69%) and cough (9/17, 53% vs 12/26, 46%) were common onsets of symptoms for the two groups. Abdominal pain (n=4, 24%), vaginal bleeding (n=1, 6%), reduced fetal movement (n=1, 6%), and increased fetal movement (n=2, 13%) were observed at onset in the 17 pregnant patients. Higher neutrophil and lower lymphocyte percent were observed in the pregnant group compared to the nonpregnant group (79% vs 56%, P<.001; 15% vs 33%, P<.001, respectively). In both groups, we observed an elevated concentration of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase. Concentrations of alkaline phosphatase and D-dimer in the pregnant group were significantly higher than those of the nonpregnant group (119.0 vs 48.0 U/L, P<.001; 2.1 vs 0.3µg/mL, P<.001, respectively). Both pregnant (4/10, 40%) and nonpregnant (8/15, 53%) women tested positive for influenza A virus. A majority of pregnant and nonpregnant groups received antiviral (13/17, 76% vs 25/26, 96%) and antibiotic (13/17, 76% vs 23/26, 88%) therapy. Additionally, both pregnant (2/11, 18%) and nonpregnant (2/19, 11%) recovered women redetected positive for SARS-CoV-2 after discharge. CONCLUSIONS: The epidemiology and clinical and laboratory features of pregnant women with COVID-19 were diverse and atypical, which increased the difficulty of diagnosis. Most pregnant women with COVID-19 were mild and moderate, and rarely developed severe pneumonia or severe adverse outcomes.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Adult , China , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
7.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 40(8): 1112-1118, 2020 Aug 30.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-749265

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinical features of severe or critical ill adult patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19). METHODS: The clinical data of 75 patients with severe or critical COVID-19 in Honghu People's Hospital from January to March in 2020 were collected. RESULTS: Of the 75 patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, 41 were male (54.67%) and 34 were female (45.33%) with a mean age of 67.53 ±12.37 years; 43 patients had severe and 32 had critical COVID-19, and 49.3% of the patients had underlying diseases. The main clinical manifestations included fever (78.67%) and coughing (70.67%). Compared with the severe patients, the critically ill patients had higher proportions of patients over 60 years old with elevated white blood cell count, increased prothrombin time, and higher levels of hsCRP, PCT, D-dimer, ALT, LDH, cTnI and NT-proBNP. Univariate logistic regression analysis showed that an age over 60 years, leukocytosis, hs-CRP elevation, prolonged prothrombin time, and increased levels of D-dimer, NT-proBNP and cTnI were associated with severe COVID-19. Multivariate logistic regression showed that an age over 60 years (OR=8.165, 95% CI: 1.483-45.576, P=0.017), prolonged prothrombin time (OR=7.516, 95% CI: 2.568-21.998, P=0.006) and elevated NT-proBNP (OR=6.194, 95% CI: 1.305-29.404, P=0.022) were independent risk factors for critical type of COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: An age over 60 years, a prolonged prothrombin time and elevated NT-proBNP level are important clinical features of critically ill patients with COVID-19, and can be deemed as early warning signals for critical conditions of the disease.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Aged , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
8.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 40(6): 778-785, 2020 Jun 30.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-749262

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To explore the clinical characteristics and outcomes of adult critically ill patients with COVID-19 and identify the risk factors correlated with in-hospital deaths. METHODS: This study was conducted among 20 confirmed adult cases of COVID-19 in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of Honghu People's Hospital in Jingzhou City, Hubei Province. According to the final outcome, the patients were divided into survivor group and death group with 10 patients each. The demographic data, clinical manifestations and signs, laboratory findings, treatment measures and clinical outcomes were obtained from electronic medical records to compare the clinical characteristics and outcomes between the two groups. Univariate logistic analysis was used to analyze the risk factors associated with in-hospital death. RESULTS: The mean age of patients with confirmed COVID-19 was 70 ± 12 years, and 40% of them were male. The patients were admitted to ICU 11 ± 9 days after symptom onset. The most common symptoms on admission were cough (19 cases), fatigue or myalgia (18 cases), fever (17 cases) and dyspnea (16 cases). Eleven (55%) of the patients had underlying diseases, among which hypertension was the most common (11 cases), followed by cardiovascular disease (4 cases) and diabetes (3 cases). Six (30%) of the patients received invasive mechanical ventilation and continued renal replacement therapy but eventually died. Acute cardiac injury was the most common complication (19 cases). Half of the patients died between the 2nd and 19th day after ICU admission. Compared with dead patients, the surviving patients had a lower average body weight (61.70±2.36 vs 68.60±7.15 kg, P=0.01) and a higher Glasgow Coma Index (14.69 ± 0.70 vs 12.70 ± 2.45, P=0.03), and were less likely to develop shock (2 vs 10, P=0.001) or acute respiratory distress syndrome (2 vs 10, P=0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Critically ill patients with COVID-19 are generally older. A higher body weight and a lower lymphocyte count are potentially associated with a greater likeliness of fatality in ICU patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Critical Illness , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
9.
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao ; 42(4): 521-530, 2020 Aug 30.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-749147

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the optimal therapy time for the treatment of severe coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19)by traditional Chinese medicine(TCM)and its influence on the therapeutic effect and prognosis. Methods The clinical data,laboratory findings,and outcomes of 64 patients with severe COVID-19 treated with TCM and western medicine in Chongqing from January 20,2020, to March 11,2020 were retrospectively analyzed.Patients were divided into early intervention group[TCM was initiated within 3 days (including day 3) after the first diagnosis of severe type/critical type COVID-19]and late intervention group[TCM was initiated after 7 days (including day 7) after the first diagnosis of severe type /critical type COVID-19].The changes in clinical parameters during the course of disease were compared between the two groups. Results On day 14,the oxygenation index was 292.5(252.0,351.0)mmHg in the early intervention group,which was significantly higher than that in the late intervention group [246.0(170.0,292.5)mmHg](P=0.005).The length of hospital stay [(18.56±1.11)d vs.(24.87±1.64)d,P=0.001],duration of ICU stay [(14.12±0.91)d vs.(20.00±1.53)d,P=0.000] and time to negativity [(16.77±1.04)d vs.(22.48±1.66)d,P=0.001] in the early intervention group were significantly shorter than those in the late intervention group.The intubation rate(7.3%)in the early intervention group was significantly lower than that in the late intervention group(30.4%)(P=0.028). Conclusion Early TCM therapy within three days after a diagnosis of severe COVID-19 can shorten the length of hospital stay,duration of ICU stay,and time to negativity and decrease intubation rate.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
10.
Lipids Health Dis ; 19(1): 204, 2020 Sep 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-745682

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The purpose of the study is to describe the blood lipid levels of patients diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and to analyze the correlation between blood lipid levels and the prognosis of COVID-19 patients. METHODS: In the clinical retrospective analysis, a total of 228 adults infected with COVID-19 were enrolled between January 17, 2020 and March 14, 2020, in Changsha, China. One thousand one hundred and forty healthy participants with matched age and gender were used as control. Median with interquartile range and Mann-Whitney test were adopted to describe and analyze clinical data. The Kaplan-Meier (KM) curve and Cox regression analysis were used to analyze the correlation between high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and the severity of COVID-19. RESULTS: Compared with control, COVID-19 patients showed significantly lower levels of total cholesterol (TC) [median, 3.76 vs 4.65 mmol/L, P = 0.031], triglyceride [median, 1.08 vs 1.21 mmol/L, P <  0.001], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) [median, 2.63 vs 2.83 mmol/L, P <  0.001], and HDL-C [median, 0.78 vs 1.37 mmol/L, P <  0.001], while compared with non-severe patients, severe COVID-19 patients only presented lower levels of HDL-C [median, 0.69 vs 0.79 mmol/L, P = 0.032]. In comparison with patients with high HDL-C, patients with low HDL-C showed a higher proportion of male (69.57% vs 45.60%, P = 0.004), higher levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) (median, 27.83 vs 12.56 mg/L, P <  0.001) and higher proportion of severe events (36.96% vs 14.84%, P = 0.001). Moreover, patients with low HDL-C at admission showed a higher risk of developing severe events compared with those with high HDL-C (Log Rank P = 0.009). After adjusting for age, gender and underlying diseases, they still had elevated possibility of developing severe cases than those with high HDL-C (HR 2.827, 95% CI 1.190-6.714, P = 0.019). CONCLUSIONS: HDL-C level was lower in COVID-19 adult patients, and low HDL-C in COVID-19 patients was correlated with a higher risk of developing severe events.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Cholesterol, HDL/blood , Cholesterol, LDL/blood , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Adult , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , China , Cholesterol/blood , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors , Triglycerides/blood
11.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 30(8): 785-789, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-745630

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate airway abnormalities on chest CT in adult patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. STUDY DESIGN: Observational study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Department of Radiology, Affiliated Hospital of Jining Medical University, Jining, Shandong, China, from January to April, 2020. METHODOLOGY: CT scan images were analysed retrospectively. The main CT findings, including pulmonary opacities, airway wall visibility, wall thickening, luminal changes, and the formation of mucus plugs were evaluated. Airway segments were classified into three types based on the spatial relationship between conducting airways and pulmonary opacities. RESULTS: A total of 275 lesions were detected in 52 patients. Of these, 170 (61.82%) lesions were associated with 243 airway segments, including segments enclosed within lesions (type I, 152, 62.55%), crossing the lesions (type II, 51, 20.99%), and abutting the lesions (type III, 40, 16.46%). The bronchial walls of 154 (63.37%) segments were ill-defined; whereas, the walls of 89 (36.63%) segments were well-defined; in the latter group, 62 (69.66%) showed mild thickening. The bronchial lumen of 183 (75.31%) segments presented mild bronchiectasis and 60 (24.69%) segments appeared normal. Mucus plug was detected in one segment (0.41%). There were no cases of bronchial stenosis, and all bronchial segments located in normal lung regions appeared normal. The appearance of 196 (80.66%) affected bronchi was completely restored before hospital discharge. CONCLUSION: Typical airway changes in adult COVID-19 pneumonia include bronchial wall thickening without significant stenosis of the airway lumen and the absence of bronchial mucus plugs. Moreover, bronchi located in unaffected lung regions have a normal appearance. These characteristics have potential value in differential diagnosis. Key Words: Coronavirus disease, Airway, Computed tomography, Chest.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Adult , Betacoronavirus , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Radiography, Thoracic , Retrospective Studies , Thorax
12.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 45(5): 536-541, 2020 May 28.
Article in English, Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-745337

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Since the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), it has spread rapidly in China and many other countries. The rapid increase in the number of cases has caused widespread panic among people and has become the main public health problem in the world. Severe patients often have difficult breathing and/or hypoxemia after 1 week of onset. A few critically ill patients may not only rapidly develop into acute respiratory distress syndrome, but also may cause coagulopathy, as well as multiple organs failure (such as heart, liver and kidney) or even death. This article is to analyze the predictive role of clinical features in patients with COVID-19 for severe disease, so as to help doctor monitor the severity-related features, restrain the disease progress, and provide a reference for improvement of medical treatment. METHODS: The clinical data of 208 patients with COVID-19 who were isolated and treated in Changsha Public Health Treatment Center from January 17, 2020 to March 14, 2020 were collected. All patients were the mild and ordinary adult patients on admission, including 105 males and 103 females from 19 to 84 (median age 44) years old. According to the "Program for the diagnosis and treatment of novel coronavirus (COVID-19) infected pneumonia (Trial version 7)" issued by the General Office of National Health Committee and Office of State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine as the diagnostic and typing criteria. According to progression from mild to severe disease during hospitalization, the patients were divided into a mild group (n=183) and a severe transformation group (n=25). The clinical features such as age, underlying disease, blood routine, coagulation function, blood biochemistry, oxygenation index, and so on were analyzed. Among them, laboratory tests included white blood cell (WBC), lymphocytes (LYM), neutrophil (NEU), hemoglobin (Hb), platelet (PLT), prothrombin time (PT), plasma fibrinogen (Fib), activated partial prothrombin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT), D-dimer, total bilirubin (TBIL), albumin (ALB), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (Cr), creatine kinase (CK), creatine kinase isoenzyme-MB (CK-MB), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), C-reactive protein (CRP), and oxygen partial pressure in arterial blood. Partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood/fractional concentration of inspiratory oxygen (PaO2/FiO2) was calculated. The variables with statistical significance were analyzed by logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Patients in the severe transformation group had more combined underlying diseases than those in the mild group (P<0.05). From the perspective of disease distribution, patients in the severe transformation group had more combined hypertension (P<0.05). In the severe transformation group, PT was significantly longer, the levels of Fib, ALT, AST, CK, LDH, and CRP were significantly higher than those in the mild group (P<0.05 or P<0.001), while LYM, ALB, and PaO2/FiO2 were significantly lower than those in the mild group (P<0.05 or P<0.001). Logistic regression analysis was performed on clinical features with statistically significant differences. Combined with hypertension, LYM, PT, Fib, ALB, ALT, AST, CK, LDH, and CRP as independent variables, and having severe disease or not was the dependent variable. The results show that combined hypertension, decreased LYM, longer PT, and increased CK level were independent risk factors that affected the severity of COVID-19 (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The patients with mild COVID-19 who are apt to develop severe diseases may be related to combined hypertension, decreased LYM, and longer PT, and increased CK level. For the mild patients with these clinical features, early intervention may effectively prevent the progression to severe diseases.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , China , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Disease Progression , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
13.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 45(5): 565-570, 2020 May 28.
Article in English, Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-745332

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate curative effects of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients by the transfusion of other convalescent plasma. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of the clinical data of 18 patients with severe and critical COVID-19, who were hospitalized in the ICU of Xianghu Branch of the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University from February 1 to March 15, 2020. Patients were subdivided into an experimental group (n=6, who had transfused the plasma) and an observation group (n=12, who had no plasma transfusion). Basic clinical data and prognosis indexes of these two groups were compared. Moreover, for the experimental group, the dynamic changes of blood oxygen saturation before and after the transfusion, the changes of lymphocyte absolute value 48 hours after the transfusion, and the detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) nucleic acid were analyzed. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in age, gender, blood type and other basic clinical data between the two groups (all P>0.05).There were no significant differences in ventilator machine weaning time, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) weaning time, body temperature recovery to normal time, and hospitalization days between these two groups (all P>0.05). For the experimental group, before, during and after the convalescent plasma transfusion, the blood oxygen saturation of all 6 patients at all time (1, 6, 8, 12, 24, 36, and 48 h) was more than 90%, and there was no significant fluctuation. There were 3 patients whose absolute value of lymphocyte was increased 48 hours after the transfusion, and the remaining was decreased. There were 5 patients whose SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid detection turned negative 48 hours after the transfusion, accounting for 83.3%. CONCLUSIONS: Transfusion of convalescent plasma will not affect outcomesof COVID-19 patients, which can neutralize SARS-CoV-2 in patients and reduce the loading capacity of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Betacoronavirus , Blood Component Transfusion , China , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Pandemics , Plasma , Retrospective Studies
14.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 45(5): 542-548, 2020 May 28.
Article in English, Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-745328

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the clinical characteristics and risk factors for severe events of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in elderly patients. METHODS: Retrospective analysis was performed on the clinical data of all elderly COVID- 19 patients treated in Changsha Public Health Treatment Center from January 17, 2020 to March 15, 2020, which included basic diseases, symptoms, test results, and other clinical characteristics, and prognostic indicators such as severity of illness, length of hospital stay, virus shedding time and mortality rate. The differences in clinical characteristics and prognostic indicators between elderly, middle-aged, and young COVID-19 patients were also analyzed. Logistic regression model was used to conduct univariate and multivariate analysis of risk factors for developing severe events in elderly COVID-19 patients; receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to evaluate the prediction efficacy. RESULTS: Of the 230 COVID-19 adult patients, 34 were young patients (14.8%), 136 were middle-aged patients (59.1%), and 60 were elderly (26.1%). Among the 60 elderly patients, 23 were male (38.3%) and 37 were female (61.7%), with a medium age of 66 years old. Common symptoms were fever (66.7%), cough (50.0%), and fatigue (41.7%). C reactive protein (CRP) was increased significantly. The proportion of severe cases was 31.7%, and mortality was 1.7%. The median length of hospitalization and median virus shedding time were 18.5 days and 21 days, respectively. Compared with the young and the middle-aged patients, the elderly had a higher proportion of hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases, more common shortness of breath, higher proportions of pneumonia and severe cases (all P<0.05), and the decreased lymphocyte count and lymphocyte percentage (both P<0.05), as well as higher CRP and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) levels (both P<0.05). Compared with non-severe cases, severe elderly patients demonstrated higher CRP and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels (all P<0.05), the reduced lymphocyte count (P<0.05), and the prolonged length of hospitalization and virus shedding duration (both P<0.05). Univariate logistic regression analysis indicated that the lymphocytes proportion, CRP and AST levels were significantly correlated with the risk for developing severe events in elderly COVID-19 patients (all P<0.05). Multivariate logistic regression found that severe events in elderly patients with COVID-19 were significantly correlated with CRP level (OR=1.041, P=0.013). ROC curve analysis revealed that the area under the curve (AUC) for CRP to diagnose severe events in elderly COVID 19 patients was 0.851. CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of severe cases in elderly COVID-19 patients is higher than that in young and middle-aged patients. CRP level has a good predictive value for the possibility of severe events in elderly COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , China , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
15.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 45(5): 560-564, 2020 May 28.
Article in English, Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-745321

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To analyze the clinical characteristics of fecal severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) nucleic acid-positive in patients with coronavirus dasease 2019 (COVID-19) and to provide a scientific basis for the prevention and control of this disease. METHODS: The clinical data of 16 patients with fecal SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid positive, who hospitalized in the North Branch of the First Hospital of Changsha (Changsha Public Health Rescue Center) from January to February 2020, were retrospectively analyzed. Their clinical manifestations, laboratory data and imaging data were summarized. RESULTS: Among the 16 patients, there were 9 males (56.25%) and 7 females (43.75%), the ratio of males to females was 1∶1.29. The age of onset was (43.3±14.6) years. There were 15 patients with contact history of Wuhan, 1 patient with contact history of local patient.Twelve patients were common type (75%), and 4 patients were severe type (25%). Clinical symptoms included fever in 14 patients (87.5%), cough in 12 patients (75%), shortness of breath in 5 patients (31.25%), pharyngalgia in 10 patients (62.5%), fatigue in 7 patients (43.75%), and diarrhea in 4 patients (25%). There were 14 patients (87.5%) with normal or decreased white blood cell count, 11 patients (68.75%) with decreased lymphocyte count, 15 patients (93.75%) with increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate, 13 patients (81.25%) with increased hypersensitivity C-reactive protein, 5 patients (31.25%) with increased procalcitonin, and 8 patients (50%) with increased serum ferritin in peripheral blood, and stool routine was basically normal. Compared with the common type, there was significant difference in the white blood cell and lymphocyte counts in the severe type (P<0.01); the infection indicators, such as hypersensitivity C-reactive protein and serum ferritin, were significantly increased, with significant difference (all P<0.01); but the procalcitonin and erythrocyte sedimentation rate was not significantly different (both P>0.05). Chest CT mainly showed patchy shadows and interstitial changes. According to imaging examination, 4 patients (25%) showed unilateral pneumonia and 12 patients (75%) showed bilateral pneumonia. CONCLUSIONS: The patients have the clinical symptoms of COVID-19, but gastrointestinal symptoms (such as diarrhea) are more common, and the changes of white blood cell count, lymphocyte count, hypersensitivity C-reactive protein, ferritin are more obvious in severe patients.The positivity of fecal nucleic acid suggests the possibility of digestive tract transmission of SARS-CoV-2, and fecal nucleic acid testing can be used as a routine testing method in clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Adult , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , China , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Diarrhea/virology , Feces/virology , Female , Ferritins/analysis , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Retrospective Studies
16.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 45(5): 495-500, 2020 May 28.
Article in English, Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-745315

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To summarize the emergency management of the kidney transplantation for a large tertiary first-class hospital in response to the epidemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: The clinical data of inpatients in the Department of Kidney Transplantation from January 24, 2020 to February 29, 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. Since the outbreak of COVID-19, we conducted telephone, Wechat follow-up, and online education for kidney transplant recipients and patients on waiting-list for kidney transplantation one by one. We also strictly screened for COVID-19 in outpatients. To guarantee the security of medical staff and recipients and to reduce the transmission risk of COVID-19, we have made detailed approaches to prevent COVID-19, which mainly included 6 aspects of preventive approaches, such as kidney transplant clinic, kidney transplant ward, patients on waiting-list for kidney transplantation, kidney transplant operation, medical staff self-protection, and postoperative follow-up of kidney transplant recipients. RESULTS: There were altogether 47 inpatients which included 20 recipients who had just received kidney transplantation in the meantime, 2 577 kidney transplant recipients, 1 689 patients on waiting-list for kidney transplantation, and 794 outpatients in our hospital. No case of COVID-19 occurred in this period. CONCLUSIONS: Through strictly implementing proactive and preventive approaches, we avoid the occurrence of COVID-19 in carrying out kidney transplantation in the epidemic period.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Kidney Transplantation , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers , Transplant Recipients , Waiting Lists
17.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 45(7): 790-796, 2020 Jul 28.
Article in English, Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-745313

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To analyze the clinical characteristics of 71 patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: The general data, epidemiological data, laboratory tests, imaging examinations, and treatment of 71 patients with COVID-19 admitted to the Sixth People's Hospital of Zhengzhou from January 19, 2020 to March 3, 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: Of the 71 COVID-19 patients, the ages were 4-84 (41.29±15.21) years, 38 (53.5%) patients were male, 33 (46.5%) were female, and 52 (73.2%) were in 22 clusters. The main clinical manifestations were fever (78.9%), cough (64.8%), and sputum (38.0%). The fever was mainly low and moderate, with 49 patients (69.0%) at 37.3-39.0 ℃. Most of the leukocytes, neutrophils, and lymphocytes were normal, accounting for 47 (66.2%), 51 (71.8%), and 51 (71.8%) patients, respectively; a few of them were decreased, accounting for 21 (29.6%), 16 (22.5%), and 20 (28.2%) patients, respectively. There were 38 (53.5%) and 31 (43.7%) patients with the decreased CD4+ and CD8+ T cell counts, respectively. There were 41 (57.7%), 38 (53.5%), 32 (45.1%), 26(36.6%), 22 (31.0%), 20 (28.2%), 14 (19.7%), 14 (19.7%), and 9 (12.7%) patients with the increased levels of C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, procalcitonin, fibrinogen,interleukin 6, lactate dehydrogenase,D-dimer,alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase, respectively. Of the 71 patients, the lung was involved in 60 (84.5%) patients, the double lung was involved in 47 (66.2%) patients, and the single lung was involved in 13 (18.3%) patients. The course of the disease was long, and the time from symptom onset to the second severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) nucleic acid negative transformation was (17.22±6.34) days.There were no significant differences in the incubation period (t=-0.453, P>0.05), the complicates (χ2=0.042, P>0.05), and the time from symptom onset to diagnosis (t=-1.330, P>0.05) in patients between the non-severe group and the severe group. The onset age, gender, SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid negative time, lymphocyte count, D-dimer, C-reactive protein, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, lactate dehydrogenase, calcium ion, CD4+ T cell count, CD8+ T cell count, calcitonin, procalcitonin, and troponin were significantly different between the severe group and the non-severe group (all P<0.05). Among the 71 patients, 4 (5.6%) patients were mild, 59 (83.1%) were normal, and 8 (11.3%) were severe or critical. CONCLUSIONS: The aggregation phenomenon of COVID-19 is obvious. Fever and cough are the main clinical manifestations. White blood cells, neutrophils, and lymphocytes in the most patients in the early onset are normal. Most COVID-19 patients are light and ordinary type, with good prognosis.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , Child , Child, Preschool , China , Cough/virology , Female , Fever/virology , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
19.
World J Gastroenterol ; 26(31): 4694-4702, 2020 Aug 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-745192

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a worldwide pandemic. We investigated the clinical characteristics and risk factors for liver injury in COVID-19 patients in Wuhan by retrospectively analyzing the epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory data for 218 COVID-19 patients and identifying the risk factors for liver injury by multivariate analysis. AIM: To investigate the clinical characteristics and risk factors for liver injury in COVID-19 patients in Wuhan. METHODS: The 218 patients included 94 males (43.1%), aged 22 to 94 (50.1 ± 18.4) years. Elevated aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were present in 42 (53.2%) and 36 (45.6%) cases, respectively, and 79 (36.2%) patients had abnormally elevated transaminase levels at admission. Patients with liver injury were older than those with normal liver function by a median of 12 years, with a significantly higher frequency of males (68.4% vs 28.8%, P < 0.001) and more coexisting illnesses (48.1% vs 27.3%, P = 0.002). Significantly more patients had fever and shortness of breath (87.3% vs 69.8% and 29.1% vs 14.4%, respectively) in the liver injury group. Only 12 (15.2%) patients had elevated total bilirubin. ALT and AST levels were mildly elevated [1-3 × upper limit of normal (ULN)] in 86.1% and 92.9% of cases, respectively. Only two (2.5%) patients had an ALT or AST level > 5 × ULN. Elevated γ-glutamyl transpeptidase was present in 45 (57.0%) patients, and 86.7% of these had a γ-glutamyl-transpeptidase level < 135 U/L (3 × ULN). Serum alkaline phosphatase levels were almost normal in all patients. Patients with severe liver injury had a significantly higher frequency of abnormal transaminases than non-severe patients, but only one case had very high levels of aminotransferases. RESULTS: Multivariate analysis revealed that male sex, high D-dimer level, and high neutrophil percentage were linked to a higher risk of liver injury. The early stage of COVID-19 may be associated with mildly elevated aminotransferase levels in patients in Wuhan. Male sex and high D-dimer level and neutrophil percentage may be important predictors of liver injury in patients with COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Male sex and high D-dimer level and neutrophil percentage may be important predictors of liver injury in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Liver Diseases/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Liver Diseases/diagnosis , Liver Diseases/epidemiology , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
20.
Yonsei Med J ; 61(9): 826-830, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-745127

ABSTRACT

We retrospectively reviewed patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections who were admitted to an intensive care unit in Daegu, South Korea. The outcomes of patients who did (cases) or did not (controls) receive darunavir-cobicistat (800-150 mg) therapy were compared. Fourteen patients received darunavir-cobicistat treatment, and 96 received other antiviral therapy (controls). Overall, the darunavir-cobicistat group comprised patients with milder illness, and the crude mortality rate of all patients in the darunavir-cobicistat group was lower than that in the controls [odds ratio (OR) 0.20, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.04-0.89, p=0.035]. After 1:2 propensity-score matching, there were 14 patients in the darunavir-cobicistat group, and 28 patients in the controls. In propensity score-matched analysis, the darunavir-cobicistat group had lower mortality than the controls (OR 0.07, 95% CI 0.01-0.52, p=0.009). In conclusion, darunavir-cobicistat therapy was found to be associated with a significant survival benefit in critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Cobicistat/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Darunavir/therapeutic use , HIV Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adult , Anti-HIV Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-HIV Agents/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus , Case-Control Studies , Cobicistat/administration & dosage , Cobicistat/adverse effects , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Critical Illness , Darunavir/administration & dosage , Darunavir/adverse effects , Female , HIV Protease Inhibitors/administration & dosage , HIV Protease Inhibitors/adverse effects , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
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